inland

canal

[kuh-nal]

Canal with a basic lock arrangement. Boats traveling upstream pass from the lower to the upper pool elipsis

Artificial waterway built for transportation, irrigation, water supply, or drainage. The early Middle Eastern civilizations probably first built canals to supply drinking and irrigation water. The most ambitious navigation canal was a 200-mi (320-km) construction in what is now Iraq. Roman canal systems for military transport extended throughout northern Europe and Britain. The most significant canal innovation was the pound lock, developed by the Dutch c. 1373. The closed chamber, or pound, of a lock is flooded or drained of water so that a vessel within it is raised or lowered in order to pass between bodies of water at different elevations. Canals were extremely important before the coming of the railroad in the mid-19th century. Among the significant waterways in the U.S. were the Erie Canal, several canals linking the Great Lakes, and one connecting the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River. Modern waterway engineering enables larger vessels to travel faster by reducing delays at locks. See also Grand Canal, Panama Canal, Suez Canal.

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End portion of the alimentary canal, distinguished from the rectum by the transition from an internal mucous membrane layer to one of skinlike tissue and by its narrower diameter. Waste products move from the rectum to the anal canal. The human anal canal is 1–1.5 in. (2.5–4 cm) long and has three parts: upper, with longitudinal folds (rectal columns); lower, with involuntary and voluntary constrictive muscles (sphincters) to control discharge of feces; and the anal opening itself. Enlargements of the ends of rectal and anal veins are called hemorrhoids.

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Canal, southeastern Ontario, Canada. Linking Lake Huron with Lake Ontario, the canal extends from the southeastern shore of Georgian Bay up the Severn River to Lake Simcoe, connects several lakes of the Kawartha Lake region to Rice Lake, and passes down the Trent River to the Bay of Quinte and Lake Ontario. Its 242-mi (389-km) main course consists of 33 mi (53 km) of man-made channels and 42 locks. Construction began in 1833. The waterway once served a busy lumber trade; it is now a popular tourist attraction.

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Ship canal, Isthmus of Suez, Egypt. Connecting the Red Sea with the eastern Mediterranean Sea, it extends 101 mi (163 km) from Port Said to the Gulf of Suez and allows ships to sail directly between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. Built by the French-owned Suez Canal Co., it was completed in 1869 after a decade of construction. Its ownership remained largely in French and British hands until Egypt nationalized it in 1956, setting off an international crisis (see Suez Crisis). It has a minimum width of 179 ft (55 m) and a depth of about 40 ft (12 m) at low tide. Though protected by international treaty, the canal has been closed twice. The first closing was during the Suez Crisis. The canal was closed again by the Six-Day War (1967) and remained inoperative until 1975. It is one of the world's most heavily used shipping lanes.

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Lock-type canal, Panama. Extending across the Isthmus of Panama, it connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. It is about 50 mi (82 km) long from deepwater to deepwater, with an average depth of 43 ft (13 m). The width varies between 500 to 1,000 ft (150 to 300 m). In 1881 a French company began constructing the canal, but the enterprise collapsed in 1889. Under a 1903 treaty Panama granted the U.S. the Panama Canal Zone and the rights to build and operate a canal. Work began in 1904; facing enormous obstacles, George Washington Goethals directed the construction from 1907, and the canal opened on Aug. 15, 1914. The canal enabled ships traveling between the two oceans to avoid the lengthy circumnavigation of South America and was a boon to world commerce. After disputes over sovereignty, a 1977 treaty provided for Panama to take control of the canal by 2000; it did so in 1999. Except for small craft, no vessel can pass through the canal under its own power. Ships are towed by electric locomotives, and it generally takes 15–20 hours to complete the passage (including waiting time). Sets of double locks enable ships to pass in opposite directions simultaneously.

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Deep fjord, southeastern Alaska, U.S. An important gateway to the Klondike region, it is 80 mi (129 km) long and 6 mi (10 km) wide. The northernmost fjord to penetrate the Coast Mountains, it was named in 1794 by Capt. George Vancouver for his birthplace, King's Lynn, Eng.

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Neighbourhood in Niagara Falls, N.Y., the site of the worst environmental disaster involving chemical wastes in U.S. history. Originally the site of an abandoned canal, it became a dumping ground for nearly 22,000 tons of chemical waste in the 1940s and '50s. The canal was later filled in, and housing was built on it. The leakage of toxic chemicals into these homes was detected in 1978, and residents were discovered to have a high incidence of chromosome damage. After their evacuation, 1,300 former residents obtained a $20 million settlement from the dumping company and the city. In the early 1990s New York state ended its cleanup and declared parts of the area safe for residence.

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Series of waterways in northern China that link Hangzhou with Beijing. Some 1,085 mi (1,747 km) in length, it is the world's longest man-made waterway. It was build to enable successive Chinese regimes to transport surplus grain from the agriculturally rich Yangtze (Chang) and Huai river valleys to feed the capital cities and large standing armies in the north. The oldest portion, in the south, may date from the 4th century BC. Expanded over the centuries, it continues to be used today for shipping and irrigation.

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Historic waterway, northern U.S. It stretches from Buffalo, N.Y., on Lake Erie to Albany, N.Y., on the Hudson River. Commissioned by Gov. DeWitt Clinton of New York, it opened in 1825. It connected the Great Lakes with New York City and contributed greatly to the settlement of the Midwest, allowing for the transport of people and supplies. Enlarged several times, the canal is 363 mi (584 km) long, 150 ft (46 m) wide, and 12 ft (3.6 m) deep. Now used mainly for pleasure boating, it is part of the New York State Canal System.

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Park, eastern U.S. It consists of the former Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, a waterway running along the Potomac River between Washington, D.C., and Cumberland, Md. The canal, which extends 185 mi (297 km), was built beginning in the 1820s. Competition from the railroads later caused its economic decline. The canal was purchased in 1938 by the U.S. government; it was restored and established as a historical park in 1971.

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or Panama Canal Zone

Strip of territory, a historic administrative entity in Panama over which the U.S. formerly exercised jurisdictional rights (1903–79). The zone came into being in 1904 when Panama granted the U.S., in return for annual payments, sole right to operate and control the Panama Canal, including a strip of land 10 mi (16 km) wide along the canal extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean and bisecting the Isthmus of Panama. The zone was abolished by treaty in 1979, and civil control of the territory was returned to Panama. By the same treaty a commission under joint U.S.-Panamanian ownership was established to operate the canal until the year 2000, when Panama assumed full control.

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Small lake located in a former meander loop of a river or stream channel. It is generally formed as a river cuts through a meander neck to shorten its course, blocks off the old channel, and then migrates away from the lake. If only one loop is cut off, the lake is crescent-shaped; if more than one loop is cut off, the lake is serpentine (winding). Eventually, oxbow lakes silt up to form marshes and finally meander scars.

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or Mackinaw trout or Great Lakes trout or salmon trout

Large, voracious char (Salvelinus namaycush) found widely from northern Canada and Alaska to New England and the Great Lakes, usually in deep, cool lakes. They are greenish gray and covered with pale spots. In spring, 5-lb (2.3-kg) lake trout are caught in shallow water; in summer, fish of up to 100 lbs (45 kg) are trolled in deep water. Lake trout were virtually eliminated from the Great Lakes by the sea lamprey, which entered through the Welland Canal in the 1930s. They have been introduced in the western U.S., South America, Europe, and New Zealand.

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Relatively large body of slow-moving or standing water that occupies an inland basin. Lakes are most abundant in high northern latitudes and in mountain regions, particularly those that were covered by glaciers in recent geologic times. The primary sources of lake water are melting ice and snow, springs, rivers, runoff from the land surface, and direct precipitation. In the upper part of lakes there is a good supply of light, heat, oxygen, and nutrients, well distributed by currents and turbulence. As a result, a large number of diverse aquatic organisms can be found there. The most abundant forms are plankton (chiefly diatoms), algae, and flagellates. In the lower levels and in the sediments, the main forms of life are bacteria. Seealso limnology.

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Lake astride the Canadian-U.S. boundary, southwestern Ontario, southeastern Manitoba, and northern Minnesota. Irregular in shape, it is 70 mi (110 km) long and up to 60 mi (95 km) wide. It has an area of 1,727 sq mi (4,472 sq km), of which 642 sq mi (1,663 sq km) are in U.S territory. It has an estimated 25,000 mi (40,000 km) of shoreline and more than 14,000 islands. It receives the Rainy River from the southeast and drains north through the Winnipeg River into Lake Winnipeg. Visited by French explorers in 1688, it became an important fur-trading route between the Great Lakes and western Canada. The Northwest Angle, the northernmost point of the coterminous U.S., is separated from the rest of Minnesota by a part of the lake.

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Lake, east-central New Hampshire, U.S. New Hampshire's largest lake, it covers an area of 71 sq mi (184 sq km) and is 20 mi (32 km) long by 12 mi (19 km) wide. It is dotted with 274 islands. Its outlet, the Winnipesaukee River, flows about 20 mi (32 km) southwest to enter the Merrimack River. It is a popular summer recreation area.

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Lake, western Manitoba, Canada. Located west of Lake Winnipeg, it is a remnant of glacial Lake Agassiz. Numerous streams feed the 2,075-sq-mi (5,374-sq-km) lake, which drains southeastward into Lake Manitoba. It is more than 150 mi (240 km) long, up to 32 mi (51 km) wide, and has a maximum depth of 833 ft (254 m). It was explored in 1739 by Pierre La Verendrye and later served as part of a fur-trading route. It now is important for commercial fishing.

