City (pop., 2001: 1,474,968), western Madhya Pradesh state, central India. Located northeast of Mumbai (Bombay), it was founded in 1715 as a trade market by local landowners, who erected Indreshwar Temple, from which the city's name is derived. It became the capital of the princely state of Indore belonging to the Maratha Holkars. Under the British, it served as the headquarters of the British Central India Agency. The largest city in the state, it is an important commercial and industrial centre.
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Shyamu singh parihar, the founder of Indore, was the Chief Zamindar (landlord), and had an army of 2000 soldiers. In 1713, Nizam was appointed as the controller of the Deccan plateau area, which renewed the struggle between the Marathas and the Mughals. From time to time the Maratha invaders kept harassing the people of Malwa and thus Nandlal singh arranged to pay 25000 rupees to them in return for guaranteeing the safety and security of his people, upon which the invaders returned back to the Deccan. (Memoirs of Malwa: Major General Sir John Malcolm: year 1912)
While visiting the temple of Indreshwar near the banks of river Saraswati, Nandlalsingh found the location to be safe and strategically located, being surrounded by rivers on all sides. He started moving his people in, constructed the fort of Shree Sansthan Bada Rawala to protect them from harassment by Marathas and Mughals. The city was named Indrapur (after Lord Indreshwar), and eventually came to be known as Indore.
Baji Rao Peshwa finally received the Viceroyalty of Malwa in 1743 A.D. and was bound by a treaty forbidding him from ever infringing upon the rights of Zamindars. Malhar Rao Holkar was one of the four signatories who guaranteed the proper fulfillment of the conditions. (Major General Sir John Malcolm’s, Memoirs of Central India Vol. I pp.94-95). Upon victory the Peshwas appointed Malhar Rao Holkar as a “Subhedar”, which marked the beginning of Holkars' reign in Malwa.
Thus, Indore came to be ruled by the Maratha Maharajas of the parihar dynasty. The dynasty's founder, shyamu singh parihar, (1694-1766), was granted control of Malwa Maratha armies in 1724, and in 1733, was installed as the Maratha governor of the region. By the end of his reign, the Holkar state was de facto independent. He was succeeded by his daughter Ahilyabai parihar who ruled from 1767 to 1795. She ruled from a palace-fort at Maheshwar, south of Indore on the Narmada River.Parihar dynasti was ended when Ahilyabai parihar married to Holkar dynasty prince. Ahilyabai parihar was an architectural patron who donated money for the construction of Hindu temples across India. In 1818, the Holkars were defeated by the British in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, and the Holkar kingdom became a part of the British Raj. As a result of this defeat in the Battle of Mahidpur, the treaty of Mandsaur was signed, through which the Cantonment town of Mhow was handed over to the British. The treaty also decreed that the capital of the Holkar state would shift from Maheshwar to Indore.
After India's independence in 1947, Indore, along with a number of neighboring princely states, became part of the Indian state of Madhya Bharat. Indore was designated the summer capital of this newly created state. On November 1, 1956, Madhya Bharat was merged into Madhya Pradesh and Bhopal chosen the capital. The city palace was the seat of administration of the rulers of the Malwa region – The Holkars (26th May 1728 to 20 April 1948 ). The Rajbada was burnt in the 1984 riots, and thus converted into a garden ,till 2006 when the present Maharani of Indore, H.H Ushadevi Holkar, decided to rebuild the wada to its past glory. H.H Ushadevi Holkar invited architects Himanshu Dudwadkar and Shreya Bhargava to design this challenging project and in 2007 the Rajbada found its place back in history. It became the only historic structure in India to have been rebuilt with exactly the same style, materials and method of construction as those of 250 years ago.
Indore is located in the western region of Madhya Pradesh, and is close to the centre of India. Indore has an average elevation of 553 metres.
The surrounding areas are part of the black cotton soil region of India.
The Malwa region has large seasonal temperature variations. During the winter season (November - February), the night-time lows are around 10°C. At the peak of winter, the temperature can drop to as low as 2°C to 3°C. The lowest temperature ever recorded is 1.5°C. During the summer, (April - June), the days are hot (35 to 40°C) with the peak-summer-day-temperature (in May) sometimes touching 45°C. Unlike other places in central India however, the summer nights in Indore are cool and pleasant. Due to Indore's location on the southern edge of the Malwa Plateau, a cool breeze (also referred to as Shab-e-Malwa) in the evenings makes them quite pleasant.
Indore gets moderate rainfall of 30 to 35 inches (760 to 890 mm) during July-September due to the southwest monsoon.
