infectious

infectious

[in-fek-shuhs]
mononucleosis, infectious, acute infectious disease of older children and young adults, occurring sporadically or in epidemic form, also known as mono, glandular fever, and kissing disease. The causative organism is a herpesvirus known as Epstein-Barr virus. The disease occurs most often in patients between the ages of 15 and 35. The virus is present in the saliva; it is usually spread by sharing a glass or kissing. Symptoms usually take 30 to 50 days to develop.

Diagnosis of mononucleosis follows the exhibition of a large number of abnormal white blood cells (lymphocytes) on microscopic blood examination. These blood cells have a single nucleus that give the disease its name. Symptoms are varied but include enlarged lymph nodes, sore throat, fever, enlarged spleen in about half the cases, and excessive fatigue. Occasional rashes and throat and mouth infections occur. Liver inflammation is common. Fatalities are very rare and, when they do occur, usually result from splenic rupture. General therapeutic measures include bed rest and treatment of symptoms.

or glandular fever

Common infection, caused by Epstein-Barr virus. It occurs most often at ages 10–35. Infected young children usually have little or no illness but become immune. Popularly called “the kissing disease,” it is spread mostly by oral contact with exchange of saliva. It usually lasts 7–14 days. The most common symptoms are malaise, sore throat, fever, and lymph-node enlargement. Liver involvement is usual but rarely severe. The spleen often enlarges and in rare cases ruptures fatally. Less frequent features include rash, pneumonia, encephalitis (sometimes fatal), meningitis, and peripheral neuritis. Relapse and second attacks are rare. Diagnosis may require blood analysis. There is no specific therapy.

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Invasion of the body by various agents—including bacteria, fungi (see fungus), protozoans, viruses, and worms—and its reaction to them or their toxins. Infections are called subclinical until they perceptibly affect health, when they become infectious diseases. Infection can be local (e.g., an abscess), confined to one body system (e.g., pneumonia in the lungs), or generalized (e.g., septicemia). Infectious agents can enter the body by inhalation, ingestion, sexual transmission, passage to a fetus during pregnancy or birth, wound contamination, or animal or insect bites. The body responds with an attack on the invader by leukocytes, production of antibodies or antitoxins, and often a rise in temperature. The antibodies may result in short-term or lifelong immunity. Despite significant progress in preventing and treating infectious diseases, they remain a major cause of illness and death, particularly in regions of poor sanitation, poor nutrition, and crowding.

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