Jackson

Jackson

[jak-suhn]
Jackson, Abraham Valentine Williams, 1862-1937, American Orientalist, b. New York City. Teaching at Columbia Univ. (1895-1935), he was a great authority on ancient Persian religion, language, and literature as well as on modern Parsis.
Jackson, Andrew, 1767-1845, 7th President of the United States (1829-37), b. Waxhaw settlement on the border of South Carolina and North Carolina (both states claim him).

Early Career

A child of the backwoods, he was left an orphan at 14. His long military career began in 1781, when he fought against the British in a skirmish at Hanging Rock. He and his brother were captured and imprisoned at Camden, S.C. After studying law at Salisbury, N.C., he was admitted to the bar in 1787 and practiced in the vicinity until he was appointed solicitor for the western district of North Carolina (now Tennessee).

In 1788 he moved west to Nashville. He was prosperous in his law practice and in land speculation until the Panic of 1795 struck, leaving him with little more than his estate, the Hermitage. There, he built (1819-31) a home, on which he lived as a cotton planter during the intervals of his political career. The house, a handsome example of a Tennessee planter's home, with a fine formal garden, was constructed of bricks made on the estate. Jackson married Rachel Donelson before she had secured a legal divorce from her first husband, and though the ceremony was later repeated, his enemies made capital of the circumstance.

He rose in politics, was a member of the convention that drafted the Tennessee Constitution, and was elected (1796) as the sole member from the new state in the U.S. House of Representatives. The next year when his political chief, William Blount, was expelled from the Senate, Jackson resigned and, to vindicate his party, ran for the vacant seat. He won, but in 1798 he resigned. From 1798 to 1804 he served notably as judge of the Tennessee superior court.

War Hero

In the War of 1812 Jackson defeated the Creek warriors, tacit allies of the British, at Horseshoe Bend, Ala. (Mar., 1814) after a strenuous campaign and won the rank of major general in the U.S. army. He was given command of an expedition to defend New Orleans against the British. The decisive victory gained there over seasoned British troops under Gen. Edward Pakenham, though it came after peace had already been signed in Europe, made Jackson the war's one great military hero.

In 1818 he was sent to take reprisals against the Seminole, who were raiding settlements near the Florida border, but, misinterpreting orders, he crossed the boundary line, captured Pensacola, and executed two British subjects as punishment for their stirring up the Native Americans. He thus involved the United States in serious trouble with both Spain and Great Britain. John Q. Adams, then Secretary of State, was the only cabinet member to defend him, but the conduct of Old Hickory, as Jackson was called by his admirers, pleased the people of the West. He moved on to the national scene as the standard-bearer of one wing of the old Republican party.

President

Jackson rode on a wave of popularity that almost took him into the presidency in the election of 1824. The vote was split with Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, and William H. Crawford, and when the election was decided in the House of Representatives, Clay threw his influence to Adams, and Adams became President.

By the time of the election of 1828, Jackson's cause was more assured. John C. Calhoun, who was the candidate for Vice President with Jackson, brought most of Crawford's former following to Jackson, while Martin Van Buren and the Albany Regency swung liberal-controlled New York state to him. The result was a sweeping victory; Jackson polled four times the popular vote that he had received in 1824. His inauguration brought the "rabble" into the White House, to the distaste of the established families.

There was a strong element of personalism in the rule of the hotheaded Jackson, and the Kitchen Cabinet—a small group of favorite advisers—was powerful. Vigorous publicity and violent journalistic attacks on anti-Jacksonians were ably handled by such men as the elder Francis P. Blair, Duff Green, and Amos Kendall. Party loyalty was intense, and party members were rewarded with government posts in what came to be known as the spoils system. Personal relationships were of utmost importance, and the social slights suffered by the wife of Secretary of War John H. Eaton (see O'Neill, Margaret) helped to break up the cabinet.

Calhoun's antagonism was more fundamental, however. Calhoun and the South generally felt threatened by the protective tariff that favored the industrial East, and Calhoun evolved the doctrine of nullification and resigned from the vice presidency. Jackson stood firmly for the Union and had the Force Bill of 1833 (see force bill) passed to coerce South Carolina into accepting the federal tariff, but a compromise tariff was rushed through and the affair ended. Jackson, on the other hand, took the part of Georgia in its insistence on states' rights and the privilege of ousting the Cherokee; he refused to aid in enforcing the Supreme Court's decision against Georgia, and the tribe was removed.

More important than the estrangement of Calhoun was Jackson's long fight against the Bank of the United States. Although its charter did not expire until 1836, Henry Clay succeeded in having a bill to recharter it passed in 1832, thus bringing the issue into the 1832 presidential election. Jackson vetoed the measure, and the powerful interests of the bank were joined with the other opponents of Jackson in a bitter struggle with the antibank Jacksonians.

Jackson in the election of 1832 triumphed over Clay. His second administration—more bitterly resented by his enemies than the first—was dominated by the bank issue. Jackson promptly removed the funds from the bank and put them in chosen state banks (the "pet banks"). Secretary of Treasury Louis McLane refused to make the transfer as did his successor W. J. Duane, but Roger B. Taney agreed with Jackson's views and made the transfer (see also Independent Treasury System).

Jackson was a firm believer in a specie basis for currency, and the Specie Circular in 1836, which stipulated that all public lands must be paid for in specie, broke the speculation boom in Western lands, cast suspicion on many of the bank notes in circulation, and hastened the Panic of 1837. The panic, which had some of its roots in earlier crop failures and in overextended speculation, was a factor in the administration of Martin Van Buren, who was Jackson's choice and a successful candidate for the presidency in 1836.

Retirement

Jackson retired to the Hermitage and lived out his life there. He was still despised as a high-handed and capricious dictator by his enemies and revered as a forceful democratic leader by his followers. Although he was known as a frontiersman, Jackson was personally dignified, courteous, and gentlemanly—with a devotion to the "gentleman's code" that led him to fight several duels.

Jacksonian Democracy

The greatest popular hero of his time, a man of action, and an expansionist, Jackson was associated with the movement toward increased popular participation in government. He was regarded by many as the symbol of the democratic feelings of the time, and later generations were to speak of Jacksonian democracy. Although in broadest terms this movement often attacked citadels of privilege or monopoly and sought to broaden opportunities in many areas of life, there has been much dispute among historians over its essential social nature. At one time it was characterized as being rooted in the democratic nature of the frontier. Later historians pointed to the workers of the eastern cities as the defining element in the Jacksonian political coalition. More recently the older interpretations have been challenged by those seeing the age as one that primarily offered new opportunities to the middle class—an era of liberal capitalism. Jackson had appeal for the farmer, for the artisan, and for the small-business ower; he was viewed with suspicion and fear by people of established position, who considered him a dangerous upstart.