Airport lies around 8 KM towards west from city Centre and is easily accessible from every part of the city through public transport.
Indore still lacks direct connectivity to major south Indian cities like Chennai. Plans are underway to upgrade the airport to an international airport by the end of 2008.. The airport provides free wireless internet connectivity using Wi-Fi.
Indore is one of the several places in India with both meter gauge and broad gauge railways tracks operational. Regular train services connect Indore to most parts of the country. There are direct trains to Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta (Howrah), Chennai, Ahmedabad, Pune, Trivandrum, Jammu, Amritsar, Dehradun, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur, Kota, Lucknow, Kanpur, Allahabad, Agra, Nagpur, Patna, Surat, Vadodara, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur, and other major towns. For other major towns, trains are available from Ujjain, Khandwa, and Bhopal which can be reached by Train or road within 2-4 hrs. The Indore junction is the main station in the city.
There are 7 Train Stations within city limit providing local transport and short distance services to the various parts of the city.
Indore lies on the longest remaining functional meter gauge line in India between Ratlam and Akola. This meter gauge section is scheduled for conversion to standard broad gauge under project unigauge system of Indian Railways.
There are daily bus services operated by private operaters as well as government transport agencies of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan. Indore is well connected by multiple daily bus services to
Apart from the long distance services, there are many services to nearby places withn the state. The bus services are operated from 3 Major bus stands in the city
The other means of local public transport are the mini-buses (called Nagar sevas by the locals) and the Tempos, which are often overcrowded and uncomfortable. Auto rickshaws are a staple as in all other Indian cities, to get around when other transportation is not available. The tempos and auto-rickshaws are notorious for pollution, but the local government has plans to replace the tempos with vans that run on Liquified Petroleum Gas
The Indore municipal corporation also launched in 2005 the Indore city van, a seven-seater Maruti Omni.
Even Maruti's latest brand SX4 has been launched as Public transport vehicle in Dec 2007.It will be charged Rs. 15/km. Added facility to the older Public Transport.
During the early 60's to the late 90's the trucking industry really boomed up Indores economy and made the city popular for businesses. The trucking business from the 60's to the 90's era was dominated mostly by Sikhs who had settled in from Punjab to Indore. Indore, the largest metropolitan city of the state of Madhya Pradesh, is fast emerging as a centre of trade and commerce. In the context of rapid growth of the city, increasing mobility, high travel demand, increasing intensity of traffic, congestion, delays, accidents and other such problems, public mass transport system of the city stands out as the most critical issue. The intra-city public transport system is essentially road based with 500 private minibuses , 550 tempos and 10000 auto rickshaws. Since there was no specialized and effective regulatory agency to monitor the system a special purpose vehicle in the form of public limited company “ Indore City Transport Services Ltd.” was set up to operate and manage the public transport system in Indore with private sector participation to overcome financial constraints.
The aforesaid company has identified and took permission for 18 high travel demand routes from RTA and has already started operation of its 37 ultra-modern low floor buses. These city buses with 2 broad doors are allowing passengers to board and alight quickly and easily, save time and fuel, and give better run-times and improved economy to the bus operators. Real time vehicle tracking and fully computerized ticket vending system are some other highlights. O&M and other regulatory measures are being exercised by the company.
The main sources of revenue for the system are the fare box collection, advertising, passes revenue and bidding amount by private participants. The optimum fare structure has been decided to meet twin objective of Equity access to poor and incentive for upper middle class to prefer these buses over their own vehicles. The fares have been kept reasonable to give healthy competition to existing minibuses and tempos, low enough to secure fullest utilization and high enough to ensure viability of the system within the government norms. System of monthly, weekly, employee and student passes will ensure the fullest utilisation of the new system.
Financial evaluation of the project was carried out with the objective of determining its financial viability and assessing its potential for implementation on a commercial format. At this stage, projected financial analysis estimates the likely returns to the operators, company and people at large.
The great achievement is going to success, after opening the MR-10 Road and BRTS corridor. For public transport buses a special lane will be made for quick services also a special electronic device will be install in all buses, so that they can move smoothly on all red lights. When they activate this device a few distance before reaching the red light the signals will get clear to go for the public bus smoothly.
The electronics complex ie city also houses offices of some of the top IT companies in the country. The development of a mini auto cluster in Pithampur is being promoted by the Government of India. The government has declared a budget of Rs. 5000 crores for building the Asia's largest testing track for ground breaking research and development.