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Lake, south-central Manitoba, Canada. Fed by many rivers, including the Saskatchewan, Red River of the North, and Winnipeg, it is drained to the northeast by the Nelson River. It is 264 mi (425 km) long, up to 68 mi (109 km) wide, and has an area of 9,416 sq mi (24,387 sq km). The Canadian explorer Pierre La Verendrye visited the lake in 1733. With an average depth of 50 ft (15 m), it is important for shipping, commercial fishing, and recreation.

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Lake, south-central South Island, New Zealand. The S-shaped lake measures 48 mi (77 km) by 3 mi (5 km) and has an area of 113 sq mi (293 sq km) and a maximum depth of 1,240 ft (378 m). It receives the Dart, Rees, Greenstone, and Von rivers and empties by the Kawarau River, a tributary of the Clutha River.

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Lake, Ghana. One of the world's largest artificial lakes, it was formed in 1965 when the Akosombo Dam dammed the Volta River and created a reservoir that extends about 250 mi (400 km) upstream to beyond the former confluence of the Black Volta and White Volta rivers. It covers 3,283 sq mi (8,502 sq km), or 3.6percnt of Ghana's area. It is a major fishing ground and provides irrigation water for farmland in the Accra plains. The dam generates enough hydroelectric power to supply most of Ghana's electricity needs.

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or Victoria Nyanza

Largest lake in Africa and chief reservoir of the Nile River, east-central Africa. The southern half lies in Tanzania, the northern half in Uganda; it borders Kenya in the northeast. With an area of 26,828 sq mi (69,484 sq km), it is the second largest freshwater lake in the world (after Lake Superior in North America). It is about 210 mi (337 km) long, 150 mi (240 km) wide, and up to 270 ft (82 m) deep. Though the Kagera River is its largest tributary, the most important source of water for the lake is rainfall. Its only outlet is the Victoria Nile. John Hanning Speke, searching for the source of the Nile in 1858, was the first European to sight it. He named it for Queen Victoria; the Arabs had called it Ukerewe. Henry Morton Stanley circumnavigated it in 1875. It became a reservoir when the water level was raised after completion of Owen Falls Dam (now the Nalubaale Dam) in 1954.

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Salt lake, eastern Anatolia. The largest lake in Turkey, it covers an area of 1,434 sq mi (3,713 sq km) and is more than 74 mi (119 km) across at its widest point. Its greatest depth exceeds 330 ft (100 m). It is fed by precipitation and meltwater as well as by several small tributaries. It has no apparent outlet, and its brackish waters are unsuitable for either drinking or irrigation.

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formerly Tacarigua

Lake, Carabobo and Aragua states, northern Venezuela. Its total area of 141 sq mi (364 sq km) makes it the second largest natural lake in Venezuela, after Lake Maracaibo. It lies in an agricultural region and popular resort area.

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Persian Daryācheh-ye Orūmiyyeh

Shallow, saline lake, northwestern Iran. The largest lake in the Middle East, it covers an area that varies from 2,000 to 2,300 sq mi (5,200 to 6,000 sq km). It is about 87 mi (140 km) long and 25–35 mi (40–55 km) wide, with a maximum depth of 53 ft (16 m). There is a cluster of about 50 tiny islands at its southern part. Fed by three rivers, it has no outlet. It has been protected since 1967.

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or Sea of Galilee

Freshwater lake, northern Israel. It is 13 mi (21 km) long and 7 mi (11 km) wide; it lies about 700 ft (212 m) below sea level and receives most of its inflow from the Jordan River. The region has been inhabited for millennia: archaeological finds dating to some 500,000 years ago are among the oldest in the Middle East. In the 1st century AD, the region was rich and populated; Christians know it as the scene of many episodes in the life of Jesus. Today the lake's waters irrigate the surrounding agricultural region. Modern health resorts have grown up, and the baths at Tiberias are among Israel's winter resort attractions.

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Lake, central Mexico. Originally one of the five lakes of the Valley of Mexico, Texcoco has been drained by channels and a tunnel to the Pánuco River since the early 17th century. It now occupies only a small area surrounded by salt marshes just east of Mexico City. Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital, stood on islands in old Lake Texcoco and was connected to the mainland by causeways.

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Lake, central North Island, New Zealand. The largest lake in New Zealand, it is 234 sq mi (606 sq km) in area and covers the remains of several volcanic craters. The Waikato River flows into and out of it. Numerous geothermal springs on the lake's borders are used for health resorts and for generating electricity. Tongariro National Park, to the southwest, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1990; the region is a major tourist attraction.

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Lake, central Africa. Located on the boundary between Tanzania and Congo (Kinshasa), it is the longest freshwater lake in the world, 410 mi (660 km) long, and the second deepest, 4,710 ft (1,436 m) deep. Fed by several rivers, it tends to be brackish. Oil palms and rice grow along its steep shores; hippopotamuses and crocodiles abound. It was first visited by Europeans, searching for the source of the Nile, in 1858.

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Lake Tahoe in Toiyabe National Forest, Nevada.

Lake on the California-Nevada border in the northern Sierra Nevada, U.S. The lake, which occupies a fault basin, covers 193 sq mi (500 sq km). It is 22 mi (35 km) long by 10 mi (16 km) wide and lies at an elevation of 6,229 ft (1,899 m). Its water level has varied during seasons of drought in recent decades. Fed by numerous small streams, the intensely blue lake and the surrounding national forests have been developed as popular tourist resorts.

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Lake, U.S. and Canada. The largest of the five Great Lakes, Superior is the world's largest freshwater lake. It is 383 mi (616 km) long and 160 mi (258 km) at its widest, with an area of 31,800 sq mi (82,362 sq km) and depths reaching 1,330 ft (405 m). Lake Superior is known for its picturesque coastline and its numerous shipwrecks; its islands include Isle Royale. The head of the Great Lakes–Saint Lawrence Seaway system, it is connected to Lake Huron at its southeastern end via the Sault Ste. Marie locks. Ships transport grain, flour, and iron ore during the eight-month navigation season. The French Jesuit missionary Claude-Jean Allouez charted the lake in 1667. The region came under British control (1763–83) and remained in British hands until 1817, when the American Fur Co. took over south of the Canadian border.

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Lake, southeastern Ontario, Canada. Located between Georgian Bay and Lake Ontario north of Toronto, Lake Simcoe is 287 sq mi (743 sq km) in area. Numerous small streams and the Trent Canal feed the lake, which is 30 mi (48 km) long and contains several islands; the largest, Georgina, is an Indian reserve. The lake is a popular summer vacation area.

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Largest lake in the Balkan Peninsula. Located on the frontier between Montenegro and Albania, it has an area of 150 sq mi (390 sq km). It was formerly an arm of the Adriatic Sea. Steep mountains, plains, and marshland border the lake, as do many small villages that are noted for their old monasteries and fortresses.

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City (pop., 2000: 181,743), capital of Utah, U.S. Located on the Jordan River, near the southeastern end of Great Salt Lake, it was founded in 1847 by Brigham Young and a group of 148 Mormons as a refuge from religious persecution. It was known as Great Salt Lake City until 1868. It prospered from rail connections to become a hub of western commerce and became the state capital in 1896. The largest city in the state, it lies at an altitude of 4,390 ft (1,338 m). It is a commercial centre for nearby mining operations and has diversified manufacturing industries. It is the headquarters of the Mormon Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which influences the social, economic, political, and cultural life of the state and region. It is the site of the Mormon Temple and Tabernacle. It was the host city of the 2002 Winter Olympic Games.

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Lake, forming part of the boundary between Michigan, U.S., and Ontario, Canada. Roughly circular, with an area of 467 sq mi (1,210 sq km), it connects with the St. Clair River and Lake Huron to the north and with the Detroit River and Lake Erie to the south. It is in a popular summer recreation area. Suburbs of Detroit lie on its western shore.

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or Lake Turkana

Lake, mainly in northern Kenya. The fourth largest of the eastern African lakes, it lies 1,230 ft (375 m) above sea level in the Great Rift Valley and covers an area of 2,473 sq mi (6,405 sq km). The three main islands in the lake are volcanic. The lake is relatively shallow; its greatest recorded depth is 240 ft (73 m). Having no outlet, the lake's waters are brackish. Sudden storms are frequent, rendering navigation treacherous. It is a rich reservoir of fish.

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Narrow lake astride the Canadian-U.S. border, between Minnesota and northwestern Ontario. Rainy Lake is about 50 mi (80 km) long and has an area of 360 sq mi (932 sq km). Its shores are irregular and deeply indented, and it contains more than 500 islands. The region is the site of several Indian reservations and is popular for hunting, fishing, and canoeing.

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Lake on the boundary between Macedonia, Albania, and Greece. It is 14 mi (23 km) long, 8 mi (13 km) wide, 2,800 ft (853 m) above sea level, and it drains northwest into Lake Ohrid through a subterranean channel. South of it is Little Prespa Lake, which contains the island of St. Achilius; the island was an early capital of Bulgarian Tsar Samuel in the 10th century. It became a tourist and fishing centre in the 1970s.