Bibliography

See biographies by M. James (2 vol., 1933-37, repr. 1968), H. Syrett (1953, repr. 1971), J. W. Ward (1955, repr. 1962), R. V. Remini (3 vol., 1977-84), and H. W. Brands (2005); A. M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Age of Jackson (1945); G. G. Van Deusen, The Jacksonian Era (1959, repr. 1963); R. V. Remini, Andrew Jackson and the Bank War (1967), and ed., The Age of Jackson (1972); R. Latner, The Presidency of Andrew Jackson (1979); A. Burstein, The Passions of Andrew Jackson (2003); J. Meacham, American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House (2008); D. S. Reynolds, Waking Giant: America in the Age of Jackson (2008).

Jackson, Claiborne Fox, 1806-62, governor of Missouri, b. Fleming co., Ky. In 1822 he moved to Missouri, where he practiced law. Speaker of the state legislature (1844-46), he later was a leader of the pro-slavery Democrats who eventually defeated Sen. Thomas H. Benton. Elected governor in 1860, Jackson recommended the calling of the state convention that voted against both secession and coercion of the South (1861). He attempted to arm the state militia from the federal arsenal in St. Louis but was frustrated by Francis P. Blair (1821-75) and Nathaniel Lyon. Lincoln's request for troops was refused by Jackson, who characterized the Union cause as an "unholy crusade." Upon Lyon's seizure of Camp Jackson, the governor called for volunteers but was forced to withdraw with them to SW Missouri. When the convention, assuming constituent powers, deposed the state government, Jackson, at Neosho, convened an ineffective rump legislature (1862).
Jackson, Frederick George, 1860-1938, British arctic explorer. He explored (1893-94) the tundra in arctic Russia and in Lapland, and he commanded (1894-97) the Jackson-Harmsworth expedition that explored Franz Josef Land. Jackson proved that Franz Josef Land was an archipelago, not a continent as had been suspected. His chance encounter (1896) with Fridtjof Nansen and F. H. Johansen, who were returning by sledge from their attempted journey to the North Pole, probably saved the lives of these two explorers. In later years Jackson became a well-known African traveler. His writings include The Great Frozen Land (1895) and A Thousand Days in the Arctic (1899).
Jackson, Frederick John Foakes-: see Foakes-Jackson, Frederick John.
Jackson, Glenda, 1936-, English actress and politician. Jackson's first starring role was as Charlotte Corday in Marat/Sade (1966) for the Royal Shakespeare Company. A strong personality, she has excelled in both comedies and dramas. She won Academy Awards for roles in Women in Love (1969) and A Touch of Class (1973). Her other films include Sunday Bloody Sunday (1972), The Maids (1974), House Calls (1978), Turtle Diary (1986), and The Rainbow (1990). In 1971 she played Elizabeth I in a critically acclaimed television series, and she has appeared on stage in such plays as Strange Interlude (1984). In 1992 she retired from acting and was elected as a Labour member of Parliament from Hampstead; she was reelected in 1997. In 1999 she mounted an abortive candidacy for mayor of London.
Jackson, Helen (Fiske) Hunt, 1830-85, American writer whose pseudonym was H. H., b. Amherst, Mass. She was a lifelong friend of Emily Dickinson. In 1863, encouraged by T. W. Higginson, Jackson began writing for periodicals. She is the author of poetry, novels, children's stories, and travel sketches. In 1881 she published A Century of Dishonor, an historical account of the government's injustice to Native Americans. This book led to her appointment (1882) as government investigator of the Mission of California. She subsequently wrote Ramona (1884), her famous romance, which presented even more emphatically the plight of Native Americans.

See biography by K. Philips (2003).

Jackson, Henry Martin "Scoop," 1912-83, American political leader, b. Everett, Wash. As a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1941-53) and as Senator (1953-83) he was a supporter of organized labor, civil rights, the emigration of Soviet Jews, and a strong defense posture. He differed from many of his Democratic colleagues in his outspoken support of the Vietnam War. Jackson had a considerable impact on the conservative turn of politics in the 1970s and 80s, both through his own policy statements, and through the influence of his supporters and staffers, many of whom later supported President Ronald Reagan. Jackson made unsuccessful bids for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1972 and 1976.

See biography by P. J. Ognibene (1975).

Jackson, Jesse Louis, 1941-, African-American political leader, clergyman, and civil-rights activist, b. Greenville, S.C. Raised in poverty, he attended the Chicago Theological Seminary (1963-65) and was ordained a Baptist minister in 1968. Active in the civil-rights movement, he became a close associate of Martin Luther King, Jr. He served as executive director (1966-71) of Operation Breadbasket, a program of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) that addressed the economic problems of African Americans in northern cities. In 1971 he founded Operation PUSH (People United to Save Humanity), an organization to combat racism. Since 1986 he has been president of the National Rainbow Coalition, an independent political organization aimed at uniting disparate groups—racial minorities, the poor, peace activists, and environmentalists. In 1984 and 1988, Jackson, an effective public speaker, campaigned for the Democratic nomination for president, becoming the first African American to contend seriously for that office. He was elected (1990) as a nonvoting member of the Senate from the District of Columbia and has campaigned for its statehood. He has written Legal Lynching (1996), an attack on capital punishment.

See biography by M. Frady (1996); studies by A. L. Reed, Jr. (1986), E. O. Coulton (1989), A. D. Hertzke (1993), and K. L. Stanford (1997).

Jackson, Mahalia, 1911-72, American gospel singer, b. New Orleans. She sang in church choirs during her childhood. Moving (1927) to Chicago, she worked at various menial jobs and sang in churches and at revival meetings, attracting attention for her vigorous, joyful gospel style. As her reputation grew she made numerous recordings, and she gained national recognition with her Carnegie Hall debut in 1950. Jackson toured abroad and appeared on radio and at jazz festivals, refusing to sing the blues in favor of more hopeful devotional songs. At Newport, R.I., in 1958 she sang in Duke Ellington's Black, Brown and Beige. Deeply committed to the civil-rights movement, she was closely associated with the work of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

See her autobiography (1966); studies by P. Oliver (1968) and J. Jackson (1974).

Jackson, Maynard Holbrook, Jr., 1938-2003, American politician, b. Dallas, Tex., grad. Morehouse College (B.A., 1956), North Carolina Central Univ. (J.D., 1964). Jackson, a Democratic lawyer with a confidently confrontational style, entered politics in 1968 with a strong but unsuccessful run for the U.S. Senate. Elected vice mayor of Atlanta in 1969, he won the mayoralty in 1973, becoming the first African-American mayor of a major Southern city. Serving three terms (1974-82, 1990-94), he established landmark affirmative-action programs and gave African Americans a greatly enlarged role in Atlanta's political and economic life.