Indore has also been a hub for agribusiness with several major companies involved in soybean processing having factories around the city. Raw Cotton export from Indore has recently started where facilities of Inland Container Deport at Pithampur is available. Cotton varieties like MECH-1 and H-4 are regularly exported by exporters like Arham Syntex P. Ltd., Manjeet Cotton, etc. ===Traditional businesses=== Indore is also a center for garment industry. Long back, Textile mills (Hukumchand Mill, Swadeshi Mill, et al) were for a long time the pride of the city. Although, these mills have been shut down - a few have even been dismantled - Indore still has a regional stronghold in wholesale garment business. Textile Exporters like Arham Syntex P. Ltd., Spentex, etc. have come up in recent which are exporting Yarns and Cotton and have global presence. Indore was always a major center for retailing industry. Indore also boasts of being the best shopping destination in central India. The construction of several new shopping malls like the Treasure Island, Mangal City, Orbit, M2K Mega Mall , Cine Mall, Indore Center, C21 Mall (10 Floor Mall)and more coming soon, have helped it manage this reputation. There are traditional markets near Jawahar marg, Rajwada, Siyaganj and Ranipura, where there are wholesellers of almost all sorts of goods. Jail road market has become the biggest whole sale & retail market in the region for mobile accessory & repairing,
ndore has been touted as the commercial capital of Madhya Pradesh. Formerly a major trading centre, the city, along with its satellite townships of Pithampur and Dewas, has established itself as a strong industrial base. The era of liberalisation has seen Indore at the forefront of a number of privatisation initiatives which include the country's first toll road and private telephone network. In the midst of such vibrant industrial activity, the city maintains its link with its glorious past. Indore has witnessed the reign of one of the greatest women in Indian history, Rani Ahilyabai Holkar. Malhar Rao Holkar, the father-in-law of Ahilyabai was bestowed Indrashwar or Indrapur (from which the name Indore was derived) by the Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao. Widowed when she was barely out of her teens Rani Ahilyabai took the responsibility of Indore into her own hands and was instrumental in planning and building this city. 14 generations of the Holkar dynasty ruled Indore for 220 years. On 16th June 1948, the Holkar State was officially merged with the Indian republic.
Indore is well connected by road, rail and air with the Agra-Mumbai highway passing through the city. It is strategically located, being in close proximity to Mumbai (593 km) and Delhi (807 km) both of which are connected by daily flights operated by Jet Airways and Indian Airlines.
The city boasts one of India's best business schools - the Indian Institute of Management.There are also a number of good engineering colleges like 1. Shri Govindram Seksaria Institute of Technology and Science (SGSITS, formerly also known as GSTI) 2. Institute of Engineering and Technology (DAVV) 3. Shri Vaishnav Institute of Technology and Science (SVITS) 4. Medicaps institute of technology and management (MITM) 5. IES-IPSA (Institute of Engg. & Science - IPS Academy) 6.INDORE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY(IIST) which are imparting quality education to the students in the field of technology and engineering .
The Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College is well known, both nationally and abroad.
Institute of Management Studies (IMS) and International Institute Of Professional Studies (IIPS)are other esteemed colleges of Indore. These institutes offer courses that are provided only by very selected colleges in the country ie Courses like integrated MCA(6yrs), MTech (5 1/2 yrs). IMS and IIPS boast of an extensive network of alumni in various arenas and industries. In addition, the Holkar Science College has been regarded as one of the most prestigious colleges of science in the country for much of the last century. It is also one of the oldest science college, it was established in 10th June 1891.
The city does not fall behind in primary and secondary education. Perhaps the best known school is the Daly College, , which is rated amongst the top schools of the country. Other good schools include Choithram School, Columbia Convent H.S. School, Delhi Public School, Golden International School, Daisy Dales School, The Emerald Heights International school (affiliated to Cambridge University (UK)), Guru Harkrishan Public School, Imperial Academy, Indore Keraleeya Samajam Public School, Indore Public School, New Digamber Public School Ndps, South Indian Cultural Association School (SICA school), Sri Sathya Sai Vidya Vihar, Indore, St. Paul's Higher Secondary School, St. Raphael's Girls School, Vidyasagar School (principled by noted educationist and president awardee Mr. S.k. Joshi ). New Golden H.S.School(Estd. 1976) The Navodaya Vidyalaya for Indore district is situated in Manpur, 45 kilometres from main city.
Raja Ramanna Centre for Advance Technology, formerly Center of Advance Technology, is one of India's foremost scientific research institutions. It is primarily devoted to atomic research.