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Lake, southeastern Louisiana, U.S. It is 40 mi (64 km) long and 25 mi (40 km) wide, with an area of 630 sq mi (1,631 sq km). More a tidal lagoon than a lake, it is brackish and teems with game fish. It is connected through Lake Borgne with the Gulf of Mexico and by canal with the Mississippi River. It is spanned by the Pontchartrain Causeway, two parallel road bridges which cross the lake north of New Orleans and, at nearly 24 mi (39 km) in length, are the longest overwater bridges in the world.

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Estonian Peipsi Järv

Lake, north-central Europe, forming the boundary between Estonia and Russia. Lake Peipsi is 60 mi (97 km) long and 31 mi (50 km) wide, and it is frozen for half of the year. In 1242 the Russians, under Alexander Nevsky, defeated the Teutonic Knights (see Teutonic Order) on the frozen lake in the “Battle on the Ice,” forcing the order to relinquish claims to Russian lands.

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Lake, south-central Missouri, U.S. One of the largest man-made lakes in the U.S., it is located in the scenic Ozark Mountains. It is about 125 mi (200 km) long, with an area of 93 sq mi (242 sq km). It is formed by the Bagnell Dam in the Osage River. The area of Lake of the Ozarks State Park has recreational fishing and water sport facilities and is a popular resort destination. Nearby are several limestone caverns.

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Smallest and easternmost of the Great Lakes of North America. Bounded by New York and Ontario, and with the U.S.-Canada border passing through it, the lake is roughly elliptical; its major axis, 193 mi (311 km) long, lies nearly east to west, and its greatest width is 53 mi (85 km). The Niagara River is the lake's main feeder. There are five islands at its eastern end, where the lake discharges into the St. Lawrence River near Kingston, Ont. The Welland Canal and the Niagara River connect it to Lake Erie to the southwest. It was visited by Samuel de Champlain in 1615; its early French name was Lac Frontenac. Ports on the lake include Toronto and Hamilton, Ont., and Rochester and Oswego, N.Y.

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Lake, northwestern Russia. Located between Lake Ladoga and the White Sea, it is the second-largest lake in Europe. It has an area of 3,753 sq mi (9,720 sq km) and is 154 mi (248 km) long. It empties into the Svir River and is frozen for about half of each year. It is connected with the Baltic and White seas by canal and with the Volga River basin by a waterway, enabling it to play an important part in international trade and transport.

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Lake, southeastern Florida, U.S. It is the third largest freshwater lake wholly within the country. It drains to the sea through the Everglades. It is a remnant of the prehistoric Pamlico Sea, and its name means “Big Water” in the language of the Hitchiti Indians. There is a Seminole reservation on the lake's northwestern shore.

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Lake, southeastern Ontario, Canada. Located midway between the Ottawa River and Georgian Bay, it is 50 mi (80 km) long and 30 mi (48 km) wide, with an area of 321 sq mi (832 sq km). A remnant of glacial Lake Algonquin, it contains many islands. The French River drains the lake as it flows west into Georgian Bay. It was discovered by Étienne Brûlé circa 1610 and was later a fur-trading route linking the Ottawa River with the upper Great Lakes.

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Lake, Ontario, Canada. Located north of Lake Superior and northeast of Thunder Bay, it is about 70 mi (110 km) long and 50 mi (80 km) wide and has an area of 1,870 sq mi (4,840 sq km). It lies at an elevation of 1,050 ft (320 m) and has a maximum depth of 540 ft (165 m). Its Indian name means “deep, clear water.” It is studded with many wooded islands, and large bays characterize its shoreline. Its outlet is the Nipigon River, which flows into Lake Superior.

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Lake, southwestern Nicaragua. It is 102 mi (164 km) long, with a surface area of about 3,100 sq mi (8,000 sq km). The largest freshwater lake between the U.S. and Peru, it is connected to Lake Managua by the Tipitapa River and is drained by the San Juan River. It is the only freshwater lake in the world containing marine animal life, including sharks, swordfish, and tarpon. Its largest island, Ometepe, is the preeminent site in Nicaragua for pre-Columbian archaeological finds.

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Shallow lake, northwestern Botswana, north of the Kalahari Desert. It was a large lake, estimated at more than 170 mi (275 km) in circumference when the explorer David Livingstone sighted it in 1849. The lake varies in size with the amount of rainfall, and, although it is much smaller today than in Livingstone's time, it is rich in birdlife.

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Hungarian Fertodblac-tó

Lake, eastern Austria and northwestern Hungary. The shallow lake was formerly entirely within Hungary, but in 1922 the northern two-thirds were transferred to Austria. Formed during the Pleistocene Epoch, it is Austria's lowest point, 377 ft (115 m) above sea level. Heavy reed growth along its shores supports many species of birds, which are protected by an international sanctuary and a biological station.

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ancient Lacus Nemorensis

Crater lake in the Alban Hills, southeast of Rome, Italy. Its area is about 0.67 sq mi (1.7 sq km), and it is 110 ft (34 m) deep. Nearby were a temple and grove sacred to the goddess Diana. Two ships dating from the reign of Caligula were raised from the lake bottom in the 1920s but were burned by the retreating German army in 1944, toward the end of World War II.

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or Lake Nubia

Lake, southern Egypt and northern Sudan. About 300 mi (480 km) long, it was formed in the 1960s by the construction of the Aswan High Dam in order to control the annual floods of the Nile River, whose waters now feed the lake. Its waters, when discharged downstream, have brought some 1,250 sq mi (3,240 sq km) of additional land under irrigation. Its formation flooded a number of archaeological sites, including those found at Abu Simbel. In The Sudan it is known as Lake Nubia.

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French Lac Moero

Lake, central Africa. It is located on the boundary between southeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire) and Zambia, west of the southern tip of Lake Tanganyika. Part of the Congo River system, it is 76 mi (122 km) long and has a surface area of 1,900 sq mi (4,920 sq km). The Luapula River, a headstream of the Congo River, flows through it. The Bangweulu Swamps adjoin the lake.

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Third largest of the five Great Lakes and the only one lying wholly within the U.S. Bordered by the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Indiana, it connects with Lake Huron through the Straits of Mackinac in the north. It is 321 mi (517 km) long and up to 118 mi (190 km) wide, with a maximum depth of 923 ft (281 m); it occupies an area of 22,300 sq mi (57,757 sq km). The first European to discover it was the French explorer Jean Nicolet in 1634; the explorer La Salle brought the first sailing ship there in 1679. It now attracts international shipping as part of the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence Seaway. The name is derived from the Algonquian word michigami or misschiganin, meaning “big lake.”

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Reservoir of the Hoover Dam, on the Arizona-Nevada border in the U.S. One of the largest man-made lakes in the world, it was formed by the damming of the Colorado River. Lake Mead is 115 mi (185 km) long and 1–10 mi (1.6–16 km) wide; it has a capacity of over 31 million acre ft (38 billion cubic m), with a surface area of 229 sq mi (593 sq km). It was named after Elwood Mead, commissioner of reclamation. Lake Mead National Recreation Area (established 1936) has an area of 2,338 sq mi (6,055 sq km) and extends 240 mi (386 km) along the river.

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Inlet of the Caribbean Sea, northwestern Venezuela. The largest natural lake in South America, it occupies an area of 5,130 sq mi (13,280 sq km), extending southward for 130 mi (210 km) from the Gulf of Venezuela and reaching a width of 75 mi (121 km). Many rivers flow into the lake, notably the Catatumbo River. It is in one of the world's richest oil-producing regions, which supplies about two-thirds of Venezuela's total petroleum output. Its oil fields are located along the eastern shore, extending 20 mi (32 km) into the lake.

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Lake, south-central Manitoba, Canada. Located northwest of Winnipeg, it drains into Lake Winnipeg. It is more than 125 mi (200 km) long and up to 28 mi (45 km) wide, with an area of 1,785 sq mi (4,624 sq km). It was discovered in 1738 by Pierre La Vérendrye, who named it Lac des Prairies. The name Manitoba is believed to come from the Algonquian word maniot-bau or maniot-wapau (“strait of the spirit”).

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ancient Lacus Verbanus

Lake, northern Italy and southern Switzerland, bordered on the north by the Swiss Alps. Occupying an area of 82 sq mi (212 sq km), it is Italy's second largest lake. It is 34 mi (54 km) long, with a maximum width of 7 mi (11 km) and a maximum depth of 1,220 ft (372 m). Traversed from north to south by the Ticino River, it is also fed by the Tresa River from Lake Lugano on the east. It is a popular resort area.

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Lake, Great Rift Valley, southern Kenya, east of Lake Victoria. It occupies an area of about 40 sq mi (104 sq km). Its bed consists almost entirely of soda deposits, which dye the waters a vivid pink.

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German Vierwaldstättersee (“Lake of the Four Forest Cantons”)

Lake, central Switzerland. It is 24 mi (39 km) long and 0.5 to 2 mi (0.8 to 3 km) wide, with an area of 44 sq mi (114 sq km). It has a maximum depth of 702 ft (214 m). The “Cross of Lucerne” is formed by its four main basins, which are joined by narrow channels. Named after the city of Lucerne at its western end, it is in a region of resorts and tourist attractions.

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Lake, central Alberta, Canada. Located northwest of Edmonton and south of Great Slave Lake, it occupies an area of 451 sq mi (1,168 sq km) and drains into the Athabasca River via the Lesser Slave River. Its name refers to the Slave (Dogrib) Indians, who once inhabited its shores.