See G. M. Pomerantz, Where Peachtree Meets Sweet Auburn (1996).

Jackson, Michael Joseph, 1958-2009, American performer, b. Gary, Ind. Jackson was an extremely successful pop singer, superb dancer, and talented composer who often conveyed an androgynous image and ambiguous sexuality. Offstage, he became known for various alleged eccentricities, for his sharp business acumen, and for a physical appearance that changed radically over the years—his body becoming rail-thin, his skin progressively whitening, and his facial features undergoing marked changes.

As a child in the 1960s and 70s he was the dominant voice and youngest member of the Jackson Five, a pop group that included five brothers and scored its first big hit in 1969. A decade later, with his solo albums Off the Wall (1979), and the even more successful Thriller (1982), which sold over 30 million copies, Michael Jackson became one of the world's leading musical stars. He created a unique style that mingled rhythm and blues with pop and became widely known as the "King of Pop." Jackson also did much to usher in the era of pop celebrity, becoming famous for his packed concerts, his glittering military-style outfits, his sequined white glove, and his "moonwalk" dance steps. His recording success continued with the albums Bad (1987) and Dangerous (1991), both of which sold over 20 million copies.

In 1993 Jackson was charged in a civil suit with sexual abuse of a minor, a charge he denied. The suit was settled out of court in 1994, and no criminal charges were filed. Jackson's much-publicized double album HIStory (1995) was criticized as petty, maudlin, and paranoid and garnered comparatively disappointing sales. Reaction to his next album, Invincible (2001), was mixed. Jackson was indicted in another sexual abuse case in 2004. The trial, in 2005, was marked by sensational testimony and spellbound media coverage, and ended in Jackson's acquittal on all charges. Subsequently, he largely disappeared from public view, but was in rehearsal for a comeback tour when he died.

See biography by J. R. Taraborrelli (1991); study by M. Jefferson (2006).

Jackson, Phil (Philip Douglas Jackson), 1945-, American basketball player and coach, b. Deer Lodge, Mont. Jackson was an All-American at the Univ. of North Dakota. Drafted by the New York Knicks in 1967, he was a forward and a superb defensive player, remaining with the team until 1980. He then entered coaching, proved to be extremely talented, and rose to become (1989) head coach of the Chicago Bulls. Known for his quiet style, natty courtside attire, philosophical bent, and Zen beliefs, he is extremely successful at motivating, and stimulating teamwork among, disparate players. Jackson coached the Bulls during the team's glory days, directing such superstars as Michael Jordan and Scottie Pippen and leading his team to six National Basketball Association (NBA) championships (1991-93, 1996-98). In 1999 he took over as head coach of the Los Angeles Lakers. There, working with such extraordinary players as Shaquille O'Neal and Kobe Bryant, he steered his new team to three consecutive (2000-2002) NBA championships. He stepped down as Laker coach in 2004 but the following year he agreed to return as coach; the Lakers won the NBA championship again in 2009, giving Jackson the record for most championship titles for a coach. Jackson's books include the autobiography Maverick (1975), Sacred Hoops (1995), and More than a Game (2001).

See D. Whitaker, ed., The Gospel According to Phil: The Words and Wisdom of Chicago Bulls Coach Phil Jackson (1997) and R. Lazenby, Phil Jackson's Long Strange Journey (2001).

Jackson, Reggie (Reginald Martinez Jackson), 1946-, American baseball player, b. Wyncote, Pa. In 21 years in the American League, most notably with the Oakland Athletics and New York Yankees, he hit 563 home runs, winning or sharing four home run titles, and struck out a record 2,597 times. An outspoken player who starred in clutch situations, he became known as "Mr. October," especially after his performance in the 1977 World Series, when he hit five home runs, three in the deciding game.
Jackson, Robert Houghwout, 1892-1954, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1941-54), b. Spring Creek, Pa. Despite the fact that he did not have a law degree, he was admitted to the bar in 1913 after a brief period of study at Albany law school. In 1934, he was appointed general counsel of the Bureau of Internal Revenue. From 1936 to 1938 he served as Assistant Attorney General in charge of the antitrust division. A strong advocate of New Deal policies, Jackson became (1938) U.S. Solicitor General. In 1940, he became U.S. Attorney General, and in 1941 President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed him to the Supreme Court. He went on leave (1945-46) from the bench to be U.S. chief counsel at the Nuremberg war crimes trial. His feud with Justice Hugo L. Black probably eliminated him from consideration for Chief Justice when Harlan Stone died. His best-known decision was West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette (1943), which struck down statutes that made saluting the flag mandatory for school children, thereby significantly expanding the scope of free speech laid out in the first amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Known for his eloquent literary style, Jackson defended freedom of religion with particular distinction. He wrote The Struggle for Judicial Supremacy (1940), The Case Against the Nazi War Criminals (1945), and The Supreme Court in the American System of Government (1955).
Jackson, Samuel Macauley, 1851-1912, American Presbyterian clergyman and encyclopedist, b. New York City. He was associate editor in the preparation of the original Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia (1884) and editor in chief of the greatly enlarged New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (13 vol., 1908-14). He also edited the Concise Dictionary of Religious Knowledge (rev. ed. 1891) and the "American Church History" series (13 vol., 1893-97). Jackson was religious editor of several encyclopedias and dictionaries. He wrote a standard biography of Huldreich Zwingli (1901), part of the "Heroes of the Reformation" series, which he sponsored. He was long the moving spirit of the American Society of Church History and edited its papers.
Jackson, Sheldon, 1834-1909, American missionary and educator, b. Montgomery co., N.Y., grad. Union College, 1855, and Princeton Theological Seminary, 1858. After a career as a Presbyterian missionary in Minnesota and Wisconsin and (after 1870) as missionary superintendent in the Rocky Mt. area, he went (1884) to Alaska as superintendent of missions, having already established missions and schools in that territory. In 1885 he became the first federal superintendent of public instruction for Alaska, with the task of organizing a free school system for Native American, Eskimo, and white children. He succeeded in the next 20 years in bringing school facilities to all corners of Alaska. He urged the introduction and raising of reindeer to supplement the dwindling food resources and in 1892, with government aid, brought the first reindeer into Alaska from Siberia. He aided in organizing the territorial government and establishing mail routes. He was active in Alaskan politics as the moving spirit in the "missionary" party. He wrote numerous governmental and religious reports and Difficulties at Sitka in 1885 (1886).

See biography by J. A. Lazell (1960).

