integrated information technology

Information Technology Management Reform Act

The Information Technology Management Reform Act of 1996 and the Federal Acquisition Reform Act (FARA) of 1996 were combined to become the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996 (CCA). The CCA repealed the earlier Brooks Automatic Data Processing Act, so that agencies did not have to obtain information technology procurement authority from the General Services Administration. The CCA is a United States federal law that was co-authored by U.S. Representative William Clinger and Senator William Cohen in 1996. It is designed to improve the way the federal government acquires and manages information technology (IT). It requires the Department and individual programs to use performance based management principles for acquiring IT. These principles include:

*Plan major IT investments.
*Revise processes before investment.
*Enforce accountability for performance.
*Use standards.
*Increase acquisition and incorporation of commercial technology.
*Use modular contracting.

The CCA generated a number of significant changes in the roles and responsibilities of various Federal agencies in managing acquisition of IT. It elevated overall responsibility to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (White House). OMB set forth guidelines that must be followed by agencies.

At the agency level, IT management must be integrated into procurement, and procurement of Commercial-off-the-shelf technology was encouraged. CCA required each agency to name a Chief Information Officer (CIO) with the responsibility of "developing, maintaining, and facilitating the implementation of a sound and integrated information technology architecture". The CIO is tasked with advising the agency director and senior staff on all IT issues.

Since these rules went into effect, the agency CIOs also have worked together to form the Federal CIO Council. Initially an informal group, the council's existence became codified into law by Congress in the [E-Government Act of 2002]. Official duties for the council include developing recommendations for government information technology management policies, procedures, and standards; identifying opportunities to share information resources; and assessing and addressing the needs of the Federal Government's IT workforce.

In general, National Security Systems (NSS), as defined in the E-Government Act of 2002, are exempt from the Act. However, there are specific exceptions to this exemption regarding: 1) capital planning and investment control (CPIC); 2) performance- and results-based management; agency Chief Information Officer (CIO) responsibilities; and 4) accountability.

In the Department of Defense, the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Networks & Information Integration (or ASD(NII)) has been designated as the DoD Chief Information Officer and provides management and oversight of all DoD information technology, including national security systems.

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