written in Canada
, by Canadians. There are three distinct branches of Canadian poetry: French-Canadian
poetry (mostly written by Québécois
authors), First Nations
poetry and English-Canadian poetry.
The earliest works of poetry, mainly written by visitors, described the new territories in optimistic terms, mainly targeted at a European
audience. One of the first works was Robert Hayman
, composed in Newfoundland
and published in 1628.
With the growth of English language communities near the end of the 18th century, poetry aimed at local readers began to appear in local newspapers. These writings were mainly intended to reflect the prevailing cultural values of the time and were modeled after English poetry of the same period.
In the first half of the 19th century, poetic works began to reflect local subjects. Acadia by Joseph Howe and The Saint Lawrence and the Saguenay by Charles Sangster are examples of this trend. Early nationalistic verses were composed by writers including Thomas D'Arcy McGee. Many "regional" poets also espoused the British political and aesthetic jingoism of the period. For example, High Tory loyalist & occasional poet
Thomas H. Higginson of Vankleek Hill, Ontario, produced paeons to Sir Francis Bond Head (Wm. Lyon Mackenzie's opponent) and the British war effort in the Crimea (such as Sonnet to Florence Nightingale and others), while producing some interesting nature verse exemplifying the all-pervasive influence of Wordsworth's view of nature and the sublime.
A group of poets now known as the "Confederation Poets
" began writing following the formation of the new Dominion of Canada in 1867, including Charles G. D. Roberts
, Archibald Lampman
, Bliss Carman
and Duncan Campbell Scott
. Choosing the world of nature as their inspiration, their work was drawn from their own experiences and, at its best, written in their own tones.
Early 20th Century
During this period, E. Pauline Johnson
and Robert W. Service
were writing popular poetry - Johnson's based on her English and Mohawk
heritage and Service writing tales of the Yukon
In 1915, John McCrae, serving as a surgeon in the Canadian Army, wrote the famous war poem "In Flanders Fields".
In Newfoundland, E.J. Pratt described the struggle to make a living on the land in poems about maritime life and the history of Canada. Meanwhile, in central Canada, poets such as Ralph Gustafson and Raymond Knister were moving away from traditional verse forms.
In the 1930s, A.J.M. Smith and F.R. Scott helped inspire the development of new poetic voices in Montreal through the McGill Fortnightly Review and the anthology New Provinces. The "new poetry" valued intellect over sentimentality, or as some have put it, logic over human emotions . Under the editorship (literary) of Earle Birney, the Canadian Forum helped promote similar developments in Toronto. Dorothy Livesay, born in Manitoba, was an important contributor to the Toronto movement. These two urban centres of literary activity provided fertile ground for the development of later poets such as Irving Layton and Raymond Souster.
Following World War II
, a new breed of poets appeared, writing for a well-educated audience. These included James Reaney
, Jay Macpherson
and Leonard Cohen
. Meanwhile, some maturing authors such as Layton, Souster, Harold Standish
and Louis Dudek
, moved in a different direction, adopting colloquial
speech in their work.
In the 1960s, a renewed sense of nation helped foster new voices: Margaret Atwood, Michael Ondaatje, Leonard Cohen, Eli Mandel and Margaret Avison. Others such as Al Purdy, Milton Acorn and Earle Birney, already published, produced some of their best work during this period.
Since the 1990s, several Governor General's Award-winning poets, in particular Jan Zwicky and Tim Lilburn, have been engaged in nonfiction writing that maps the relationships between poetry and philosophy. Zwicky's "Lyric Philosophy" and "Wisdom and Metaphor", as well as Lilburn's collection "Thinking and Singing", are representative works.
A younger generation of Canadian poets has been expanding the boundaries of originality: Ken Babstock, Karen Solie, Sonnet L'Abbé, George Elliott Clarke and Barry Dempster have all imprinted their unique consciousnesses onto the map of Canadian imagery. Evie Christie's collection, Gutted, seems to evoke the 17th century metaphysical conceit, but in a modern, urban Canadian guise.
A notable anthology of Canadian poetry is The New Oxford book of Canadian Verse, edited by Margaret Atwood (ISBN 0-19-540450-5).
Notable literary prizes for English Canadian poetry include the Governor General's Awards
, the Griffin Poetry Prize
, the Gerald Lampert Award
, Pat Lowther Award
and the Shaunt Basmajian Chapbook Award
Uniquely Canadian Forms
poem form was invented by Canadian author and poet, Robin Skelton
. It consists of any stanzaic form in which the first line of the first stanza is the second line of the second stanza and so on until the poem ends with the line with which it began. The term, Viator
comes from the Latin for traveller
. An example of Skelton's form may be found in his excellent reference book, The Shapes of our Singing
, and is entitled Dover Beach Revisited
An unpublished example of the Viator is included below to illustrate how the line travels through the poem, its repetition adding weight to the process described. The repeating line is highlighted in boldface type.
It's care in cooking slow and carefully
that turns a shallot glistening golden brown;
in salted water first you must weigh down
the scalded bulbs to meet this recipe.
Boil vinegar and sugary spices;
it's care in cooking slow and carefully
the syruped shallots, gradually,
then overnight, you'll rest the shallot slices.
Then two days more, you'll slow repeat
your patient simmering, calmly, gently;
it's care in cooking slow and carefully
that yields your shallots clear and sweet.
By fourth day, time to lift them free,
to pack them in that savoury sauce,
preserve that silky, golden gloss;
it's care in cooking slow and carefully!
Copyright by contributor, Russell Collier
The first book written in verse by a Canadian was Épîtres, Satires, Chansons, Épigrammes et Autres Pièces de vers
by Michel Bibaud
, published in 1830.
A group of French speaking poets and authors belonging to the Mouvement littéraire
came to Ottawa from Quebec City when the civil service moved to Ottawa in 1870. This group included Alfred Garneau
, Antoine Gerin-Lajoie
, Achilles Frechette
and others. They are considered some of the most important poets and writers in 19th Century French Canada.
End of 19th century
is considered the father of French Canadian poetry. His poetry and that of his follower Louis Fréchette
are romantic of form and patriotic in inspiration. At the same time, Pamphile Le May
was writing intimist poetry about the simple farm life and Alfred Garneau
wrote his feelings.
The Montreal School
L'École littéraire de Montréal
is not a literary school per se
but more of a group of poets that met regularly. In reaction to the earlier following of the romantic Victor Hugo
, they took later schools (such as the Parnassian
) as their masters. The most talented among them was certainly Émile Nelligan
, a young poet who stopped writing at only 20 years of age due to mental illness.
Outside Montreal, other poets, such as Nérée Beauchemin
continued Pamphile Le May's depiction of the life of the habitants
. Then came the powerful Alfred Desrochers
, a precursor to the "pays" school of poetry of Gaston Miron