Jackson, Shirley, 1919-65, American writer, b. San Francisco. She is best known for her stories and novels of horror and the occult, rendered more terrifying because they are set against realistic, everyday backgrounds. Her best-known work is "The Lottery," a harrowing short story first published in the New Yorker in 1948. Jackson's novels include The Haunting of Hill House (1959) and We Have Always Lived in the Castle (1962). The Magic of Shirley Jackson (1966) and Come Along with Me (1968) are posthumous collections of her stories. She was married to the critic Stanley Edgar Hyman.

See biography by J. Oppenheimer (1988); studies by L. Friedman (1975), J. W. Hall (1993), H. Bloom, ed. (2001), D. Hattenhauer (2003), B. M. Murphy, ed. (2005), and C. Haines (2007); bibliography by P. N. Reinsch (2001).

Jackson, Shoeless Joe (Joseph Jefferson Jackson), 1887-1951, American baseball player, b. Brandon Mills, S.C. Holder of the third highest (.356) career batting average in major league history, Jackson was banned from baseball in 1921 for his part in the 1919 Black Sox scandal. He is said to have been too unsophisticated to have fully appreciated the circumstances, and in fact batted .375 during the World Series he was said to have conspired to lose. A tearful young fan is said to have exhorted him to "Say it ain't so, Joe!"
Jackson, Stonewall (Thomas Jonathan Jackson), 1824-63, Confederate general, b. Clarksburg, Va. (now W.Va.), grad. West Point, 1846.

Like a Stone Wall

He served with distinction under Winfield Scott in the Mexican War and from 1851 to 1861 taught at the Virginia Military Institute. He resigned from the army in Feb., 1852. At the beginning of the Civil War, Jackson, practically unknown, was made a colonel of Virginia troops and sent to command at Harpers Ferry. After J. E. Johnston superseded him there in May, 1861, Jackson was given a brigade in Johnston's army and made a Confederate brigadier general. At the first battle of Bull Run, he and his brigade earned their sobriquet by standing (in the words of Gen. Barnard Bee) "like a stone wall."

The Valley Campaign

Jackson was promoted to major general, and in November, Johnston assigned him to command in the Shenandoah valley. Jackson's attack on James Shields's division at Kernstown on Mar. 23, 1862, was repulsed but forced the retention of Union troops in the valley. In April, Robert E. Lee suggested that Jackson fall upon Nathaniel P. Banks's force in the lower valley, hoping that Irvin McDowell's army would thereby be diverted from joining George McClellan before Richmond (see Peninsular campaign). Jackson's renowned Valley campaign resulted. He first defeated part of John C. Frémont's force at McDowell (c.25 mi/40 km W of Staunton) on May 8, 1862, and then, returning to the Shenandoah, routed Banks at Front Royal and Winchester (May 23-25) and drove him across the Potomac. The federal administration, fearing that Jackson would now advance on Washington, sent Shields from McDowell's army to join Frémont, advancing from the west, in cutting off Jackson. Stonewall, however, retreated rapidly to the head of the valley and on June 8-9 defeated his pursuers at Cross Keys and Port Republic.

Seven Days Battles through Chancellorsville

With the diversion in the Shenandoah Valley a complete success, Jackson joined Lee in the Seven Days battles. After the brilliance of the Shenandoah campaign, his service in that week of fighting was disappointing. But he soon redeemed himself. The speedy turning movement executed by his "foot cavalry" against Pope late in Aug., 1862, at the battle of Cedar Mt. set the stage for the crushing victory at the second battle of Bull Run, and in the Antietam campaign he marched promptly to Lee's aid after he had captured the Harpers Ferry garrison.

When Lee reorganized the Army of Northern Virginia after Antietam, he made Jackson commander of the 2d Corps, and Stonewall was promoted to lieutenant general. He ably commanded the Confederate right in the battle of Fredericksburg in December. In the battle of Chancellorsville, Lee and Jackson repeated the tactics of second Bull Run. Jackson's turning movement completely crumbled Hooker's right (May 2, 1863). Pressing on in the darkness, Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded by the fire of his own men.

His death was a severe blow to the Southern cause. Jackson was a tactician of first rank and, though a strict disciplinarian, had the affection of his men. His devout Calvinism, fighting ability, and arresting personal quirks make him one of the most interesting figures of the war. He was Lee's ablest and most trusted lieutenant.

Bibliography

See biographies by G. F. R. Henderson (1898, new ed. 1961), B. Davis (1954, repr. 1961), L. Chambers (1959), R. B. Cook (4th ed. 1963), J. M. Selby (1968), J. Bowers (1989), and J. I. Robertson, Jr. (1997); H. K. Douglas, I Rode with Stonewall (1940), R. K. Krick, Stonewall Jackson at Cedar Mountain (1990) and Conquering the Valley (1996), R. G. Tanner, Stonewall in the Valley (1996).

Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942, American artist and pioneer photographer of the West, b. Keeseville, N.Y. After serving with the Union army in the Civil War he traveled overland to California (1866-67), part of the way on a Mormon wagon train, and then settled in Omaha, Neb. (1868). Engaged in photography after 1858, Jackson devoted himself to recording the scenic grandeur and historic sites of the West. He photographed the building of the Union Pacific RR, the mining booms at Cripple Creek and Leadville, and the cliff dwellings at Mesa Verde. His 1871 photographic series on the Yellowstone region was instrumental in having the area set aside as the first national park the following year. In 1924, Jackson moved to Washington, D.C., began painting, and at the age of 93 executed a series of murals on the Old West for the new Dept. of the Interior Building.

See his autobiography (1940) and his diaries, ed. by L. R. and A. W. Hafen (1959); C. S. Jackson, Picture Maker of the Old West (1947); B. Newhall and D. E. Edkins, William H. Jackson (1975).

Jackson. 1 City (1990 pop. 37,446), seat of Jackson co., S Mich., on the Grand River; inc. 1857. It is an industrial and commercial center in a farm region. The city's chief manufactures are machinery, aerospace components, transportation and electronic equipment, food, metal products, and construction materials. Several automobile models were pioneered in Jackson in the early 20th cent. The first Republican party convention was held in the city on July 6, 1854. Nearby are Spring Arbor College and a state prison.

2 City (1990 pop. 196,637), state capital and seat of Hinds co., W central Miss., on the Pearl River; inc. 1833. It is the state's largest city and geographic center, with important rail, warehouse, and distribution operations. Industries include food processing and the manufacture of glass, paper, and metal products; lumber; machinery; consumer goods; furniture; and concrete. The site of the city, a trading post known as Le Fleur's Bluff near the Natchez Trace, was chosen and laid out as the state capital in 1821 and named for Andrew Jackson. The first U.S. law giving property rights to married women was passed there in 1839. During the Civil War, Jackson was a military center for the Vicksburg campaign and was largely destroyed by Sherman's forces in 1863. The old capitol (1839) is preserved as a museum; the new capitol was completed in 1903. Among the many points of interest are the governor's mansion (erected 1839); city hall, which was used as a hospital during the Civil War; a 220-acre (89-hectare) scale model of the Mississippi River flood control system; Mynelle's Gardens; Jackson Zoological Park; museums of art, natural history, and state history; a notable Confederate monument; Eudora Welty's home; and many antebellum houses. Belhaven College, Jackson State Univ., and the Univ. of Mississippi Medical Center are there, and nearby are Tougaloo College and Mississippi College. During the 1960s, Jackson was the scene of considerable racial unrest.

