Pyotr Anokhin

Pyotr Kuzmich Anokhin (Пётр Кузьми́ч Ано́хин) (1898 – 1974), was a Russian biologist and physiologist who made important contributions to cybernetics and functional systems. The pioneering concepts of feedback were published in 1935.


Anokhin was born in Russia in 1898. He studied neurophysiology and received a doctor of medicine. He was an academician of Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR and the Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. He was one of the founders of the Institute of psychology of the USSR and the laboratory of neuro-physiology of training.

His scientific activity started under the guidance of Ivan Pavlov. He elaborated the theory of functional systems (FS) which tied together subtle neuro-physiological mechanisms and integral activity of an individual. FS theory was considered as the “methodological bridge” between psychology and physiology.


The main works Anokhin:

  • 1968, The biology andneuro-physiology of conditioned reflex
  • 1975, The essays on physiology of functional systems
  • 1973, Biology and neurophysiology of the conditioned reflex and its role in adaptive behavior, Elsevier, 592 p.
  • 1978, Philosophical aspects of the theory of functional systems.
  • 1998, Cybernetics of functional systems: Selected works (Кибернетика функциональных систем), Moscow, Medicine, 400 p., (in Russian)


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