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Lake, south-central Missouri, U.S. One of the largest man-made lakes in the U.S., it is located in the scenic Ozark Mountains. It is about 125 mi (200 km) long, with an area of 93 sq mi (242 sq km). It is formed by the Bagnell Dam in the Osage River. The area of Lake of the Ozarks State Park has recreational fishing and water sport facilities and is a popular resort destination. Nearby are several limestone caverns.

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Lake, east-central New Hampshire, U.S. New Hampshire's largest lake, it covers an area of 71 sq mi (184 sq km) and is 20 mi (32 km) long by 12 mi (19 km) wide. It is dotted with 274 islands. Its outlet, the Winnipesaukee River, flows about 20 mi (32 km) southwest to enter the Merrimack River. It is a popular summer recreation area.

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Lake, western Manitoba, Canada. Located west of Lake Winnipeg, it is a remnant of glacial Lake Agassiz. Numerous streams feed the 2,075-sq-mi (5,374-sq-km) lake, which drains southeastward into Lake Manitoba. It is more than 150 mi (240 km) long, up to 32 mi (51 km) wide, and has a maximum depth of 833 ft (254 m). It was explored in 1739 by Pierre La Verendrye and later served as part of a fur-trading route. It now is important for commercial fishing.

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Lake, south-central Manitoba, Canada. Fed by many rivers, including the Saskatchewan, Red River of the North, and Winnipeg, it is drained to the northeast by the Nelson River. It is 264 mi (425 km) long, up to 68 mi (109 km) wide, and has an area of 9,416 sq mi (24,387 sq km). The Canadian explorer Pierre La Verendrye visited the lake in 1733. With an average depth of 50 ft (15 m), it is important for shipping, commercial fishing, and recreation.

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Lake, Ghana. One of the world's largest artificial lakes, it was formed in 1965 when the Akosombo Dam dammed the Volta River and created a reservoir that extends about 250 mi (400 km) upstream to beyond the former confluence of the Black Volta and White Volta rivers. It covers 3,283 sq mi (8,502 sq km), or 3.6percnt of Ghana's area. It is a major fishing ground and provides irrigation water for farmland in the Accra plains. The dam generates enough hydroelectric power to supply most of Ghana's electricity needs.

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or Victoria Nyanza

Largest lake in Africa and chief reservoir of the Nile River, east-central Africa. The southern half lies in Tanzania, the northern half in Uganda; it borders Kenya in the northeast. With an area of 26,828 sq mi (69,484 sq km), it is the second largest freshwater lake in the world (after Lake Superior in North America). It is about 210 mi (337 km) long, 150 mi (240 km) wide, and up to 270 ft (82 m) deep. Though the Kagera River is its largest tributary, the most important source of water for the lake is rainfall. Its only outlet is the Victoria Nile. John Hanning Speke, searching for the source of the Nile in 1858, was the first European to sight it. He named it for Queen Victoria; the Arabs had called it Ukerewe. Henry Morton Stanley circumnavigated it in 1875. It became a reservoir when the water level was raised after completion of Owen Falls Dam (now the Nalubaale Dam) in 1954.

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Salt lake, eastern Anatolia. The largest lake in Turkey, it covers an area of 1,434 sq mi (3,713 sq km) and is more than 74 mi (119 km) across at its widest point. Its greatest depth exceeds 330 ft (100 m). It is fed by precipitation and meltwater as well as by several small tributaries. It has no apparent outlet, and its brackish waters are unsuitable for either drinking or irrigation.

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formerly Tacarigua

Lake, Carabobo and Aragua states, northern Venezuela. Its total area of 141 sq mi (364 sq km) makes it the second largest natural lake in Venezuela, after Lake Maracaibo. It lies in an agricultural region and popular resort area.

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Persian Daryācheh-ye Orūmiyyeh

Shallow, saline lake, northwestern Iran. The largest lake in the Middle East, it covers an area that varies from 2,000 to 2,300 sq mi (5,200 to 6,000 sq km). It is about 87 mi (140 km) long and 25–35 mi (40–55 km) wide, with a maximum depth of 53 ft (16 m). There is a cluster of about 50 tiny islands at its southern part. Fed by three rivers, it has no outlet. It has been protected since 1967.

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or Sea of Galilee

Freshwater lake, northern Israel. It is 13 mi (21 km) long and 7 mi (11 km) wide; it lies about 700 ft (212 m) below sea level and receives most of its inflow from the Jordan River. The region has been inhabited for millennia: archaeological finds dating to some 500,000 years ago are among the oldest in the Middle East. In the 1st century AD, the region was rich and populated; Christians know it as the scene of many episodes in the life of Jesus. Today the lake's waters irrigate the surrounding agricultural region. Modern health resorts have grown up, and the baths at Tiberias are among Israel's winter resort attractions.

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Lake, central Mexico. Originally one of the five lakes of the Valley of Mexico, Texcoco has been drained by channels and a tunnel to the Pánuco River since the early 17th century. It now occupies only a small area surrounded by salt marshes just east of Mexico City. Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital, stood on islands in old Lake Texcoco and was connected to the mainland by causeways.

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Lake, central North Island, New Zealand. The largest lake in New Zealand, it is 234 sq mi (606 sq km) in area and covers the remains of several volcanic craters. The Waikato River flows into and out of it. Numerous geothermal springs on the lake's borders are used for health resorts and for generating electricity. Tongariro National Park, to the southwest, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1990; the region is a major tourist attraction.

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Lake, central Africa. Located on the boundary between Tanzania and Congo (Kinshasa), it is the longest freshwater lake in the world, 410 mi (660 km) long, and the second deepest, 4,710 ft (1,436 m) deep. Fed by several rivers, it tends to be brackish. Oil palms and rice grow along its steep shores; hippopotamuses and crocodiles abound. It was first visited by Europeans, searching for the source of the Nile, in 1858.

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Lake Tahoe in Toiyabe National Forest, Nevada.

Lake on the California-Nevada border in the northern Sierra Nevada, U.S. The lake, which occupies a fault basin, covers 193 sq mi (500 sq km). It is 22 mi (35 km) long by 10 mi (16 km) wide and lies at an elevation of 6,229 ft (1,899 m). Its water level has varied during seasons of drought in recent decades. Fed by numerous small streams, the intensely blue lake and the surrounding national forests have been developed as popular tourist resorts.

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Lake, U.S. and Canada. The largest of the five Great Lakes, Superior is the world's largest freshwater lake. It is 383 mi (616 km) long and 160 mi (258 km) at its widest, with an area of 31,800 sq mi (82,362 sq km) and depths reaching 1,330 ft (405 m). Lake Superior is known for its picturesque coastline and its numerous shipwrecks; its islands include Isle Royale. The head of the Great Lakes–Saint Lawrence Seaway system, it is connected to Lake Huron at its southeastern end via the Sault Ste. Marie locks. Ships transport grain, flour, and iron ore during the eight-month navigation season. The French Jesuit missionary Claude-Jean Allouez charted the lake in 1667. The region came under British control (1763–83) and remained in British hands until 1817, when the American Fur Co. took over south of the Canadian border.

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Lake, southeastern Ontario, Canada. Located between Georgian Bay and Lake Ontario north of Toronto, Lake Simcoe is 287 sq mi (743 sq km) in area. Numerous small streams and the Trent Canal feed the lake, which is 30 mi (48 km) long and contains several islands; the largest, Georgina, is an Indian reserve. The lake is a popular summer vacation area.

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Largest lake in the Balkan Peninsula. Located on the frontier between Montenegro and Albania, it has an area of 150 sq mi (390 sq km). It was formerly an arm of the Adriatic Sea. Steep mountains, plains, and marshland border the lake, as do many small villages that are noted for their old monasteries and fortresses.

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Lake, forming part of the boundary between Michigan, U.S., and Ontario, Canada. Roughly circular, with an area of 467 sq mi (1,210 sq km), it connects with the St. Clair River and Lake Huron to the north and with the Detroit River and Lake Erie to the south. It is in a popular summer recreation area. Suburbs of Detroit lie on its western shore.

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or Lake Turkana

Lake, mainly in northern Kenya. The fourth largest of the eastern African lakes, it lies 1,230 ft (375 m) above sea level in the Great Rift Valley and covers an area of 2,473 sq mi (6,405 sq km). The three main islands in the lake are volcanic. The lake is relatively shallow; its greatest recorded depth is 240 ft (73 m). Having no outlet, the lake's waters are brackish. Sudden storms are frequent, rendering navigation treacherous. It is a rich reservoir of fish.

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Lake on the boundary between Macedonia, Albania, and Greece. It is 14 mi (23 km) long, 8 mi (13 km) wide, 2,800 ft (853 m) above sea level, and it drains northwest into Lake Ohrid through a subterranean channel. South of it is Little Prespa Lake, which contains the island of St. Achilius; the island was an early capital of Bulgarian Tsar Samuel in the 10th century. It became a tourist and fishing centre in the 1970s.

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Lake, southeastern Louisiana, U.S. It is 40 mi (64 km) long and 25 mi (40 km) wide, with an area of 630 sq mi (1,631 sq km). More a tidal lagoon than a lake, it is brackish and teems with game fish. It is connected through Lake Borgne with the Gulf of Mexico and by canal with the Mississippi River. It is spanned by the Pontchartrain Causeway, two parallel road bridges which cross the lake north of New Orleans and, at nearly 24 mi (39 km) in length, are the longest overwater bridges in the world.