3 City (1990 pop. 48,949), seat of Madison co., W Tenn., on the South Fork of the Forked Deer River; founded by a nephew of Andrew Jackson, inc. 1823. It is a processing and rail shipping point for an extensive farm area. The city has railroad shops and industries that package food and produce textiles and consumer goods. Jackson's development as a trucking center has added to its economic strength. It is the seat of Lane College, Lambuth College, and Union Univ. Nearby are the West Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station of the Univ. of Tennessee and a state park with Native American mounds. Casey Jones is buried in Jackson; his home and the Casey Jones railroad museum are here. A tornado in 2003 severely damaged sections of the city.

Pollock, Jackson, 1912-56, American painter, b. Cody, Wyo. He studied (1929-31) in New York City, mainly under Thomas Hart Benton, but he was more strongly influenced by A. P. Ryder and the Mexican muralists, especially Siqueiros. From 1938 to 1942, Pollock worked on the Federal Art Project in New York City. Affected by surrealism and also by Picasso, he moved toward a highly abstract art in order to express, rather than illustrate, feeling. His experimentations led to the development of his famous "drip" technique, in which he energetically drew or "dripped" complicated linear rhythms onto enormous canvases, which were often placed flat on the floor. He sometimes applied paint directly from the tube, and at times also used aluminum paint to achieve a glittery effect. His vigorous attack on the canvas and intense devotion to the very act of painting led to the term "action painting." Pollock had become a symbol of the new artistic revolt, abstract expressionism, by the time he was killed in an automobile accident. His paintings are in many major collections, including museums in New York City, San Francisco, Dallas, and Chicago. Pollock was married to the painter Lee Krasner.

See H. Harrison, ed., Such Desperate Joy: Imagining Jackson Pollock (2001) and P. Karmel, ed., Jackson Pollock: Key Interviews, Articles, and Reviews (2002); catalogue raisonné, 4 vol., ed. by F. V. O'Connor and E. B. Thaw (1978, supplement 1995) and catalog ed. by K. Varnedoe and P. Karmel (1998); B. H. Friedman, Jackson Pollock: Energy Made Visible (1972, repr. 1995); D. Solomon, Jackson Pollock: A Biography (1987); S. Naifeh and G. W. Smith, Jackson Pollock: An American Genius (1988); E. G. Landau, Jackson Pollock (1989); C. Ratcliff, The Fate of a Gesture: Jackson Pollock and Post-War American Art (1996).

in full Andrew Jackson Young, Jr.

(born March 12, 1932, New Orleans, La., U.S.) U.S. politician. He earned a divinity degree in 1955 and became a pastor at several African American churches in the South. Active in the civil rights movement, he worked with Martin Luther King, Jr., and Ralph Abernathy in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1961–70). He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1972–77). An early supporter of Jimmy Carter, he was appointed U.S. ambassador to the UN (1977–79), the first African American to hold the post. He served as mayor of Atlanta (1982–90).

Learn more about Young, Andrew with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 4, 1843, Keesville, N.Y., U.S.—died June 30, 1942, New York, N.Y.) U.S. photographer. As a boy, he worked for a photographic studio in Troy, N.Y. After the American Civil War he went west and opened a studio in Omaha. He was the official photographer for the U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories (1870–78), and his photographs were instrumental in the establishment of Yellowstone National Park.

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(born Nov. 14, 1861, Portage, Wis., U.S.—died March 14, 1932, San Marino, Calif.) U.S. historian. He taught at the University of Wisconsin and at Harvard University. Deeply influenced by his Wisconsin childhood, Turner rejected the doctrine that U.S. institutions could be traced mainly to European origins, and he demonstrated his theories in a series of essays. In “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893) he asserted that the American character had been shaped by frontier life and the end of the frontier era. Later he focused on sectionalism as a force in U.S. development. His essays were collected in The Frontier in American History (1920) and Significance of Sections in American History (1932, Pulitzer Prize).

Learn more about Turner, Frederick Jackson with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Thomas Jonathan Jackson

(born Jan. 21, 1824, Clarksburg, Va., U.S.—died May 10, 1863, Guinea Station, Va.) U.S. and Confederate army officer. Despite little formal education, he secured an appointment to West Point. He served with distinction in the Mexican War. At the start of the American Civil War, he organized Virginia volunteers into an effective brigade. At the first Battle of Bull Run, he stationed his brigade in a strong line and withstood a Union assault, a feat that earned him a promotion to major general and the nickname “Stonewall.” In 1862 he won campaigns in the Shenandoah Valley and later in the Seven Days' Battles. Robert E. Lee used Jackson's troops to encircle the Union forces to win the second Battle of Bull Run, and Jackson assisted Lee at Antietam and Fredericksburg. In April 1863, while moving his troops around the flank of the Union army at Chancellorsville, he was accidentally shot and mortally wounded by his own men.

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(born May 27, 1912, near Hot Springs, Va., U.S.—died May 23, 2002, Hot Springs) U.S. golfer. Snead reportedly never took a golf lesson. Known for his straw hat and his flowing, powerful swing, “Slammin' Sam” won the PGA Championship (1942, 1949, 1951), the British Open (1946), and the Masters (1949, 1952, 1954) and was a member of the U.S. Ryder Cup team (eight times—including 1969, when he captained the squad but did not play). Snead won more PGA tournaments (82) than any other player in history, and his total number of world tournament wins is estimated at 135.

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(born Dec. 14, 1919, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.—died Aug. 8, 1965, North Bennington, Vt.) U.S. novelist and short-story writer. She is best known for her story “The Lottery” (1948), a chilling tale that provoked outrage when first published, and The Haunting of Hill House (1959; film, 1963, 1999). These and her other five novels, including We Have Always Lived in the Castle (1962), confirmed her reputation as a master of gothic horror and psychological suspense.

Learn more about Jackson, Shirley (Hardie) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 14, 1919, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.—died Aug. 8, 1965, North Bennington, Vt.) U.S. novelist and short-story writer. She is best known for her story “The Lottery” (1948), a chilling tale that provoked outrage when first published, and The Haunting of Hill House (1959; film, 1963, 1999). These and her other five novels, including We Have Always Lived in the Castle (1962), confirmed her reputation as a master of gothic horror and psychological suspense.

