Definitions

interblock-gap

9 track tape

The IBM System/360, released in 1964, introduced what is now generally known as 9 track tape. The magnetic tape is 1/2 inch (12.65 mm) wide, with 8 data tracks and one parity track for a total of 9 parallel tracks. Data is stored as 8-bit characters, spanning the full width of the tape (including the parity bit). Various recording methods are used to place the data on tape, depending on the tape speed and data density, including PE (phase encoding), GCR (group code recording) and NRZI (non-return-to-zero, inverted, sometimes pronounced "nur-zee").

The standard size of a byte was effectively set at 8 bits with the S/360 and 9 track tape.

Typical operation

A typical 9-track unit consisted of a tape transport—essentially all the mechanics that moved tape from reel to reel past the read/write and erase heads—and supporting control and data read/write electronics. The transport typically consisted of supply motor, take-up motor, hubs for locking the tape reels in place, a capstan motor (though not necessarily a pinch roller, see below), tape head assembly, miscellaneous rollers which kept the tape in a precise path during operation, and vacuum columns. Problems with wow and flutter, stretched tape, etc could result in corrupted data. The transport had to guide the tape with low tension on the tape without damaging the tape edges, but with enough tension to keep the tape in constant contact with the read/write head.

To load a tape, an operator would remove the protective ring on the outside of the tape reel and install the tape on the supply hub, then thread the tape leader through the various roller assemblies and onto the take-up reel, installing three or four winds of tape to provide enough friction for the take-up motor to be able to pull the tape. The operator then initiated an automatic sequence, often by a single press of a button, that would start the vacuum system, then move the tape forward until the beginning-of-tape (BOT) foil strip was detected by an optical sensor in the tape path. The control electronics would then indicate to the controlling computer that the unit was ready for operation.

Like its audio counterpart, moving tape past the read/write heads on 9-track digital required precise control, accomplished by a capstan motor. The capstan motor was designed for very smooth operation. Feedback to the control electronics was accomplished by a tachometer, usually an optical "tone wheel", to control tape velocity. Starting and stopping the capstan was controlled by ramp generators to ensure a properly sized inter-record gap, the gap between blocks of information.

The vacuum system provided a physical buffer between the precision movements of the capstan and the large movements of the reels by storing a short length of tape in the vacuum column under relatively low tension. The vacuum columns were chambers open at one end, the openings being in line with the tape path before and after the capstan and roller assemblies. The amount of tape in the column was controlled by four optical or vacuum sensors on the sides of the columns. The control electronics kept the curve of the tape loop between the two inner sensors, cueing the supply reel to feed more or the take-up reel to take more as necessary. The outer two sensors, at the very top and bottom of the columns, served to sense malfunctions in the feed mechanism during operation, prompting the control electronics to shut off all operation of the tape transport and vacuum system to prevent damaging the tape. Because of the tension provided by the vacuum columns and the design of the tape path, tape was usually kept in sufficient contact with the a relatively high-friction coating on the capstan that a pinch roller was not used.

Tape motion on many systems was bidirectional, i.e., tape could be read either forward or backward at the request of the controlling computer. Because the supply vacuum column kept a small, constant tension in the reverse direction, the capstan could feed backwards without the tape bunching up or jumping out of path. Unlike most audio tape systems, the capstan and head assemblies were always in contact with the tape, even during fast forward and rewind operations. On some units, manufacturers installed a "fast search" capability which could move the tape quickly a certain number of blocks, then bring the tape to a halt and go back to read the requested data at normal speed.

Tapes included an end-of-tape (EOT) foil strip. When EOT was encountered, the unit would either halt or rewind the tape onto the supply reel, depending on the unit's design. The sensing of BOT and EOT was achieved by shining a small lamp at the tape's surface at an oblique angle. When the foil strip (glued to the tape) moved past the lamp a photo-receptor would see the reflected flash of light and trigger the system to halt tape motion. This is the main reason that photographic flash cameras were not allowed in data centers since they could (and did) trick the tape drives into falsely sensing BOT and EOT.

The above describes a typical transport system; however, manufacturers engineered many alternative designs. For example, some designs used a horizontal transport deck where the operator simply set the tape reel in the supply reel bay, closed the door and pressed the load button, then a vacuum system would draw the tape along the path and onto a take-up hub within the mechanism. Some designs eliminated the vacuum columns in favor of a microprocessor-controlled direct drive design.

Technical details

9-track 800 NRZI and 1600 PE (phase encoding) tapes utilized a .60" inter-record gap (IRG) placed between data records to allow the tape to stop. 6250 GCR tapes used a very tight .3" IRG. 9-track tapes had reflective stickers placed near (10', 14') each end to signal beginning of tape (BOT) and end of tape (EOT) to the hardware. Nine-track tapes commonly had densities of 800, 1600, and 6250 cpi, giving approximately 20MB, 40MB and 140MB respectively on a standard 2400' tape. Signaling EOT (end of tape) with space remaining to write trailer blocks allowed support for multivolume labelled tapes.

IBM generations

IBM Model 2400 Series 3400 Series
Model numbers 2401, 2415, 2420, 2440 3410, 3420, 3422, 3440
Density (bits/in/track) 800, 1600 1600, 6250
Tape speed (in/s) 18.75 - 200 120 - 200
Transfer rate (B/s) 15,000 - 320,000 1,250,000
Interblock gap (in) 0.6 0.3
Rewind speed (in/s, avg.)
Start time (ms)
Stop time (ms)
Length of reel (ft) 2400 max 2400 max
Base composition Plastic Plastic

2400 Series

The 2400 Series Magnetic Tape Units were introduced with the System/360 and were the first to use 9 track tape. The dimensions of the tape and reels were identical to those used with 7 track units, such as the IBM 729. But older 7 track tapes could only be read and written on special 2400 drives equipped with 7 track read and write heads and the 7 track compatibility option.

3400 Series

The 3400 Series Magnetic Tape Units were introduced with the IBM System/370. The primary advantages of the 3400 system were the higher data density (6250 BPI) and the introduction of the "autoloader" cartridge. Prior to the autoloader cartridge, tapes were sealed in a plastic "tape seal belt" that surrounded the reel and provided contamination protection and rack-hanging capability. The 3420's autoloader cartridge enabled the tape operator to mount the reel directly on the hub without having to remove the seal belt. This provided a significant time savings since the operator did not have to remove/replace the belt or thread the tape onto the take-up reel.

The maximum data capacity of a 2400 ft reel, blocked at 32,767 bytes and recorded at 6250 BPI was 170 megabytes. Typically, much smaller block sizes, such as 4K (4,096 bytes) were used, in which case the storage capacity of the tape was reduced by 33%, to 113 megabytes.

Examples

Standards

  • ANSI INCITS 40-1993 (R2003) Unrecorded Magnetic Tape for Information Interchange (9-Track, 800 CPI, NRZI; 1600 CPI, PE; and 6250 CPI, GCR)
  • ISO/IEC 1863:1990 9-track, 12.7 mm (½ in) wide magnetic tape for information interchange using NRZ1 at 32 ftpmm (800 ftpi) - 32 cpmm (800 cpi)
  • ISO/IEC 3788:1990 9-track, 12.7 mm (½ in) wide magnetic tape for information interchange using phase encoding at 126 ftpmm (3 200 ftpi), 63 cpmm (1600 cpi)
  • ANSI INCITS 54-1986 (R2002) Recorded Magnetic Tape for Information Interchange (6250 CPI, Group Coded Recording)
  • ANSI INCITS 27-1987 (R2003) Magnetic Tape Labels and File Structure for Information Interchange

Other drive manufacturers

External links

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