iso c

C++ standard library

In C++, the Standard Library is a collection of classes and functions, which are written in the core language. The Standard Library provides several generic containers, functions to utilise and manipulate these containers, function objects, generic strings and streams (including interactive and file I/O), support for some language features, and every day functions for tasks such as finding the square root of a number. The C++ Standard Library also incorporates the ISO C90 C Standard Library. Features of the Standard Library are declared within the std namespace.

The Standard Template Library (STL) is a subset of the C++ standard library, and contains the containers, algorithms, iterators, function objects, etc.; although some people use the term STL interchangeably with the C++ standard library.

Header files in the C++ standard library do not end in ".h".

Standard headers

The following files contain the declarations of the Standard Library.


:Provides the specialized container class std::bitset, a bit array.:Provides the container class template std::deque, a double-ended queue.:Provides the container class template std::list, a doubly-linked list.:Provides the container class templates std::map and std::multimap, an associative array and multimap.:Provides the container adapter class std::queue, a single-ended queue.:Provides the container class templates std::set and std::multiset, sorted associative containers or sets.:Provides the container adapter class std::stack, a stack.:Provides the container class template std::vector, a dynamic array.


:Provides definitions of many container algorithms.:Provides several function objects, designed for use with the standard algorithms.:Provides classes and templates for working with iterators.:Provides classes and templates for working with locales.:Provides facilities for memory management in C++, including the class template std::auto_ptr.:Contains standard exception classes such as std::logic_error and std::runtime_error, both derived from std::exception.:Provides the template class std::pair, for working with pairs (two-member tuples) of objects.


:Provides the C++ standard string classes and templates.

Streams and Input/Output

:Provides facilities for file-based input and output. See fstream.:Provides several types and functions basic to the operation of iostreams.:Provides C++ input and output fundamentals. See iostream.:Provides forward declarations of several I/O-related class templates.:Provides facilities to manipulate output formatting, such as the base used when formatting integers and the precision of floating point values.:Provides the template class std::istream and other supporting classes for input.:Provides the template class std::ostream and other supporting classes for output.:Provides the template class std::sstream and other supporting classes for string manipulation.:


:Provides class template std::complex and associated functions for working with complex numbers.:Provides algorithms for numerical processing:Provides the template class std::valarray, an array class optimized for numeric processing.

Language Support

:Provides several types and functions related to exception handling, including std::exception, the base class of all exceptions thrown by the Standard Library.:Provides the template class std::numeric_limits, used for describing properties of fundamental numeric types.:Provides operators new and delete and other functions and types composing the fundamentals of C++ memory management.:Provides facilities for working with C++ run-time type information.

C Standard Library

Each header from the C standard library is included in the C++ standard library under a different name, generated by removing the .h, and adding a 'c' at the start, for example 'time.h' becomes 'ctime'. The only difference between these headers and the traditional C standard library headers is that where possible the functions should be placed into the std:: namespace (although few compilers actually do this). In ISO C, functions in standard library are allowed to be implemented by macros, which is not allowed by ISO C++.

See also


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