Learn more about Jackson, Shirley (Hardie) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 27, 1912, near Hot Springs, Va., U.S.—died May 23, 2002, Hot Springs) U.S. golfer. Snead reportedly never took a golf lesson. Known for his straw hat and his flowing, powerful swing, “Slammin' Sam” won the PGA Championship (1942, 1949, 1951), the British Open (1946), and the Masters (1949, 1952, 1954) and was a member of the U.S. Ryder Cup team (eight times—including 1969, when he captained the squad but did not play). Snead won more PGA tournaments (82) than any other player in history, and his total number of world tournament wins is estimated at 135.

Learn more about Snead, Sam(uel Jackson) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 13, 1892, Spring Creek, Pa., U.S.—died Oct. 9, 1954, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist. He pleaded his first case while still a minor and was a lawyer by age 21. He became corporation counsel for Jamestown, N.Y. As general counsel for the U.S. Bureau of Internal Revenue (1934), he successfully prosecuted Andrew W. Mellon for income-tax evasion. He served as U.S. solicitor general (1938–39) and attorney general (1940–41). In 1941 he was appointed by Pres. Franklin Roosevelt to the U.S. Supreme Court, where he served until 1954. He infused his well-worded opinions with a blend of liberalism and nationalism. In 1945–46 he served as chief U.S. prosecutor in the Nürnberg trials.

Learn more about Jackson, Robert H(oughwout) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

in full Reginald Martinez Jackson

(born May 18, 1946, Wyncote, Pa., U.S.) U.S. baseball player. Jackson excelled in track, football, and baseball in high school. In the major leagues, batting and throwing left-handed and playing outfield, he helped three teams (Oakland Athletics, 1968–75; New York Yankees, 1976–81; California Angels, 1982–87) win five World Series, six pennant races, and 10 divisional play-offs. Noted for his home-run hitting, he was nicknamed “Mr. October” for his reliable prowess in play-off and World Series games. He hit a career total of 563 home runs, placing him in the top ten of all-time home-run hitters.

Learn more about Jackson, Reggie with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Inlet of the South Pacific Ocean, New South Wales, southeastern Australia. It is one of the world's finest natural harbours. It was sighted in 1770 by Capt. James Cook. Its entrance is between North and South Heads, where naval and military stations are located. Sydney is on its southern shore and the northern suburbs of Sydney are on its northern shore; the shores are joined by the Sydney Harbour Bridge, which was built in 1932.

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Jackson Pollock painting in his studio on Long Island, New York, 1950.

(born Jan. 28, 1912, Cody, Wyo., U.S.—died Aug. 11, 1956, East Hampton, N.Y.) U.S. painter. He grew up in California and Arizona. In the early 1930s he studied in New York City under Thomas Hart Benton, and later he was employed on the WPA Federal Art Project. In 1945 he married the artist Lee Krasner. Two years later, after several years of semiabstract work stimulated by psychotherapy, Pollock began to lay his canvas on the floor and pour or drip paint onto it in stages. This process permitted him to record the force and scope of his gestures in trajectories of enamel or aluminum paint that “veiled” the figurative elements found in his earlier work. The results were huge areas covered with complex and dynamic linear patterns that fuse image and form and engulf the vision of the spectator in their scale and intricacy. Pollock believed that art derived from the unconscious and judged his work and that of others on its inherent authenticity of personal expression. He became known as a leading practitioner of Abstract Expressionism, particularly the form known as action painting. Championed by critic Clement Greenberg and others, he became a celebrity. When he died in a car crash at 44, he was one of the few American painters to be recognized during his lifetime and afterward as the peer of 20th-century European masters of modern art.

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(born Aug. 29, 1958, Gary, Ind., U.S.) U.S. singer and songwriter. The nine-year-old Jackson became the lead singer of the Jackson 5, a family group formed by his father. Their hits on the Motown label included “I Want You Back” and “ABC.” Though Michael remained a member of the group until 1984, he began recording under his own name in 1971. His album Off the Wall (1979) sold millions; his next solo album, Thriller (1982), sold more than 40 million copies, becoming the best-selling album in history. The emerging format of the music video was an important aspect of Jackson's work; his videos for “Beat It” and “Billie Jean” (both 1983) featured his highly influential dancing style (notably his trademark “moonwalk”). He later released the albums Bad (1987), Dangerous (1991), and HIStory (1995). Despite his many efforts to speak out on social issues, Jackson's eccentric, secluded lifestyle stirred controversy in the early 1990s. His reputation was seriously damaged in 1993 when he was accused of child molestation by a 13-year-old boy; a civil suit was settled out of court. In 2003 Jackson was arrested on charges of child molestation; he was acquitted in 2005. His numerous honours include induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Jackson 5 (1997) and as a solo performer (2001). Several of his siblings, notably his sister Janet (b. 1966), have also enjoyed solo success.

Learn more about Jackson, Michael (Joseph) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Mahalia Jackson, 1961.

(born Oct. 26, 1911, New Orleans, La., U.S.—died Jan. 27, 1972, Evergreen Park, Ill.) U.S. gospel music singer. As a child, Jackson sang in the choir of the New Orleans church where her father preached. She learned sacred songs but was also exposed to blues recordings by Bessie Smith and Ida Cox. In Chicago she worked at odd jobs while singing with a touring gospel quintet, and she opened several small businesses. Her warm, powerful voice first came to wide public attention in the 1930s, when she participated in a cross-country tour singing songs such as “He's Got the Whole World in His Hands.” Closely associated with Thomas A. Dorsey, she sang many of his songs. “Move on up a Little Higher” (1948) sold more than a million copies, and she became one of the most popular singers of the 1950s and '60s. She first appeared at Carnegie Hall in 1950. Active in the civil rights movement from 1955, she sang at the epochal 1963 civil rights march on Washington.

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in full Joseph Jefferson Jackson known as Shoeless Joe Jackson

(born July 16, 1888, Greenville, S.C., U.S.—died Dec. 6, 1951, Greenville) U.S. baseball player. Jackson started his career in 1908 and became an outfielder with the Chicago White Sox. An outstanding hitter, his career batting average of .356 is the third-highest (after Ty Cobb and Rogers Hornsby) in baseball history. Jackson was involved in the 1919 Black Sox scandal; though acquitted in 1921, he was banned from baseball for life by baseball commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis.

Learn more about Jackson, Joe with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 4, 1843, Keesville, N.Y., U.S.—died June 30, 1942, New York, N.Y.) U.S. photographer. As a boy, he worked for a photographic studio in Troy, N.Y. After the American Civil War he went west and opened a studio in Omaha. He was the official photographer for the U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories (1870–78), and his photographs were instrumental in the establishment of Yellowstone National Park.

