Acute inflammation of the pelvic cavity in women, caused by bacterial infection (usually gonorrhea or chlamydia) of the reproductive system. Usually a sexually transmitted disease, it occurs mainly in sexually active women under age 25, more often in those using intrauterine devices (IUDs). PID can resemble gonorrhea, with abdominal and lower pelvic pain, chills, nausea, fever, and thick, foul-smelling vaginal discharge. Fallopian tube scarring can cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Treatment requires antibiotics, bed rest, pain medication, and sexual abstinence until the infection disappears. Sexual partners must also be treated to prevent reinfection.
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Some common examples of NSAIDs are: aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen. The newer specific COX-inhibitors although probably sharing a similar mode of action are not classified together with the traditional NSAIDs.
In addition to medical drugs, many herbs have anti-inflammatory qualities, including hyssop, ginger, Turmeric, Arnica montana which contains helenalin, a sesquiterpene lactone, and willow bark, which contains salicylic acid, a substance related to the active ingredient in aspirin. Cannabichromene, one of the many cannabinoids present in the cannabis plant, has been shown to reduce inflammation.
On the other hand, there are analgesics which are commonly associated with anti-inflammatory drugs but which have no anti-inflammatory effects. An example is paracetamol, called acetaminophen in the U.S. and sold under the brand name of Tylenol. As opposed to NSAIDS, which reduce pain and inflammation by inhibiting COX enzymes, paracetamol has recently been shown to block the reuptake of endocannabinoids, which only reduces pain, likely explaining why it has minimal effect on inflammation.
Some are concerned about the long term usage of NSAIDs as they cause gastric erosions which can become stomach ulcers and in extreme cases can cause severe haemorrhage resulting in death. The risk of death as a result of use of NSAIDs is 1 in 10,000 for young adults aged 16-45. The risk increases tenfold for those over 75. Other dangers of NSAIDs are exacerbating asthma and causing kidney damage.
The therapy involves inoculation of the patient with specific parasitic intestinal nematodes (helminths). There are currently two closely related treatments available, either inoculation with Necator americanus, commonly known as hookworms, or Trichuris Suis Ova, (TSO) commonly known as Pig Whipworm Eggs.
There is early research suggesting that Helminthic Therapy may also be effective against disorders involving inflammation that are not caused by immunological disorders.
Helminthic therapy has emerged from the extensive research into why the incidence of autoimmune diseases and allergies is relatively low in less developed countries, while there has been a significant and sustained increase in autoimmune diseases in the industrialized countries.. Current research and available therapy is targeted at, or available for, the treatment of Crohn’s Disease, Ulcerative Colitis, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) as well as Multiple Sclerosis, Asthma, Eczema, Dermatitis, Hay fever and food allergies. Please see Helminthic therapy for information regarding those conditions.
Others advocate the consumption of anti-inflammatory foods as a means of controlling inflammation. Anti-inflammatory foods include most colorful fruits and vegetables, oily fish and certain nuts, seeds, herbs and spices such as ginger. Those following an anti-inflammatory diet will avoid refined oils and sugars, and show a preference for anti-inflammatory foods in their meal choices. Tobacco may have some anti-inflammatory effects, see Smoker’s Paradox. In some conditions, dietary omega-3 fatty acids lower inflammation, see Essential fatty acid interactions.
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects and molecular mechanisms of JCICM-6, a purified extract derived from an anti-arthritic Chinese herbal formula.(Report)
Jun 01, 2008; Abstract The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects and the molecular mechanisms of JCICM-6 purified extract...