Veena (also spelled 'vina', Kannada: ವೀಣ, Malayalam: വീണ, Tamil: வீணா, Telugu: వీణ) is a plucked stringed instrument used in Carnatic music. There are several variations of the veena, which in its South Indian form is a member of the lute family. One who plays the veena is referred to as a vainika.
The design of the veena has evolved over the years, probably from the form seen in South Indian Medieval paintings and temple sculpture: a string instrument with two gourd resonators connected by a central shaft, possibly of bamboo, and held diagonally from lap to shoulder. Sangeet Ratnakar calls it Ektantri Veena
and gives the method for its construction. The North Indian rudra veena
and vichitra veena
, technically zithers
, demonstrate this genealogy. Descendents of Tansen reserved Rudra Veena for family and out of reverence began calling it Saraswati Veena
. Veena in South India developing from Kinnari Veena in the 1600s was initially known as Tanjori Veena after hereditary makers from Thanjavur
but was later called Saraswati veena
. Made in several regions in South India, those made by makers from Thanjavur
in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu
are to date considered the most sophisticated.
About four feet in length, its design consists of a large resonator (kudam) carved and hollowed out of a log (usually of jackwood), a tapering hollow neck (dandi) topped with 24 brass or bell-metal frets set in scalloped black wax on wooden tracks, and a tuning box culminating in a downward curve and an ornamental dragon's head (yali). A small table-like wooden bridge (kudurai)—about 2 x 2½ x 2 inches—is topped by a convex brass plate glued in place with resin. Two rosettes, formerly of ivory, now of plastic or horn, are on the top board (palakai) of the resonator. Four main playing strings tuned to the tonic and the fifth in two octaves (for example, B flat-E flat below bass clef - B flat- E flat in bass clef) stretch from fine tuning connectors attached to the end of the resonator. across the bridge and above the fretboard to four large-headed pegs in the tuning box. Three subsidiary drone strings tuned to the tonic, fifth, and upper tonic (E flat - B flat- E flat in the tuning given above) cross a curving side bridge leaning against the main bridge, and stretch on the player's side of the neck to three pegs matching those of the main playing strings. All seven strings today are of steel, with the lower strings often wound like those of the lower strings of a guitar.
The chromatic distribution of frets (12 to the octave) points to a possible adoption of the fretting of the guitar, which had certainly been brought to India by the 17th century by the Portuguese.
The veena is played by sitting cross-legged with the instrument held tilted slightly away from the player. The small gourd on the left rests on the player's left thigh, the left arm passing beneath the neck with the hand curving up and around so that the fingers rest upon the frets. The palm of the right hand rests on the edge of the top plank so that the fingers (usually index and middle) can pluck the strings. The drone strings are played with the little finger. The veena's large resonator is placed on the floor, beyond the right thigh. The photo of Veena Dhanammal
more accurately illustrates how the veena
is held than the more fanciful Ravi Varma painting.
Like the sitar, the left hand technique involves playing on the frets, controlled pushing on the strings to achieve higher tones and glissandi through increased tension, and finger flicks, all reflecting the characteristics of various ragas and their ornamentation (gamaka). Modern innovations include one or two circular sound holes (like that of the lute), substitution of machine heads for wooden pegs for easier tuning, and the widespread use of transducers for amplification in performance.
The patron Hindu
Goddess of learning and the arts, Saraswati
, is often depicted seated upon a swan
playing a veena.
Also, the great Hindu sage Narada
was known as a veena maestro.
Some other variations of the veena are the Rudra veena
, Mahanataka veena
, Vichitra veena
, and Gottuvadhyam
veena (also called the Chitra veena
). Like Ranjan Veena Mohan veena
is the name given to a modified form of guitar, invented and pouplarised by Pandit Vishwa Mohan Bhatt
and often confused with ancient Indian musical instruments
Tone and acoustics
-winning physicist C.V. Raman
has described the veena as having a unique construction. The string terminations at both ends are curved and not sharp. Also, the frets have much more curvature than any other instrument. This design produces more harmonics than any other instruments.
Some believe that the beeswax beneath the frets acts as a noise filter.
Famous veena players