Learn more about Jackson, William Henry with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Thomas Jonathan Jackson

(born Jan. 21, 1824, Clarksburg, Va., U.S.—died May 10, 1863, Guinea Station, Va.) U.S. and Confederate army officer. Despite little formal education, he secured an appointment to West Point. He served with distinction in the Mexican War. At the start of the American Civil War, he organized Virginia volunteers into an effective brigade. At the first Battle of Bull Run, he stationed his brigade in a strong line and withstood a Union assault, a feat that earned him a promotion to major general and the nickname “Stonewall.” In 1862 he won campaigns in the Shenandoah Valley and later in the Seven Days' Battles. Robert E. Lee used Jackson's troops to encircle the Union forces to win the second Battle of Bull Run, and Jackson assisted Lee at Antietam and Fredericksburg. In April 1863, while moving his troops around the flank of the Union army at Chancellorsville, he was accidentally shot and mortally wounded by his own men.

Learn more about Jackson, Stonewall with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 13, 1892, Spring Creek, Pa., U.S.—died Oct. 9, 1954, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist. He pleaded his first case while still a minor and was a lawyer by age 21. He became corporation counsel for Jamestown, N.Y. As general counsel for the U.S. Bureau of Internal Revenue (1934), he successfully prosecuted Andrew W. Mellon for income-tax evasion. He served as U.S. solicitor general (1938–39) and attorney general (1940–41). In 1941 he was appointed by Pres. Franklin Roosevelt to the U.S. Supreme Court, where he served until 1954. He infused his well-worded opinions with a blend of liberalism and nationalism. In 1945–46 he served as chief U.S. prosecutor in the Nürnberg trials.

Learn more about Jackson, Robert H(oughwout) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

in full Reginald Martinez Jackson

(born May 18, 1946, Wyncote, Pa., U.S.) U.S. baseball player. Jackson excelled in track, football, and baseball in high school. In the major leagues, batting and throwing left-handed and playing outfield, he helped three teams (Oakland Athletics, 1968–75; New York Yankees, 1976–81; California Angels, 1982–87) win five World Series, six pennant races, and 10 divisional play-offs. Noted for his home-run hitting, he was nicknamed “Mr. October” for his reliable prowess in play-off and World Series games. He hit a career total of 563 home runs, placing him in the top ten of all-time home-run hitters.

Learn more about Jackson, Reggie with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Aug. 29, 1958, Gary, Ind., U.S.) U.S. singer and songwriter. The nine-year-old Jackson became the lead singer of the Jackson 5, a family group formed by his father. Their hits on the Motown label included “I Want You Back” and “ABC.” Though Michael remained a member of the group until 1984, he began recording under his own name in 1971. His album Off the Wall (1979) sold millions; his next solo album, Thriller (1982), sold more than 40 million copies, becoming the best-selling album in history. The emerging format of the music video was an important aspect of Jackson's work; his videos for “Beat It” and “Billie Jean” (both 1983) featured his highly influential dancing style (notably his trademark “moonwalk”). He later released the albums Bad (1987), Dangerous (1991), and HIStory (1995). Despite his many efforts to speak out on social issues, Jackson's eccentric, secluded lifestyle stirred controversy in the early 1990s. His reputation was seriously damaged in 1993 when he was accused of child molestation by a 13-year-old boy; a civil suit was settled out of court. In 2003 Jackson was arrested on charges of child molestation; he was acquitted in 2005. His numerous honours include induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Jackson 5 (1997) and as a solo performer (2001). Several of his siblings, notably his sister Janet (b. 1966), have also enjoyed solo success.

Learn more about Jackson, Michael (Joseph) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Mahalia Jackson, 1961.

(born Oct. 26, 1911, New Orleans, La., U.S.—died Jan. 27, 1972, Evergreen Park, Ill.) U.S. gospel music singer. As a child, Jackson sang in the choir of the New Orleans church where her father preached. She learned sacred songs but was also exposed to blues recordings by Bessie Smith and Ida Cox. In Chicago she worked at odd jobs while singing with a touring gospel quintet, and she opened several small businesses. Her warm, powerful voice first came to wide public attention in the 1930s, when she participated in a cross-country tour singing songs such as “He's Got the Whole World in His Hands.” Closely associated with Thomas A. Dorsey, she sang many of his songs. “Move on up a Little Higher” (1948) sold more than a million copies, and she became one of the most popular singers of the 1950s and '60s. She first appeared at Carnegie Hall in 1950. Active in the civil rights movement from 1955, she sang at the epochal 1963 civil rights march on Washington.

Learn more about Jackson, Mahalia with a free trial on Britannica.com.

in full Joseph Jefferson Jackson known as Shoeless Joe Jackson

(born July 16, 1888, Greenville, S.C., U.S.—died Dec. 6, 1951, Greenville) U.S. baseball player. Jackson started his career in 1908 and became an outfielder with the Chicago White Sox. An outstanding hitter, his career batting average of .356 is the third-highest (after Ty Cobb and Rogers Hornsby) in baseball history. Jackson was involved in the 1919 Black Sox scandal; though acquitted in 1921, he was banned from baseball for life by baseball commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis.

Learn more about Jackson, Joe with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 9, 1936, Birkenhead, Cheshire, Eng.) British stage and film actress. Discovered by Peter Brook, she was cast in his Theatre of Cruelty revue and soon appeared as the mad Charlotte Corday in his celebrated production of Peter Weiss's Marat/Sade (1964; film, 1967). She became known for her tense portrayals of complex women, gaining international acclaim in the film Women in Love (1969, Academy Award) and later successes such as Sunday Bloody Sunday (1971), A Touch of Class (1973, Academy Award), and the television series Elizabeth R. Her screen career continued until 1992, when she won a seat in the House of Commons.

