(born 12th century, Genoa—died Dec. 7, 1254, Naples) Pope (1243–54). His clash with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II formed an important chapter in the conflict between papacy and empire. Frederick wanted the newly elected pope to lift his excommunication, but Innocent interrupted the negotiations and fled Rome for France (1244); he later condemned Frederick and urged the election of a new emperor. Concerned with the evangelization of the East, he persuaded Louis IX to lead a Crusade and sent a mission to the Mongols. He returned to Rome in 1253 and gave the Sicilian throne to Edmund, son of Henry III of England, but the papal army was defeated by Manfred, Frederick's son, in 1254.
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(born 1160/61, Gavignano Castle, Campagna di Roma, Papal States—died July 16, 1216, Perugia) Pope (1198–1216). Innocent, who was trained in both theology and law, brought the medieval papacy to the height of its prestige and power. He crowned Otto IV as Holy Roman emperor, but Otto's determination to unite Germany and Sicily angered him, and in 1212 he gave his support to the Hohenstaufen candidate, Frederick II. After Innocent excommunicated King John of England for refusing to recognize Stephen Langton as archbishop of Canterbury, John was obliged to submit and to declare England a fief of the Holy See (1213). Innocent launched the Fourth Crusade, which captured Constantinople, and the Albigensian Crusade, which attempted to suppress heresy in southern France. He approved the Mendicant orders founded by St. Dominic and St. Francis of Assisi, and he convoked the fourth Lateran Council, which promulgated the doctrine of transubstantiation and endorsed annual confession for all Christians.
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