interactive development environments

.com

.com (commercial) is a generic top-level domain (gTLD) used on the Internet's Domain Name System. It was one of the original top-level domains (TLDs), established in January 1985, and has grown to be the largest TLD in use. It was originally administered by the United States Department of Defense. The DoD contracted its maintenance to SRI International, which managed it as DDN-NIC (alternatively known as SRI-NIC or simply "the NIC" ) at the domain nic.ddn.mil. Beginning October 1, 1991 it was contracted to Government Systems Inc. (GSI), who sub-contracted it to Network Solutions Inc. (NSI).

On January 1, 1993 the National Science Foundation assumed responsibility for its maintenance, as .com was primarily being used for non-defense interests. The NSF contracted its maintenance to Network Solutions. In 1995 the NSF authorized NSI to begin charging registrants (of .org and .net as well as .com) an annual fee, for the first-time since its inception. Initially it was $50 per year, with $35 going to NSI, and $15 going to a government fund. New registrations had to pay for the first two years, making the new-domain registration fee $100. In 1997 the United States Department of Commerce assumed authority over it (along with the rest of the generic top level domains). It is currently operated by VeriSign, which had acquired Network Solutions. (VeriSign later spun off Network Solutions' non-registry functions into the current company which continues as a registrar.) In the English language it is consistently pronounced as a word, dot-com, and has entered common parlance this way.

According to a Verisign rapport, in september 2008 around 77 million .com domains were registered.

Although .com domains are officially intended to designate commercial entities (others such as government agencies or educational institutions have different top-level domains assigned to them), there has been no restriction on who can register .com domains since the mid-1990s. The opening of the .com registry to the public coincided with the commercialization and popularization of the Internet, and .com quickly became the most common top-level domain for websites. Many companies which flourished in the period between 1997-2001 (the time known as the "dot-com bubble") went so far as to incorporate .com into the company name; these became known as dot-coms or dot-com companies. The introduction of .biz in 2001, which is restricted to businesses, has had little impact on the popularity of .com.

Although companies anywhere in the world can register .com domains, many countries have a second-level domain with a similar purpose under their own ccTLD. Such second-level domains are usually of the form .com.xx or .co.xx, where xx is the ccTLD. Australia (.com.au), Greece (.com.gr), Mexico (.com.mx), Republic of Korea (.co.kr), Jamaica (.com.jm), New Zealand (.co.nz), India (.co.in), Morocco (.co.ma), the People's Republic of China (.com.cn), Pakistan (.com.pk), the United Kingdom (.co.uk), and Canada (.co.ca) are all examples.

Many noncommercial sites, such as those of nonprofit organizations or governments (including the Moroccan Consulate in Bordeaux), use .com addresses. Some consider this to be contrary to the domain's original purpose and might say that a .org, .gov, or other more specific TLD might be more appropriate for such sites. However, many organizations prefer the recognizability of a .com domain to a less familiar one. As well, the original purposes of many of the top level domains are often considered irrelevant without restrictions on registrations.

Registrations are processed via registrars accredited by ICANN; internationalized domain names are also accepted.

Transfer procedures

Domains can be transferred between registrars. Prior to October 2006, the procedure used by VeriSign was complex and unreliable - requiring a notary public to verify the identity of the registrant requesting a domain transfer. In October 2006, a new procedure, requiring the losing registrar to provide an authorization code on instruction from the registrant (also known as EPP code) was introduced by VeriSign to reduce the incidence of domain hijacking.

List of oldest .com domains

The following are the 100 oldest still-existing registered .com domains or :

Rank Create date Domain name
1 March 15, 1985 symbolics.com
2 April 24, 1985 BBN.com
3 May 24, 1985 think.com
4 July 11, 1985 MCC.com
5 September 30, 1985 DEC.com
6 November 7, 1985 northrop.com
7 January 9, 1986 xerox.com
8 January 17, 1986 SRI.com
9 March 3, 1986 HP.com
10 March 5, 1986 bellcore.com
11 March 19, 1986 IBM.com
11 March 19, 1986 sun.com
13 March 25, 1986 intel.com
13 March 25, 1986 TI.com
15 April 25, 1986 ATT.com
16 May 8, 1986 GMR.com
16 May 8, 1986 tek.com
18 July 10, 1986 FMC.com
18 July 10, 1986 UB.com
20 August 5, 1986 bell-atl.com
20 August 5, 1986 GE.com
20 August 5, 1986 grebyn.com
20 August 5, 1986 ISC.com
20 August 5, 1986 NSC.com
20 August 5, 1986 stargate.com
26 September 2, 1986 boeing.com
27 September 18, 1986 ITCorp.com
28 September 29, 1986 siemens.com
29 October 18, 1986 pyramid.com
30 October 27, 1986 alphaDC.com
30 October 27, 1986 BDM.com
30 October 27, 1986 fluke.com
30 October 27, 1986 inmet.com
30 October 27, 1986 kesmai.com
30 October 27, 1986 mentor.com
30 October 27, 1986 NEC.com
30 October 27, 1986 ray.com
30 October 27, 1986 rosemount.com
30 October 27, 1986 vortex.com
40 November 5, 1986 alcoa.com
40 November 5, 1986 GTE.com
42 November 17, 1986 adobe.com
42 November 17, 1986 AMD.com
42 November 17, 1986 DAS.com
42 November 17, 1986 data-IO.com
42 November 17, 1986 octopus.com
42 November 17, 1986 portal.com
42 November 17, 1986 teltone.com
50 December 11, 1986 3Com.com
50 December 11, 1986 amdahl.com
Rank Create date Domain name
50 December 11, 1986 CCUR.com
50 December 11, 1986 CI.com
50 December 11, 1986 convergent.com
50 December 11, 1986 DG.com
50 December 11, 1986 peregrine.com
50 December 11, 1986 quad.com
50 December 11, 1986 SQ.com
50 December 11, 1986 tandy.com
50 December 11, 1986 TTI.com
50 December 11, 1986 unisys.com
61 January 19, 1987 CGI.com
61 January 19, 1987 CTS.com
61 January 19, 1987 SPDCC.com
64 February 19, 1987 apple.com
65 March 4, 1987 NMA.com
65 March 4, 1987 prime.com
67 April 4, 1987 philips.com
68 April 23, 1987 datacube.com
68 April 23, 1987 KAI.com
68 April 23, 1987 TIC.com
68 April 23, 1987 vine.com
72 April 30, 1987 NCR.com
73 May 14, 1987 cisco.com
73 May 14, 1987 RDL.com
75 May 20, 1987 SLB.com
76 May 27, 1987 parcplace.com
76 May 27, 1987 UTC.com
78 June 26, 1987 IDE.com
79 July 9, 1987 TRW.com
80 July 13, 1987 unipress.com
81 July 27, 1987 dupont.com
81 July 27, 1987 lockheed.com
83 July 28, 1987 rosetta.com
84 August 18, 1987 toad.com
85 August 31, 1987 quick.com
86 September 3, 1987 allied.com
86 September 3, 1987 DSC.com
86 September 3, 1987 SCO.com
89 September 22, 1987 gene.com
89 September 22, 1987 KCCS.com
89 September 22, 1987 spectra.com
89 September 22, 1987 WLK.com
93 September 30, 1987 mentat.com
94 October 14, 1987 WYSE.com
95 November 2, 1987 CFG.com
96 November 9, 1987 marble.com
97 November 16, 1987 cayman.com
97 November 16, 1987 entity.com
99 November 24, 1987 KSR.com
100 November 30, 1987 NYNEXST.com

Notes

External links

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