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Village (pop., 2000: 2,638), northeastern New York, U.S., on Mirror Lake and Lake Placid, in the Adirondack Mountains. The site was settled in 1800, but it was abandoned after crop failures. Resettled during the 1840s, it was promoted in 1850 as a summer resort, and Melvil Dewey founded the Lake Placid Club there in 1895. It is a year-round recreation area with numerous hotels, golf courses, ski resorts, and mountain scenery. It was the scene of the Olympic Games in 1932 and 1980.

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Estonian Peipsi Järv

Lake, north-central Europe, forming the boundary between Estonia and Russia. Lake Peipsi is 60 mi (97 km) long and 31 mi (50 km) wide, and it is frozen for half of the year. In 1242 the Russians, under Alexander Nevsky, defeated the Teutonic Knights (see Teutonic Order) on the frozen lake in the “Battle on the Ice,” forcing the order to relinquish claims to Russian lands.

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Smallest and easternmost of the Great Lakes of North America. Bounded by New York and Ontario, and with the U.S.-Canada border passing through it, the lake is roughly elliptical; its major axis, 193 mi (311 km) long, lies nearly east to west, and its greatest width is 53 mi (85 km). The Niagara River is the lake's main feeder. There are five islands at its eastern end, where the lake discharges into the St. Lawrence River near Kingston, Ont. The Welland Canal and the Niagara River connect it to Lake Erie to the southwest. It was visited by Samuel de Champlain in 1615; its early French name was Lac Frontenac. Ports on the lake include Toronto and Hamilton, Ont., and Rochester and Oswego, N.Y.

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Lake, northwestern Russia. Located between Lake Ladoga and the White Sea, it is the second-largest lake in Europe. It has an area of 3,753 sq mi (9,720 sq km) and is 154 mi (248 km) long. It empties into the Svir River and is frozen for about half of each year. It is connected with the Baltic and White seas by canal and with the Volga River basin by a waterway, enabling it to play an important part in international trade and transport.

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Lake, southeastern Florida, U.S. It is the third largest freshwater lake wholly within the country. It drains to the sea through the Everglades. It is a remnant of the prehistoric Pamlico Sea, and its name means “Big Water” in the language of the Hitchiti Indians. There is a Seminole reservation on the lake's northwestern shore.

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Lake, southeastern Ontario, Canada. Located midway between the Ottawa River and Georgian Bay, it is 50 mi (80 km) long and 30 mi (48 km) wide, with an area of 321 sq mi (832 sq km). A remnant of glacial Lake Algonquin, it contains many islands. The French River drains the lake as it flows west into Georgian Bay. It was discovered by Étienne Brûlé circa 1610 and was later a fur-trading route linking the Ottawa River with the upper Great Lakes.

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Lake, Ontario, Canada. Located north of Lake Superior and northeast of Thunder Bay, it is about 70 mi (110 km) long and 50 mi (80 km) wide and has an area of 1,870 sq mi (4,840 sq km). It lies at an elevation of 1,050 ft (320 m) and has a maximum depth of 540 ft (165 m). Its Indian name means “deep, clear water.” It is studded with many wooded islands, and large bays characterize its shoreline. Its outlet is the Nipigon River, which flows into Lake Superior.

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Lake, southwestern Nicaragua. It is 102 mi (164 km) long, with a surface area of about 3,100 sq mi (8,000 sq km). The largest freshwater lake between the U.S. and Peru, it is connected to Lake Managua by the Tipitapa River and is drained by the San Juan River. It is the only freshwater lake in the world containing marine animal life, including sharks, swordfish, and tarpon. Its largest island, Ometepe, is the preeminent site in Nicaragua for pre-Columbian archaeological finds.

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Shallow lake, northwestern Botswana, north of the Kalahari Desert. It was a large lake, estimated at more than 170 mi (275 km) in circumference when the explorer David Livingstone sighted it in 1849. The lake varies in size with the amount of rainfall, and, although it is much smaller today than in Livingstone's time, it is rich in birdlife.

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ancient Lacus Nemorensis

Crater lake in the Alban Hills, southeast of Rome, Italy. Its area is about 0.67 sq mi (1.7 sq km), and it is 110 ft (34 m) deep. Nearby were a temple and grove sacred to the goddess Diana. Two ships dating from the reign of Caligula were raised from the lake bottom in the 1920s but were burned by the retreating German army in 1944, toward the end of World War II.

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or Lake Nubia

Lake, southern Egypt and northern Sudan. About 300 mi (480 km) long, it was formed in the 1960s by the construction of the Aswan High Dam in order to control the annual floods of the Nile River, whose waters now feed the lake. Its waters, when discharged downstream, have brought some 1,250 sq mi (3,240 sq km) of additional land under irrigation. Its formation flooded a number of archaeological sites, including those found at Abu Simbel. In The Sudan it is known as Lake Nubia.

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French Lac Moero

Lake, central Africa. It is located on the boundary between southeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire) and Zambia, west of the southern tip of Lake Tanganyika. Part of the Congo River system, it is 76 mi (122 km) long and has a surface area of 1,900 sq mi (4,920 sq km). The Luapula River, a headstream of the Congo River, flows through it. The Bangweulu Swamps adjoin the lake.

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Third largest of the five Great Lakes and the only one lying wholly within the U.S. Bordered by the states of Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Indiana, it connects with Lake Huron through the Straits of Mackinac in the north. It is 321 mi (517 km) long and up to 118 mi (190 km) wide, with a maximum depth of 923 ft (281 m); it occupies an area of 22,300 sq mi (57,757 sq km). The first European to discover it was the French explorer Jean Nicolet in 1634; the explorer La Salle brought the first sailing ship there in 1679. It now attracts international shipping as part of the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence Seaway. The name is derived from the Algonquian word michigami or misschiganin, meaning “big lake.”

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Reservoir of the Hoover Dam, on the Arizona-Nevada border in the U.S. One of the largest man-made lakes in the world, it was formed by the damming of the Colorado River. Lake Mead is 115 mi (185 km) long and 1–10 mi (1.6–16 km) wide; it has a capacity of over 31 million acre ft (38 billion cubic m), with a surface area of 229 sq mi (593 sq km). It was named after Elwood Mead, commissioner of reclamation. Lake Mead National Recreation Area (established 1936) has an area of 2,338 sq mi (6,055 sq km) and extends 240 mi (386 km) along the river.

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Inlet of the Caribbean Sea, northwestern Venezuela. The largest natural lake in South America, it occupies an area of 5,130 sq mi (13,280 sq km), extending southward for 130 mi (210 km) from the Gulf of Venezuela and reaching a width of 75 mi (121 km). Many rivers flow into the lake, notably the Catatumbo River. It is in one of the world's richest oil-producing regions, which supplies about two-thirds of Venezuela's total petroleum output. Its oil fields are located along the eastern shore, extending 20 mi (32 km) into the lake.

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Lake, south-central Manitoba, Canada. Located northwest of Winnipeg, it drains into Lake Winnipeg. It is more than 125 mi (200 km) long and up to 28 mi (45 km) wide, with an area of 1,785 sq mi (4,624 sq km). It was discovered in 1738 by Pierre La Vérendrye, who named it Lac des Prairies. The name Manitoba is believed to come from the Algonquian word maniot-bau or maniot-wapau (“strait of the spirit”).

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ancient Lacus Verbanus

Lake, northern Italy and southern Switzerland, bordered on the north by the Swiss Alps. Occupying an area of 82 sq mi (212 sq km), it is Italy's second largest lake. It is 34 mi (54 km) long, with a maximum width of 7 mi (11 km) and a maximum depth of 1,220 ft (372 m). Traversed from north to south by the Ticino River, it is also fed by the Tresa River from Lake Lugano on the east. It is a popular resort area.

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Lake, Great Rift Valley, southern Kenya, east of Lake Victoria. It occupies an area of about 40 sq mi (104 sq km). Its bed consists almost entirely of soda deposits, which dye the waters a vivid pink.

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German Vierwaldstättersee (“Lake of the Four Forest Cantons”)

Lake, central Switzerland. It is 24 mi (39 km) long and 0.5 to 2 mi (0.8 to 3 km) wide, with an area of 44 sq mi (114 sq km). It has a maximum depth of 702 ft (214 m). The “Cross of Lucerne” is formed by its four main basins, which are joined by narrow channels. Named after the city of Lucerne at its western end, it is in a region of resorts and tourist attractions.

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Lake, northwestern Russia. The largest lake in Europe, it covers an area of 6,700 sq mi (17,600 sq km). It is 136 mi (219 km) long and has an average width of 51 mi (82 km); its greatest depth is 754 ft (230 m). It contains 660 islands of more than 2.5 acres (1 hectare) in area. Its outlet is the Neva River, in the southwestern corner. Formerly divided between the U.S.S.R. and Finland, it now lies entirely within Russia. During the Siege of Leningrad (1941–44) in World War II, the lake was the lifeline that connected the city with the rest of the Soviet Union.

