Jaish-e-Mohammed (Urdu:جيش محمد, literally The Army of Mohammad, transliterated as Jaish-e-Muhammed, Jaish-e-Mohammad or Jaish-e-Muhammad, often abbreviated as JEM) is a major Islamic terrorist organization in South Asia. Jaish-e-Mohammed was formed in 1994 and is based in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The group's primary motive is to separate Kashmir from India and have carried out a series of attacks all over India.
The group was formed after the supporters of Maulana Masood Azhar split from another Islamic militant organization, Harkut-ul-Mujahideen. It is believed that the group gets considerable funding by Pakistani expatriates in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world. The group is regarded as a terrorist organization by several countries including India, United States and United Kingdom. Jaish-e-Mohammed is viewed by some as the "deadliest" and "the principal terrorist organization in Jammu and Kashmir". The group was also implicated for the kidnapping and murder of American journalist Daniel Pearl.
The Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) is a relatively new militant outfit, compared to other major outfits active in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K). Like the Lashkar-e-Toiba
(LeT), the JeM too is an outfit formed, controlled and manned by Pakistanis. The outfit was launched on January 31, 2000, by Maulana Masood Azhar in Karachi after he was released from an Indian jail during the terrorists for hostage swap of December 31, 1999, following the hijacking of the Indian Airlines Flight IC 814
The formation of the outfit was endorsed by three religious school chiefs, Mufti Nizamuddin Shamzai of the Majlis-e-Tawan-e-Islami (MT), Maulana Mufti Rashid Ahmed of the Dar-ul Ifta-e-wal-Irshad and Maulana Sher Ali of the Sheikh-ul-Hadith Dar-ul Haqqania.
The outfit’s creation can be linked to the popularity surrounding Masood Azhar after his release from India. Maulana Masood Azhar was the general secretary of the newly established Harkat-ul-Ansar (HuA) in 1994 and was on a 'terrorist mission' in J&K when he was arrested on February 11. When he was released, the HuA had been included in the US list of Foreign Terrorist Organisations which had compelled the outfit to rename itself as the Harkat-ul-Mujahideen (HuM). However, Masood Azhar decided to float the new outfit JeM rather than rejoin his old outfit. He was also reported to have received assistance in setting up the JeM from Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), the then Taliban regime in Afghanistan, Osama bin Laden and several Sunni sectarian outfits of Pakistan.
The Jaish-e-Mohammed is part of the Islamist network with its base in Pakistan and active in the terrorist violence in J&K. The outfit, like other militant outfits in J&K, claims to using violence to force a withdrawal of Indian security forces from J&K. The outfit claims that each of its offices in Pakistan would serve as schools of jihad. Delivering speeches at various cities and towns in Pakistan after his release, Masood Azhar threatened that the outfit would eliminate Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee who he termed as 'Abu Jahl’ (Father of Ignorance). In its fight against India, he added that the outfit would not only "liberate" Kashmir, but also would take control of the Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, Amritsar and Delhi.
Leadership and command structure
Masood Azhar, the Amir (chief) of the outfit was arrested by Pakistani security forces on December 29, 2001, after pressure from India and other foreign countries following the December 13, 2001 attack on India’s parliament. However, a three-member Review Board of Lahore High Court ordered on December 14, 2002, that Azhar be released.
There are no reports of any formal governing bodies or councils within the outfit. Unconfirmed reports indicate that the prominent office bearers of the organisation include:
- Maulana Masood Azhar – Amir
- Maulana Qari Mansoor Ahmed – Nazim Information Wing (he is a resident of Bhurewala, Punjab)
- Maulana Abdul Jabbar – Nazim, Military Affairs (Former Nazim military affairs, (HuM)
- Maulana Sajjad Usman – in charge, Finance (Former HuM Nazim Finance)
- Shah Nawaz Khan alias Sajjid Jehadi & Gazi Baba – Chief Commander J&K (Former Supreme Commander HuM, J&K)
- Maulana Mufti Mohd. Asghar – Launching Commander (Former Launching Commander of HuM)
Most Jaish-e-Mohammed attacks have been described as suicide terrorist attacks. In this mode, militant of the outfit storm a high security target, including security forces' bases, camps and convoys. After storming, they either fortify themselves within the target, killing as many security force personnel and civilians as possible before they are killed by retaliatory action. In other cases, they kill and injure as many as possible before attempting to escape.
Area of operation
The Jaish-e-Mohammed had initially confined its operations within J&K. They have since, attempted to spread their operations outside J&K as evidenced by its terror attack on December 13, 2001 at the Indian Parliament. Several of its cadre have, on occasions, also been arrested or killed by security forces in other Indian states. It is widely believed that the failed attack on the disputed structure in Ayodhya and a bomb blast in the Sankat Mochan temple in Ayodhya was also organised by Jaish-e-Mohammed.
The outfit is closely linked, through the Binoria Madrassah in Karachi, with the former Taliban regime of Afghanistan and its protégé, Osama bin Laden and his Al-Qaeda. JeM chief, Masood Azhar was released by Indian authorities in Kandahar and has reportedly met Taliban and Al Qaeda leaders in Afghanistan on various occasions.
The JeM is also reported to have links with Sunni militant outfits operating in Pakistan such as the Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP)and Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ).
- Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs), United States Department of State
- The evolution of Islamic Terrorism: an overview, Frontline (PBS)