[ahy-ver, ee-ver]
Giaever, Ivar, 1929-, Norwegian-American physicist, Ph.D. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1964. He was a researcher at General Electric from 1954 to 1988, when he joined the faculty at his alma mater; he retired in 2005 as professor emeritus. With Leo Esaki and Brian Josephson, Giaever received the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physics for his experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in superconductors (see superconductivity). In the early 1960s, before he had even completed his doctoral work, Giaever built on Esaki's discovery of electron tunneling in semiconductors and showed that the phenomenon also occurred in superconductors. His experiments demonstrated the existence of an energy gap in superconductors, which was an important prediction of the BCS theory of superconductivity, for which Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer had been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1972.
Kreuger, Ivar, 1880-1932, Swedish financier. After studying engineering in Stockholm and engaging in construction enterprises in the United States, he returned to Sweden and organized the firm of Kreuger and Toll. In 1913 he began to form a trust to control all aspects of the production of matches in Sweden, and later throughout the world; it eventually became a huge international finance agency, and he also controlled construction, mining, and communications companies. Speculation and questionable practices during the 1920s led to the ruin of the trust after the 1929 crash, but through fraud he managed largely to hide the distressed state of his businesses until his suicide. Much of his money was obtained from U.S. backers.

See studies by A. Churchill (1957), R. Shaplen (1960), and F. Partnoy (2009).

Ivar's is a seafood restaurant chain based in Seattle, Washington, United States, with operations in the Puget Sound region; in Spokane, Washington; and in Santa Clara, California.

Ivar's was founded in 1938 by Seattle folk singer Ivar Haglund. Having built Seattle's first aquarium on what is now Pier 54, he decided to add a companion fish and chips bar to feed his visitors. The bar was short-lived, however. On July 22, 1946, Haglund opened a new restaurant, Ivar's Acres of Clams, at the same location. The aquarium closed ten years later, but the restaurant remains.

Ivar's has two other full-service restaurants: Ivar's Salmon House in Seattle's Northlake neighborhood, and Ivar's Mukilteo Landing in Mukilteo, Washington, next to the Washington State Ferries terminal. There is a fishbar outside of all three full-service restaurants. All its other locations are seafood bars. Ivar's created the famous saying of "keep clam" that is posted all over each of the eateries.

Nard Jones remarked in 1972 that Haglund was "not afraid to reflect Puget Sound tradition in the decor of his restaurants, whereas others of his profession seem intent on making their patrons forget where they are." In this respect, he singled out the Salmon House, "an almost exact replica of an old Indian long house.

Every Independence Day from 1964 until 2005, Ivar's sponsored the Fourth of Jul-Ivar's festival and fireworks show at Downtown Seattle's Myrtle Edwards Park on Elliott Bay. Ivar's estimates its attendance at around 300,000 people. According to the Ivar's website, in 2006, there will be no daytime festival, but the fireworks will go on in Elliott Bay at "10-ish", as usual.

Ivar's also owns the Seattle-based burger restaurant chain, Kidd Valley Hamburgers.


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