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Lake, northwestern Minnesota, U.S. Occupying an area of 1.8 sq mi (4.7 sq km), it is located 1,475 ft (450 m) above sea level. Henry Rowe Schoolcraft's theory that Lake Itasca is the source of the Mississippi River has been widely accepted. He is generally credited with originating the name Itasca, but Indian legend mentions I-tesk-ka, the daughter of Hiawatha, whose tears of anguish at being spirited away to the netherworld were the source of the Mississippi.

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Lake, U.S. and Canada. The second-largest of the Great Lakes of North America, it is bounded by Michigan and Ontario, and is about 206 mi (330 km) long with an area of 23,000 sq mi (59,570 sq km). Inflow comes from Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, and numerous streams; the lake discharges at its southern end into Lake Erie. It contains many islands, including Mackinac, and Saginaw Bay indents the Michigan coast. As part of the St. Lawrence Seaway, it supports heavy commercial traffic from April to December. The first of the Great Lakes seen by Europeans, it was explored by the French (1615–79), who named it after the Huron Indians.

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French Lac Léman German Genfersee

Lake, on the border of southwestern Switzerland and southeastern France. About 134 sq mi (347 sq km) of the lake's area is Swiss and 90 sq mi (234 sq km) French. Lying at an elevation of 1,220 ft (372 m), it is 45 mi (72 km) long with an average width of 5 mi (8 km). It is formed by the Rhône River, which enters at the eastern end and leaves at the western end through the city of Geneva. The water level is subject to fluctuations known as seiches, in which the lake's water mass rhythmically swings from shore to shore.

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ancient Lacus Benacus

Lake, northern Italy. Largest of the Italian lakes, it is 34 mi (54 km) long and 2 to 11 mi (3 to 18 km) wide, with a shoreline of 77.5 mi (125 km). It borders Lombardy, Veneto, and Trentino–Alto Adige. Separated from the Adige River valley by the narrow ridge of Mount Baldo, it is fed by the Sarca River at its northern end, while the Mincio flows out toward the Po River to the south. The lake is encircled by the Gardesana scenic route, opened in 1931. Well sheltered by the Alps to the north, Lake Garda has a temperate Mediterranean climate. It is a popular resort area.

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Salt lake, northeastern South Australia. With a total area of 3,700 sq mi (9,600 sq km), Lake Eyre is the lowest point in Australia, 50 ft (15 m) below sea level. The lake consists of two sections: Lake Eyre North, 90 mi (144 km) long and 40 mi (65 km) wide, is joined by the narrow Goyder Channel to Lake Eyre South, which is 40 mi (65 km) long and about 15 mi (24 km) wide. Lake Eyre is normally dry, and it fills completely only (on average) twice a century. When filled, the lake takes about two years to dry up again. The region is within Lake Eyre National Park.

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Lake, in U.S. and Canada. The fourth largest of the five Great Lakes, it lies between lakes Huron and Ontario and forms the boundary between Canada (Ontario) and the U.S. (Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York). It is 240 mi (388 km) long and has a maximum width of 57 mi (92 km), with a surface area of 9,910 sq mi (22,666 sq km). The Detroit River carries inflow from Lake Huron to the west, and the lake discharges at its eastern end through the Niagara River. It is an important link in the St. Lawrence Seaway; its ports handle steel, iron ore, coal, and grain. The area was once inhabited by Erie Indians; when the French arrived in the 17th century they found the Iroquois living there. The British were in the region in the 18th century, and the U.S. shores were settled after 1796. It was the site of the Battle of Lake Erie, an important engagement of the War of 1812.

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Lake, eastern Africa. One of the great lakes of the western Great Rift Valley, it lies on the border of Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda and is 48 mi (77 km) long and 26 mi (42 km) wide. On the northeast it is connected to the smaller Lake George. Lake Edward empties north through the Semliki River to Lake Albert. The lake abounds in fish; wildlife on its shores is protected within Virunga National Park and Queen Elizabeth National Park. It was named by Henry Morton Stanley, who visited the lake in 1888–89.

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Mountainous region, administrative county of Cumbria, northwestern England. Roughly coextensive with Lake District National Park, the country's largest, it occupies an area of 866 sq mi (2,243 sq km). It contains numerous lakes, including Windermere (England's largest), Grasmere, and Coniston Water, as well as England's highest mountains, the loftiest being Scafell Pike, which rises to 3,210 ft (978 m). The district was home to several English poets, including William Wordsworth, Robert Southey, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who celebrated its landscape. It became a national park in 1951.

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German Bodensee ancient Lacus Brigantinus

Lake, bordering Switzerland, Germany, and Austria. Occupying an old glacier basin at an elevation of 1,299 ft (396 m), it has an area of 209 sq mi (541 sq km) and an average depth of 295 ft (90 m). It forms part of the course of the Rhine River, and by the Middle Ages it was a major traffic hub. Spectacular Alpine scenery makes the lakeshore a popular resort area. The remains of Neolithic lake dwellings are found in the area.

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ancient Lacus Larius

Lake, Lombardy, northern Italy. It lies at an elevation of 653 ft (199 m) in a depression surrounded by limestone and granite mountains. It is 29 mi (47 km) long and up to 2.5 mi (4 km) wide, with an area of 56 sq mi (146 sq km) and a maximum depth of 1,358 ft (414 m). Famous for its natural beauty, its shores have many resorts.

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National park, southern Alaska, U.S. Located on the western shore of Cook Inlet, it was proclaimed a national monument in 1978 and a national park in 1980. Its total area is 3,653,000 acres (1,478,300 hectares). Lake Clark, more than 40 mi (65 km) long, is the largest of its glacial lakes; it feeds rivers that provide the most important spawning ground for red salmon in North America. The park includes glaciers, waterfalls, and active volcanoes.

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German Chiemsee

Lake, southern Germany. Located southeast of Munich, it lies 1,699 ft (518 m) above sea level, and drains through the Alz River into the Inn River. At 9 mi (15 km) long and 5 mi (8 km) wide, it is Bavaria's largest lake. One of its three islands has a Benedictine monastery and a royal castle modeled on the palace at Versailles.

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Lake between Vermont and New York, U.S. Located on the states' northern boundaries and extending into Canada about 6 mi (10 km), it is about 125 mi (200 km) long and has an area of 430 sq mi (1,115 sq km). It was visited in 1609 by Samuel de Champlain. In 1776 it was the scene of the first British-American naval battle and in 1814 of a U.S. naval victory over the British. A link in the waterway between New York City's harbour and the lower St. Lawrence River, it is used extensively for commercial and pleasure-boat navigation.

Learn more about Champlain, Lake with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Lake, west-central Africa. Located at the juncture of the boundaries of Nigeria, Niger, Chad, and Cameroon, the lake covered 9,900 sq mi (25,600 sq km) in the mid-20th century. Its water level has since dropped—owing to severe drought, the desertification of the surrounding Sahel region, and irrigation projects—and, by the beginning of the 21st century, the lake had shrunk to 580 sq mi (1,500 sq km). The lake is fed by the Chari River.

Learn more about Chad, Lake with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Lake, northern Zambia. Located southeast of Lake Mweru and southwest of Lake Tanganyika at an elevation of 3,740 ft (1,140 m), it is about 45 mi (72 km) long and, with its adjacent swamps, covers an area of 3,800 sq mi (9,840 sq km). Its outlet is the Luapula, a headstream of the Congo. It has three inhabited islands. David Livingstone, the first European to visit the lake, died there in 1873.

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Lake, western central Canada. It extends 208 mi (335 km), crossing the Alberta-Saskatchewan boundary. On the southwest it receives the Athabasca River, and on the northwest it discharges into the Slave River. It is important for its commercial fishing.

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Lake, east-central Africa. Lying at an altitude of 2,021 ft (616 m), it is 100 mi (160 km) long and has an average width of about 20 mi (32 km). In the southwest, the Semliki River brings into the lake the waters of Lake Edward; at its northeastern corner, just below Murchison Falls, it receives the Victoria Nile from Lake Victoria. In 1864 the lake's first European visitor, Samuel Baker, named it after Queen Victoria's consort. Initially part of Uganda, it now forms part of the Uganda-Congo border.

Learn more about Albert, Lake with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Lake, northwestern Russia. The largest lake in Europe, it covers an area of 6,700 sq mi (17,600 sq km). It is 136 mi (219 km) long and has an average width of 51 mi (82 km); its greatest depth is 754 ft (230 m). It contains 660 islands of more than 2.5 acres (1 hectare) in area. Its outlet is the Neva River, in the southwestern corner. Formerly divided between the U.S.S.R. and Finland, it now lies entirely within Russia. During the Siege of Leningrad (1941–44) in World War II, the lake was the lifeline that connected the city with the rest of the Soviet Union.

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Lake, northwestern Minnesota, U.S. Occupying an area of 1.8 sq mi (4.7 sq km), it is located 1,475 ft (450 m) above sea level. Henry Rowe Schoolcraft's theory that Lake Itasca is the source of the Mississippi River has been widely accepted. He is generally credited with originating the name Itasca, but Indian legend mentions I-tesk-ka, the daughter of Hiawatha, whose tears of anguish at being spirited away to the netherworld were the source of the Mississippi.

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Lake, U.S. and Canada. The second-largest of the Great Lakes of North America, it is bounded by Michigan and Ontario, and is about 206 mi (330 km) long with an area of 23,000 sq mi (59,570 sq km). Inflow comes from Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, and numerous streams; the lake discharges at its southern end into Lake Erie. It contains many islands, including Mackinac, and Saginaw Bay indents the Michigan coast. As part of the St. Lawrence Seaway, it supports heavy commercial traffic from April to December. The first of the Great Lakes seen by Europeans, it was explored by the French (1615–79), who named it after the Huron Indians.

