James Edward

James Edward

Oglethorpe, James Edward, 1696-1785, English general and philanthropist, founder of the American colony of Georgia. He had some military experience before being elected (1722) to the House of Commons, where he held a seat for 32 years. As chairman of a parliamentary committee investigating penal conditions, Oglethorpe became interested in the plight of the debtor classes. The need for a buffer colony between South Carolina and the Spanish in Florida admirably fitted his proposal to establish an asylum for debtors. He and 19 associates were granted (June, 1732) a charter, to expire in 21 years, making them trustees of the colony of Georgia. Early in 1733, Oglethorpe, leading 116 carefully selected colonists, reached Charleston, S.C., and on Feb. 12, 1733, he founded Savannah. After establishing friendly relations with the Yamacraw, a branch of the Creek confederacy, who ceded their land for settlement, he set about perfecting the colony's defense against the Spanish, building forts and instituting a system of military training. On a visit to England (1734-35) Oglethorpe obtained new regulations banning rum and slavery in the colony, which aroused opposition. He returned to Georgia with John Wesley and Charles Wesley. England declared war on Spain in 1739, and Oglethorpe led an unsuccessful expedition against St. Augustine in 1740. However, near Fort Frederica on St. Simons Island, Oglethorpe defeated the Spanish in the battle of Bloody Marsh (June 9, 1742), thereby assuring Georgia's survival. A second unsuccessful assault on St. Augustine (1743) and the displeasure of some of the colonists with his rigid management led to his recall to England. The charges brought against him were dismissed, but he never returned to Georgia. In his later years he was an intimate of the literary circle gathered around Samuel Johnson.

See Letters from General Oglethorpe, collected by the Georgia Historical Society (1873); biographies by L. F. Church (1932), A. A. Ettinger (1936, repr. 1968), and J. G. Vaeth (1968); P. Spalding, Oglethorpe in America (1984) and, with H. H. Jackson, Oglethorpe in Perspective (1989).

Ferguson, James Edward, 1871-1944, governor of Texas (1915-17), b. Bell co., Tex. After an adventurous youth he rose from poverty to become a lawyer, large landowner, and banker. Although unknown in state politics, he successfully ran for the governorship in 1914 as the champion of tenant farmers and poor independent farmers. He promised many radical agrarian reforms, some of which became law. He was not, however, favored by the reformers in Texas, because of his demagogic methods and the accusations of widespread corruption in his administration. In 1917, Ferguson was impeached, found guilty on several charges, and removed from office. He devoted himself to clearing his name. He was himself debarred from running for office, but in 1924 his wife, Miriam A. Wallace Ferguson (1875-1961), ran in his place and was triumphantly elected by the small farmers. A general amnesty was issued to vindicate her husband, but it was declared unconstitutional. Nevertheless in the midst of the depression Ma Ferguson (so called from her initials) once more was elected and served from 1933 to 1935, with a policy of extreme retrenchment. Although his wife held the office, it was Ferguson who wielded the power.
Meade, James Edward, 1907-95, British economist, studied at Oxford and Cambridge. Strongly influenced by John Maynard Keynes, Meade worked at the League of Nations (1937-40) and was chief economist (1945-47) in Britain's first Labour government before he accepted professorships at the London School of Economics (1947-57) and Cambridge (1957-68). An advocate of labor-capital partnership, he was an adviser to England's short-lived centrist Social Democratic party during the 1980s. He was known for his rigorous analyses of the ways that a government's policies on taxes, spending, and interest rates affect trade and the ways that trade policies, in turn, affect economic welfare. Meade's many books include The Theory of International Economic Policy (2 vol., 1951-55) and Principles of Political Economy (4 vol., 1965-76). His work on international trade earned him the 1977 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, which he shared with Bertil Ohlin.
Keeler, James Edward, 1857-1900, American astronomer, b. La Salle, Ill. At the age of 21 he went on the Naval Observatory expedition to Colorado to observe the solar eclipse of July, 1878. In 1886 he became an assistant and in 1888 full astronomer at Lick Observatory, Mt. Hamilton, Calif. He was director of the Allegheny Observatory from 1891 to 1898. In the course of his examination of the spectra of the heavenly bodies, he furnished confirmation for James Clerk Maxwell's theory that the rings of Saturn are composed of meteoric particles. In 1898, Keeler returned to Lick Observatory as director, and there, working with the Crossley reflector, he observed and photographed large numbers of nebulae whose existence had never before been suspected. He contributed memoirs to the Royal Astronomical Society of England and many papers to the Astrophysical Journal, of which he was coeditor. He wrote Spectroscopic Observations of Nebulae (1894).

(born Dec. 22, 1696, London, Eng.—died June 30/July 1, 1785, Cranham Hall, Essex, Eng.) English army officer. After serving in the British army from 1712 to 1722, he entered Parliament, where he became interested in prison reform. In 1732 he secured a charter for a colony in what became Georgia, where debtors could start a new life and persecuted Protestants could practice freely. He accompanied the first settlers to found Savannah (1733) and led the defense of the territory against attacks by Spain (1739, 1742). He returned to England in 1743.

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orig. James Francis Edward Stuart

(born June 10, 1688, London, Eng.—died Jan. 1, 1766, Rome, Papal States) Claimant to the English and Scottish thrones. Son of the exiled James II of England, he was raised in France as a Catholic. On the death of his father (1701), he was proclaimed king of England by the French king Louis XIV, but the English Parliament passed a bill of attainder against him. He served with the French army in the War of the Spanish Succession. In the Jacobite uprising (1715), James landed in Scotland, but within two months the uprising collapsed and he returned to France. He lived thereafter in Rome under the pope's patronage. He became known as the “Old Pretender” to distinguish him from his son, Charles Edward, the Young Pretender.

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(born Dec. 22, 1696, London, Eng.—died June 30/July 1, 1785, Cranham Hall, Essex, Eng.) English army officer. After serving in the British army from 1712 to 1722, he entered Parliament, where he became interested in prison reform. In 1732 he secured a charter for a colony in what became Georgia, where debtors could start a new life and persecuted Protestants could practice freely. He accompanied the first settlers to found Savannah (1733) and led the defense of the territory against attacks by Spain (1739, 1742). He returned to England in 1743.

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James Edward Quigley (October 15, 1854July 10, 1915) was the seventh bishop and second archbishop of the Archdiocese of Chicago, serving from 1903 to 1915.

He was born on October 15, 1854 in Oshawa, Ontario to a family of Irish ancestry, and ordained a priest on April 13, 1879 in the Diocese of Buffalo, New York. On December 12, 1896 he was appointed Bishop of Buffalo, where he was ordained a bishop on February 24, 1897. He was appointed Archbishop of Chicago, on January 8, 1903 and installed March 10, 1903. He served as archbishop until his death at the age of 60. Archbishop Quigley Preparatory Seminary in Chicago is named in his honor.

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