arbitration, industrial, method of settling disputes between employer and employees by seeking and accepting a decision by a third party. Such arbitration may be compelled by the government, as in New Zealand (since 1894), Australia (since 1904), Canada (since 1907), Italy (since 1926), and Great Britain (since World War II). In other cases, it may be by voluntary agreement, as is often the case in the United States, where the government occasionally intervenes in the case of a strike affecting the public welfare (see Taft-Hartley Labor Act) by persuading the parties concerned to accept the decision handed down by the arbitrator. Additionally, the Supreme Court ruled in 2001 that companies can insist that employment-related disputes (such as discrimination suits) go to arbitration rather than to court. Arbitration machinery in the United States has been set up at both federal and state levels in the form of mediation and arbitration boards. The American Arbitration Association, founded in 1926, has nearly 17,000 members who help settle labor disputes. In voluntary arbitration a formal agreement is usually made to abide by the decision.

See F. Elkouri, How Arbitration Works (1985); M. Bognanno, Labor Arbitration in America (1992).

The Paper, Allied-Industrial, Chemical and Energy Workers International Union (PACE) was an international union that represented workers in the United States and Canada. PACE was founded in January 4, 1999 by the merger of the United Paperworkers International Union with the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union.

PACE fought for rights, wages raise, improvement of working conditions for workers in such fields as: paper industry, oil, chemicals, nuclear materials, pharmaceuticals, automobile parts, motorcycles, tissues, toys, cement, corn sugar, etc.

On January 11, 2005, the union announced a merger with the United Steel Workers of America. The new union, with 860,000 active members in the United States and Canada, is the largest industrial labor union in North America. The union is known as the United Steel, Paper and Forestry, Rubber, Manufacturing, Energy, Allied-Industrial and Service Workers International Union, abbreviated as the "United Steelworkers" or by the acronym USW.

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