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Lake, south-central Northwest Territories, Canada. Named for the Slave Indians, it is fed by several rivers, including the Slave, and drained by the Mackenzie River into the Arctic Ocean. The lake, with an area of 11,031 sq mi (28,570 sq km), is the fifth largest in North America. It is 300 mi (500 km) long and 30–140 mi (50–225 km) wide, with a maximum depth of more than 2,000 ft (600 m). While supporting a fishing industry, the lake is an integral part of the Mackenzie River waterway.

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Lake, northern Utah, U.S. It is the largest inland body of salt water in the Western Hemisphere and one of the most saline in the world. It fluctuates greatly in size, depending on rates of evaporation and the flow of the rivers into it. Its surface area has varied from about 2,400 sq mi (6,200 sq km) at its highest levels in 1873 and the mid 1980s to about 950 sq mi (2,460 sq km) at its low level in 1963. At times of median water level, it is generally less than 15 ft (4.5 m) deep. Surrounded by stretches of sand, salt land, and marsh, the lake remains isolated, though in recent years it has become important as a source of minerals, as a beach and water-sports attraction, and as a wildlife preserve.

Learn more about Great Salt Lake with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada. Lying astride the Arctic Circle, it was visited before 1800 by North West Company traders and later named for the bears that inhabited its shores. Containing many small islands, Great Bear Lake is roughly 200 mi (320 km) long and 25–110 mi (40–175 km) wide and has a maximum depth of 1,356 ft (413 m). It is the largest lake entirely within Canada and the fourth largest in North America. The lake's waters abound with fish, including the speckled trout.

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Lake, northeastern New York, U.S. It is 32 mi (51 km) long and 1–4 mi (1.6–6.4 km) wide and is connected to Lake Champlain through a series of waterfalls. In the foothills of the Adirondacks, it is noted for its scenic beauty and is a popular resort area. Memorialized in James Fenimore Cooper's novels as Lake Horicon, the real lake was the scene of numerous battles during the French and Indian War and the American Revolution. Fort Ticonderoga is located on the falls at the lake's outlet.

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French Lac Léman German Genfersee

Lake, on the border of southwestern Switzerland and southeastern France. About 134 sq mi (347 sq km) of the lake's area is Swiss and 90 sq mi (234 sq km) French. Lying at an elevation of 1,220 ft (372 m), it is 45 mi (72 km) long with an average width of 5 mi (8 km). It is formed by the Rhône River, which enters at the eastern end and leaves at the western end through the city of Geneva. The water level is subject to fluctuations known as seiches, in which the lake's water mass rhythmically swings from shore to shore.

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ancient Lacus Benacus

Lake, northern Italy. Largest of the Italian lakes, it is 34 mi (54 km) long and 2 to 11 mi (3 to 18 km) wide, with a shoreline of 77.5 mi (125 km). It borders Lombardy, Veneto, and Trentino–Alto Adige. Separated from the Adige River valley by the narrow ridge of Mount Baldo, it is fed by the Sarca River at its northern end, while the Mincio flows out toward the Po River to the south. The lake is encircled by the Gardesana scenic route, opened in 1931. Well sheltered by the Alps to the north, Lake Garda has a temperate Mediterranean climate. It is a popular resort area.

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Salt lake, northeastern South Australia. With a total area of 3,700 sq mi (9,600 sq km), Lake Eyre is the lowest point in Australia, 50 ft (15 m) below sea level. The lake consists of two sections: Lake Eyre North, 90 mi (144 km) long and 40 mi (65 km) wide, is joined by the narrow Goyder Channel to Lake Eyre South, which is 40 mi (65 km) long and about 15 mi (24 km) wide. Lake Eyre is normally dry, and it fills completely only (on average) twice a century. When filled, the lake takes about two years to dry up again. The region is within Lake Eyre National Park.

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Lake, in U.S. and Canada. The fourth largest of the five Great Lakes, it lies between lakes Huron and Ontario and forms the boundary between Canada (Ontario) and the U.S. (Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York). It is 240 mi (388 km) long and has a maximum width of 57 mi (92 km), with a surface area of 9,910 sq mi (22,666 sq km). The Detroit River carries inflow from Lake Huron to the west, and the lake discharges at its eastern end through the Niagara River. It is an important link in the St. Lawrence Seaway; its ports handle steel, iron ore, coal, and grain. The area was once inhabited by Erie Indians; when the French arrived in the 17th century they found the Iroquois living there. The British were in the region in the 18th century, and the U.S. shores were settled after 1796. It was the site of the Battle of Lake Erie, an important engagement of the War of 1812.

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Lake, eastern Africa. One of the great lakes of the western Great Rift Valley, it lies on the border of Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda and is 48 mi (77 km) long and 26 mi (42 km) wide. On the northeast it is connected to the smaller Lake George. Lake Edward empties north through the Semliki River to Lake Albert. The lake abounds in fish; wildlife on its shores is protected within Virunga National Park and Queen Elizabeth National Park. It was named by Henry Morton Stanley, who visited the lake in 1888–89.

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German Bodensee ancient Lacus Brigantinus

Lake, bordering Switzerland, Germany, and Austria. Occupying an old glacier basin at an elevation of 1,299 ft (396 m), it has an area of 209 sq mi (541 sq km) and an average depth of 295 ft (90 m). It forms part of the course of the Rhine River, and by the Middle Ages it was a major traffic hub. Spectacular Alpine scenery makes the lakeshore a popular resort area. The remains of Neolithic lake dwellings are found in the area.

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ancient Lacus Larius

Lake, Lombardy, northern Italy. It lies at an elevation of 653 ft (199 m) in a depression surrounded by limestone and granite mountains. It is 29 mi (47 km) long and up to 2.5 mi (4 km) wide, with an area of 56 sq mi (146 sq km) and a maximum depth of 1,358 ft (414 m). Famous for its natural beauty, its shores have many resorts.

Learn more about Como, Lake with a free trial on Britannica.com.

German Chiemsee

Lake, southern Germany. Located southeast of Munich, it lies 1,699 ft (518 m) above sea level, and drains through the Alz River into the Inn River. At 9 mi (15 km) long and 5 mi (8 km) wide, it is Bavaria's largest lake. One of its three islands has a Benedictine monastery and a royal castle modeled on the palace at Versailles.

Learn more about Chiem, Lake with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Lake between Vermont and New York, U.S. Located on the states' northern boundaries and extending into Canada about 6 mi (10 km), it is about 125 mi (200 km) long and has an area of 430 sq mi (1,115 sq km). It was visited in 1609 by Samuel de Champlain. In 1776 it was the scene of the first British-American naval battle and in 1814 of a U.S. naval victory over the British. A link in the waterway between New York City's harbour and the lower St. Lawrence River, it is used extensively for commercial and pleasure-boat navigation.

Learn more about Champlain, Lake with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Lake, west-central Africa. Located at the juncture of the boundaries of Nigeria, Niger, Chad, and Cameroon, the lake covered 9,900 sq mi (25,600 sq km) in the mid-20th century. Its water level has since dropped—owing to severe drought, the desertification of the surrounding Sahel region, and irrigation projects—and, by the beginning of the 21st century, the lake had shrunk to 580 sq mi (1,500 sq km). The lake is fed by the Chari River.

Learn more about Chad, Lake with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Salt lake, Nova Scotia, Canada. Located on Cape Breton Island, it is about 50 mi (80 km) long and has an area of 360 sq mi (932 sq km). Its extension, Little Bras d'Or, connects it to the Atlantic Ocean on the north, while a man-made canal connects it to the Atlantic on the south. The lake is a popular summer resort area.

Learn more about Bras d'Or Lake with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Lake, northern Zambia. Located southeast of Lake Mweru and southwest of Lake Tanganyika at an elevation of 3,740 ft (1,140 m), it is about 45 mi (72 km) long and, with its adjacent swamps, covers an area of 3,800 sq mi (9,840 sq km). Its outlet is the Luapula, a headstream of the Congo. It has three inhabited islands. David Livingstone, the first European to visit the lake, died there in 1873.

Learn more about Bangweulu, Lake with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Lake, western central Canada. It extends 208 mi (335 km), crossing the Alberta-Saskatchewan boundary. On the southwest it receives the Athabasca River, and on the northwest it discharges into the Slave River. It is important for its commercial fishing.

Learn more about Athabasca, Lake with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Lake, east-central Africa. Lying at an altitude of 2,021 ft (616 m), it is 100 mi (160 km) long and has an average width of about 20 mi (32 km). In the southwest, the Semliki River brings into the lake the waters of Lake Edward; at its northeastern corner, just below Murchison Falls, it receives the Victoria Nile from Lake Victoria. In 1864 the lake's first European visitor, Samuel Baker, named it after Queen Victoria's consort. Initially part of Uganda, it now forms part of the Uganda-Congo border.

Learn more about Albert, Lake with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Temple-Inland, Inc. is an American paper, building products and financial services company based in Austin, Texas. It has approximately 19,500 employees. Its paper group operates under the name Inland Paperboard and Packaging Group, its building products group under the name Temple-Inland Forest Products, and its financial services group under the name Guaranty Financial Services.

