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institute

Pratt Institute

Private institution of higher learning in Brooklyn, New York, New York, U.S. It was founded as a trade school in 1887 by the industrialist Charles Pratt (1830–91). It comprises schools of architecture, art and design (for which it is especially renowned), liberal arts and sciences, professional studies, and information and library science. It has both bachelor's and master's degree programs.

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U.S. private university in Cambridge, famous for its scientific and technological training and research. Founded in 1861, MIT has schools of architecture and planning, engineering, humanities and social sciences, management (the Sloan School), and science and a college of health sciences and technology. Though it is best known for its programs in engineering and the physical sciences, other areas such as economics, political science, urban studies, linguistics, and philosophy are also strong. Among its facilities are a nuclear reactor, a computation centre, geophysical and astrophysical observatories, a linear accelerator, a space research centre, supersonic wind tunnels, an artificial-intelligence laboratory, a centre for cognitive science, and an international-studies centre.

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known as Georgia Tech

Public institution of higher learning in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S., founded in 1885. It consists of colleges of architecture, computing, engineering, sciences, and public policy and administration. Undergraduate and graduate degrees are offered. Georgia Tech is home to a nuclear research centre and several other research and development centres.

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Conservatory of music in Philadelphia, Pa., U.S. It was founded in 1924 by Mary Louise Curtis Bok (1876–1970), wife of the editor Edward Bok, and named for her father, the inventor Charles Gordon Curtis. Her endowment was adequate to assure scholarships for gifted students throughout the world. Many eminent musicians have served on its faculty, including Wanda Landowska, Bohuslav Martinů, and Rudolf Serkin. Graduates include Samuel Barber, Leonard Bernstein, and Gian Carlo Menotti.

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Private university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S. It was formed in 1967 through the merger of the Carnegie Institute of Technology (created in 1900 through a gift from Andrew Carnegie) and the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research (founded in 1913 through a gift from Andrew W. Mellon). It comprises schools of technology, science, computer science, humanities and social sciences, fine arts, public policy, and industrial administration. It has built a reputation as an arts centre, operating three galleries, two concert halls, and two theatres.

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known as Caltech

U.S.-based, highly select, private university and research institute in Pasadena. Established in 1891, it offers graduate and undergraduate instruction and research in pure and applied science and engineering. It is considered one of the world's premier scientific research centres. In 1958 its Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in conjunction with NASA, launched Explorer I, the first U.S. satellite. Caltech operates astronomical observatories at such locations as Palomar Mountain, Owens Valley, and Big Bear Lake, Calif., and Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Other facilities include a seismology laboratory, a marine biology laboratory, and a centre for the study of radio astronomy.

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Short-lived utopian experiment in communal living (1841–47) in West Roxbury, Mass. (near Boston), founded by George Ripley. The best known of the many utopian communities organized in the U.S. in the mid-19th century, Brook Farm was to combine the thinker and the worker, to guarantee the greatest mental freedom, and to prepare a society of liberal, cultivated persons whose lives would be more wholesome and simpler than they could be amid the pressure of competitive institutions. It is remembered for the distinguished literary figures and intellectual leaders associated with it, including Charles A. Dana, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Margaret Fuller, Horace Greeley, James Russell Lowell, John Greenleaf Whittier, and Ralph Waldo Emerson (though not all of them were actual members). It was also noted for the modern educational theory of its excellent school. Seealso Oneida Community.

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Museum in Chicago that houses European, American, Asian, African, and pre-Columbian art. It was established in 1866 as the Chicago Academy of Design and took its current name in 1882. In 1893 it moved to its present building, designed by the architectural firm of Shepley, Rutan, and Coolidge for the World's Columbian Exposition, on Michigan Avenue. The Art Institute, which comprises both a museum and a school, is noted for its extensive collections of 19th-century French painting (Impressionist works and the work of Claude Monet in particular) and 20th-century European and American painting. Among its best-known works are Georges Seurat's A Sunday Afternoon on La Grand Jatte—1884 (1884–86), Grant Wood's American Gothic (1930), and Edward Hopper's Nighthawks (1942).

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An institute is a permanent organizational body created for a certain purpose. Often it is a research organization (research institution) created to do research on specific topics. An institute can also be a professional body. In some countries institutes can be part of a university or other institution of higher education, either as a group of departments or an autonomous educational institution without a classic full university status such as a University Institute.

The word comes from the Latin word institutum meaning facility or habit; from instituere meaning build, create, raise or educate.

In some countries, such as South Korea and Japan, private schools are sometimes called institutes, rather than schools.

In the United Kingdom the title 'Institute' is a protected word and companies or other organisations may only use that word if they are "organisations which are carrying out research at the highest level or to professional bodies of the highest standing". Furthermore, if a company is carrying on a business under a different name to the company name, that business name must comply with the Business Names Act. Use of the title 'Institute' requires approval from the Secretary of State. Failure to obtain approval is a criminal offence.

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