Learn more about Jackson, Glenda with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 15, 1767, Waxhaws region, S.C.—died June 8, 1845, the Hermitage, near Nashville, Tenn., U.S.) Seventh president of the U.S. (1829–37). He fought briefly in the American Revolution near his frontier home, where his family was killed in the conflict. In 1788 he was appointed prosecuting attorney for western North Carolina. When the region became the state of Tennessee, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1796–97) and the Senate (1797–98). He served on the state supreme court (1798–1804) and in 1802 was elected major general of the Tennessee militia. When the War of 1812 began, he offered the U.S. the services of his 50,000-man volunteer militia. Sent to the Mississippi Territory to fight the Creek Indians, who were allied with the British, he defeated them after a short campaign (1813–14) at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. After capturing Pensacola, Fla., from the British-allied Spanish, he marched overland to engage the British in Louisiana. A decisive victory at the Battle of New Orleans made him a national hero; he was dubbed “Old Hickory” by the press. After the U.S. acquired Florida, Jackson was named governor of the territory (1821). One of four candidates in the 1824 presidential election, he won an electoral-vote plurality, but the House of Representative instead selected John Quincy Adams as president. Jackson's victory over Adams in the 1828 presidential election is commonly regarded as a turning point in U.S. history. Jackson was the first president from west of the Appalachian Mountains, the first to be born in poverty, and the first to be elected through a direct appeal to the mass of voters rather than through the support of a recognized political organization. The era of his presidency has come to be known as “Jacksonian Democracy.” Upon taking office he replaced many federal officials with his political supporters, a practice that became known as the spoils system. His administration acquiesced in the illegal seizure of Cherokee land in Georgia and then forcibly expelled the Indians who refused to leave (see Trail of Tears). When South Carolina claimed a right to nullify a federally imposed tariff, Jackson asked for and received Congressional authority to use the military to enforce federal laws in the state (see nullification). His reelection in 1832 was partially the result of his controversial veto of a bill to recharter the Bank of the United States, which was unpopular with many of his supporters (see Bank War). The intensity of the political struggles during his tenure led to the strengthening of the Democratic Party and to the further development of the two-party system.

Learn more about Jackson, Andrew with a free trial on Britannica.com.

City (pop., 2000: 184,256), capital of Mississippi, U.S. It lies along the Pearl River in the west-central part of the state. Settled in 1792 by Louis Le Fleur, a French Canadian trader, it was a trading post called Le Fleur's Bluff until settlers began arriving in 1820. It was made the state capital in 1822 and was named for Andrew Jackson. During the American Civil War it was burned by Union forces (1863). The state's largest city, it is a railroad and distribution centre. It is the seat of Jackson State University (1877) and other educational institutions.

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(born May 9, 1936, Birkenhead, Cheshire, Eng.) British stage and film actress. Discovered by Peter Brook, she was cast in his Theatre of Cruelty revue and soon appeared as the mad Charlotte Corday in his celebrated production of Peter Weiss's Marat/Sade (1964; film, 1967). She became known for her tense portrayals of complex women, gaining international acclaim in the film Women in Love (1969, Academy Award) and later successes such as Sunday Bloody Sunday (1971), A Touch of Class (1973, Academy Award), and the television series Elizabeth R. Her screen career continued until 1992, when she won a seat in the House of Commons.

Learn more about Jackson, Glenda with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 14, 1861, Portage, Wis., U.S.—died March 14, 1932, San Marino, Calif.) U.S. historian. He taught at the University of Wisconsin and at Harvard University. Deeply influenced by his Wisconsin childhood, Turner rejected the doctrine that U.S. institutions could be traced mainly to European origins, and he demonstrated his theories in a series of essays. In “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893) he asserted that the American character had been shaped by frontier life and the end of the frontier era. Later he focused on sectionalism as a force in U.S. development. His essays were collected in The Frontier in American History (1920) and Significance of Sections in American History (1932, Pulitzer Prize).

Learn more about Turner, Frederick Jackson with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 30, 1815, Newburgh, N.Y., U.S.—died July 28, 1852, vicinity of Yonkers, N.Y.) U.S. horticulturist, landscape gardener, and architect. He educated himself in landscape gardening and architecture while working in his father's nursery. In 1850 he began collaborating with the British architect Calvert Vaux (1824–95); the two designed a number of estates in New York's Hudson River valley and on Long Island. Recognized as the foremost U.S. landscape designer of his day, he was commissioned in 1851 to lay out the grounds for the Capitol, the White House, and the Smithsonian Institution. His death at 36 in a steamboat accident prevented him from seeing his plans to completion. His books on architecture and landscaping became standard works, and his influence on American conceptions of the middle-class home were far-reaching.

Learn more about Downing, Andrew Jackson with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 30, 1815, Newburgh, N.Y., U.S.—died July 28, 1852, vicinity of Yonkers, N.Y.) U.S. horticulturist, landscape gardener, and architect. He educated himself in landscape gardening and architecture while working in his father's nursery. In 1850 he began collaborating with the British architect Calvert Vaux (1824–95); the two designed a number of estates in New York's Hudson River valley and on Long Island. Recognized as the foremost U.S. landscape designer of his day, he was commissioned in 1851 to lay out the grounds for the Capitol, the White House, and the Smithsonian Institution. His death at 36 in a steamboat accident prevented him from seeing his plans to completion. His books on architecture and landscaping became standard works, and his influence on American conceptions of the middle-class home were far-reaching.

Learn more about Downing, Andrew Jackson with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 15, 1767, Waxhaws region, S.C.—died June 8, 1845, the Hermitage, near Nashville, Tenn., U.S.) Seventh president of the U.S. (1829–37). He fought briefly in the American Revolution near his frontier home, where his family was killed in the conflict. In 1788 he was appointed prosecuting attorney for western North Carolina. When the region became the state of Tennessee, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1796–97) and the Senate (1797–98). He served on the state supreme court (1798–1804) and in 1802 was elected major general of the Tennessee militia. When the War of 1812 began, he offered the U.S. the services of his 50,000-man volunteer militia. Sent to the Mississippi Territory to fight the Creek Indians, who were allied with the British, he defeated them after a short campaign (1813–14) at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. After capturing Pensacola, Fla., from the British-allied Spanish, he marched overland to engage the British in Louisiana. A decisive victory at the Battle of New Orleans made him a national hero; he was dubbed “Old Hickory” by the press. After the U.S. acquired Florida, Jackson was named governor of the territory (1821). One of four candidates in the 1824 presidential election, he won an electoral-vote plurality, but the House of Representative instead selected John Quincy Adams as president. Jackson's victory over Adams in the 1828 presidential election is commonly regarded as a turning point in U.S. history. Jackson was the first president from west of the Appalachian Mountains, the first to be born in poverty, and the first to be elected through a direct appeal to the mass of voters rather than through the support of a recognized political organization. The era of his presidency has come to be known as “Jacksonian Democracy.” Upon taking office he replaced many federal officials with his political supporters, a practice that became known as the spoils system. His administration acquiesced in the illegal seizure of Cherokee land in Georgia and then forcibly expelled the Indians who refused to leave (see Trail of Tears). When South Carolina claimed a right to nullify a federally imposed tariff, Jackson asked for and received Congressional authority to use the military to enforce federal laws in the state (see nullification). His reelection in 1832 was partially the result of his controversial veto of a bill to recharter the Bank of the United States, which was unpopular with many of his supporters (see Bank War). The intensity of the political struggles during his tenure led to the strengthening of the Democratic Party and to the further development of the two-party system.

Learn more about Jackson, Andrew with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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