Financial Information
 20022001
Total revenue (US$M)4,5184,172
Net Earnings (US$M)53109

Temple-Eastex

In 1893, when Thomas Louis Latane Temple, Sr., founded Southern Pine Lumber Company on of East Texas, Angelina County, timberland. Temple built the town of Diboll around his company, and by 1894 the first sawmill was operating, cutting 50,000 board feet of old growth timber each day. During the next few years, Southern Pine Lumber Company continued to expand its operations in Diboll. In 1903 the company built its second sawmill and in 1907 created a hardwood mill. In 1910, Temple Lumber Company was formed and established operations in Hemphill and Pineland, both in Sabine County, Texas.

In 1934 Thomas Temple died, leaving his son Arthur with of land and a company that was $2 billion dollars in debt. Three years later the Hemphill sawmill was destroyed by fire, and Temple Lumber Company operations moved to a smaller mill in Pineland. Recovery was on the way, however.

During these early years and through the housing boom following World War II, Southern Pine Lumber primarily produced basic lumber products, both hardwood and pine, for the construction and furniture industries. By the 1950s technology offered new directions and opportunity for growth. Southern Pine Lumber Company began converting chips, sawdust, and shavings into panel products. In subsequent years, the company pioneered the production of southern pine plywood, particle board, gypsum wallboard, and other building materials.

Credit for substantial growth in the 1950s was due to the aggressive leadership of the grandson of Thomas Temple, Arthur Temple, who took over in 1951. Under his direction, the company used technological advances in the forest industry to expand the company's production and reduce its debt. In 1954 Southern Pine Lumber built a new plant in Diboll for fiberboard production, using wood waste and whole pine chips to make asphalt-coated insulation sheathing. Southern Pine Lumber of Diboll and Temple Lumber of Pineland merged in 1956, taking Southern Pine Lumber's name.

In 1962 Southern Pine Lumber purchased the controlling interest in Lumbermen's Investment Corporation of Austin, Texas, a mortgage-banking and real estate development company that became a wholly owned subsidiary in the early 1970s. In 1963 gypsum wallboard production began with the purchase of Texas Gypsum, of Dallas, that also became a wholly owned subsidiary of the company. That same year, Southern Pine Lumber set up a joint venture with United States Plywood Corporation to build a $3 million plywood-sheathing plant at Diboll. The plant, supplied with raw material from of Southern Pine Lumber's timberland, was designed for producing plywood for sheathing, rock decking, sub-flooring, and industrial uses. After several successful years of operating the plant as a joint venture, the company bought out United States Plywood.

In 1963 Southern Pine Lumber Company changed its name to Temple Industries, Inc., and built a pilot plant in Pineland to make particle board from sawdust and shavings. After 70 years of business, the company's land holdings had grown to more than . In 1964 Temple Industries expanded into financial services, including mortgage banking and insurance.

In 1966 the company built a stud mill at Pineland. In 1969 it rebuilt the Diboll sawmill a year after it was destroyed by fire and, also that year, acquired two beverage-case plants in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Dallas. Two new wholly owned subsidiaries joined Temple Industries in 1969. Sabine Investment Company of Texas, Inc. was formed, and Temple Associates, Inc. was acquired.

The 1970s were even more significant for the company, beginning with the production of medium-density siding and the expansion of the fiberboard operation. Temple Industries formed Creative Homes, Inc., in Diboll, to build mobile and modular homes for approximately four years. In 1971 the company built a new particle board plant in Diboll, and in 1972 acquired AFCO Industries, Inc., manufacturer of do-it-yourself consumer products. That same year Temple's West Memphis, Tennessee, gypsum operation began production.

The decade, however, was defined by the events of 1973: Time Inc. acquired Temple Industries and merged it with its Eastex Pulp and Paper Company subsidiary to form Temple-Eastex Incorporated. Eastex Pulp and Paper had been founded in the early 1950s by Time and Houston Oil Company, as East Texas Pulp and Paper. Houston Oil's of southern pine and hardwood provided raw material for the new paper mill, opened at Evadale, Texas, in 1954. Time had purchased Houston Oil's 50 percent ownership in 1956, thus acquiring the of timberland.

When Time created Temple-Eastex, magazines were providing only about one-fourth of Time's sales, and Time officials decided to expand the company's more profitable forest products business. Both companies were looking to diversify; Time's underperforming stock made it vulnerable to takeover. Temple met with Eastex president R.M. (Mike) Buckley, and the arrangements were made. Time bought Temple Industries for stock, and the Temples became Time's largest outside shareholders.

Temple-Eastex produced lumber and other building materials, in addition to paperboard used for household paper products. In 1974 Temple-Eastex opened a new particle board plant in Thomson, Georgia, and a new plywood plant in Pineland, Texas. In 1975 the stud mill at Pineland was automated, and all operations except plywood and studs were phased out. That same year Temple-Eastex installed an innovative process for bleaching of pulp, required for white paper products, in the Evadale mill, as part of an expansion in kraft pulp capacity. The $55 million Temple-Eastex expansion boosted Evadale production by 17 percent. The company stayed busy during the late 1970s with openings, closings, purchases, and moves. A wood molasses plant was built in Diboll in 1977 to use the wood sugars found in the waste water from fiber products. The following year a $100 million capital improvement was begun at Evadale to further enhance operations there. In 1978, Arthur Temple became vice-chairman of Time and served in that position until 1983. In 1979 Temple-Eastex moved into new corporate offices in Diboll, while the nearby plywood operation was closed permanently.

The 1980s started off smoothly with some improvements at the Diboll mill. In 1980 a plastic-foam operation was put on line to manufacture urethane for rigid-foam insulation, and the company's newest and largest wood-fired boiler began operation. A new chip mill and log processing operation was constructed in 1982 in Pineland to supply chips to Evadale, plywood and stud logs to Pineland, and fuel for all other operations. In 1982, however, the company was fined $40,000 by the Texas Air Control Board for violating state particulate rate and opacity standards. In addition to the fine, the Evadale kraft pulp and paper mill was required to install two electrostatic precipitators.

The Inland Box Company

Herman C. Krannert started in the corrugated packaging operation in 1914 when he was hired by Sefton Manufacturing Company a Chicago-based firm, to make ventilated corrugated boxes for the shipment of baby chicks. These boxes met the growing need for lightweight and inexpensive containers to replace traditional wooden crates and barrels. In 1918 he was transferred to Anderson, Indiana, where he was plant manager of the Anderson Box Company.

In the beginning, Anderson Box Company purchased all of the “Chick Pullmans” from Sefton. They bought in large quantities and resold in smaller lots. In this way Anderson developed its own trade name and prestige with the farmers and hatcherymen in states surrounding Indiana. Krannert’s superior skill, motivation, and innovations at Anderson were rewarded with the company president’s invitation to become a director. There was one restriction: Krannert would be required to vote as the president voted. Feeling this directive was unprofessional and unethical, he resigned his position in 1924.

He moved to Indianapolis, IN and in 1925 organized his own company, the Inland Box Company. In 1930 the company’s name changed to Inland Container Corporation and opened its second box plant in Middletown, Ohio. The third box plant, in Evansville, Indiana, was added in 1937. From the beginning of Inland, Anderson Box Company’s volume gave it a substantial backlog. It was doubly advantageous because Anderson’s shipment demands came in the off-peak months of December through March, while Inland’s volume was low. In this way there developed the close coordination between Anderson’s and Inland’s business to utilize to the best advantage the manufacturing and shipping facilities provided.

Thanks to Krannert’s hard work and shrewd business sense, the company thrived and expanded. It survived the Great Depression of the 1930s due to the demand for corrugated boxes for domestic commerce. By 1939, the company had acquired its fourth box plant and initiated vertical integration. During World War II, the United States government began buying large quantities of Inland’s moisture-resistant “V-Board” boxes. The growth accelerated in the mid-1940s as the number of sites, the range of products, and the base of customers expanded.

In 1945 Inland planned a mill venture to produce Kraft containerboard from pine trees in the south at Macon, Georgia. Kraft paper linerboard is one of the components used in making all types of containers. This gave Inland an assured source of supply for a portion of its requirements. Inland’s program of expansion has moved rapidly since 1946 in both mills and box plants.

During the 1960s the thrust of Inland’s planning was directed to growth through the development of new products, more efficient packaging systems, geographic expansion, and acquisitions. By the early 1970s, Inland Container was America’s second-largest manufacturer of corrugated shipping containers, with a complex of 25 plants grossing $200 million in annual sales.

Merger with Temple-Eastex, Inc.

In 1973, Time, Inc. acquired Temple Industries, Inc., merging it with Eastex Pulp and Paper Company to form Temple-Eastex, Inc. In 1978, Inland became part of Time, Inc. and in 1983, the companies were spun off as Temple-Inland, Inc. In 2002, Inland acquired the Gaylord Container Corporation.

On Monday, February 26, 2007 it was announced that Temple-Inland (stock symbol:TIN) a packaging, forest products, real estate and financial services company planned to separate itself into three stand-alone public companies and sell its timberlands by the end of 2007. People who own stock in the company will eventually receive stock in all three companies depending on the amount owned on the day the company split-up.

Environmental Record

Researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst have identified Temple–Inland as the 24th-largest corporate producer of air pollution in the United States. Major pollutants reported by the study included acrolein, manganese compounds, sulfuric acid, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde.

References

External links

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