Indore has developed as a big hub for preparing students for higher education. There are a number of coaching centers that prepare students for entering into various Indian and international educational institutions.
Now Indore can boast the only city in the country to have both IIM - The Indian Institute of Management and the IIT - Indian Institute of Technology.
The city has local tv stations from various companies. Major local channels are either by Raj tv, Bhaskar tv or SR tv
Devi Ahilya University (Indore University) offers a graduation course in Journalism and Mass Communication.
The Indore Press club is an affiliate of the National Press Club. The city has 5 radio stations, viz., Superhits 93.5 SFM (Owned by South Asia FM Ltd.), Radio Mirchi 98.3FM (the very first private radio station of India),My FM (by bhaskar group), Big FM (by Reliance ADA group}, Akashvani station (Government Owned).
Indore is also a traditional powerhouse for the game of basketball which has been growing in popularity over the last 3 to 4 decades. Indore is also the home of India's first National Basketball Academy and a world class indoor basketball stadium. Indore has successfully organised various National Basketball Championships.
List of Grounds
Central Gymkhana Ground, Indore
Daly College Ground, Indore
Emerald High School Ground, Indore
Industrial Training Institute Ground, Indore
Maharani Usharaje Trust Cricket Ground, Indore
Nehru Stadium, Indore
Yeshwant Club Ground, Indore
The list of noted cricketers include Col. C. K. Naidu, Captain Mushtaq Ali, Narender Hirwani, Amay Khurasia and Sanjay Jagdale. Other well-known sportspersons are late Dr. Sharma (Basketball) and Manas Mishra (football/soccer). Dhyanchand Shnakar Laxman & Saleem Sherwani Hocey Player also From Indore (Mhow tehsil) Another upcoming sport is football (soccer). Pioneered by floodlit 5-a-side tournaments in Yeshwant Club, it is gaining popularity all over the city. Yeshwant Club is Indore's number one club house & one of the premier clubs of India. It also has Mini Golf Course, Lawn Tennis Courts, Racquet Ball courts, Badminton, Swimming, Gymnasium, Billiards Room, Library, Jogging tracks and other sports. Members of the club get together on various occasions. It also has a restaurant & a bar. Yeshwant Club is situated at Yeshwant Colony i.e., M.G. Road & Race Course Road. Indore Tennis Club is on the backside of Yeshwant Club.
The famous Yeshwant Club Ground in Indore, the scene of many heroic deeds by the legendary Holkar team of the 1940s, has since been superseded by the Nehru Stadium, which sports a statue of CK Nayudu, Indore's favourite son of that era, outside its main entrance as a concession to tradition. India have won only one of their six ODI's at this venue, which includes one tie against Zimbabwe in the Hero Cup of 1993-94 and one 'No Result' against Sri Lanka four seasons later. The latter match was called off after just three overs, both captains concurring with the match referee that the pitch was too dangerous to be played on. An exhibition match was held instead to indulge a 25,000 crowd. Indore was briefly suspended from staging games, but it was again taken off the list of grounds after Australia played an ODI in 2000-01 even though extensive work has been undertaken to modernise the venue.
The first one-dayer was in 1983-84, but by far the most arresting performance at the Nehru Stadium was been Ian Botham's bludgeoning 48 ball hundred in 1981-82 against a respectable Central Zone attack comprising Gopal Sharma, Rajinder Singh Hans and Parthasarathy Sharma. Botham survived two chances before his luck finally ran out on 122, collected from 55 balls and decorated with 16 fours and seven sixes. Mike Gatting at the other end made just 10 in the same time.
Indore is prominent in India for its universal health care facilities with leading hospitals and pharmaceutical companies.
The prominent hospitals of Indore include
Apart from these, there are many other mid size and small nursing homes and care centres catering to various ailments.
Indore is a major regional hub for medical care and there are adequate facilities available for Cadiothoracic and Bypass surgeries, Sleep Studies, Allergy Test, Immunotherapy, Total knee and hip replacement. The Facilities are rated 8th in Rank in India by One of prominent Magazine.
Over the years the city of Indore has welcomed people from all castes, creed and color. People from all corners of the country have migrated & settled in the heart of Madhya Pradesh for their livelihood, education or just for its peaceful culture. Indore today can boast of being a true cosmopolitan city with multi ethnic and multilingual people living in perfect harmony.
The people are highly social and progressive which is why all cultures from south, north, east & west have mingled in the life of Indorians reflecting the true spirit of unity in diversity.
The mixed culture can be invariably seen in the typical food habits ranging from South Indian 'Idli-Dosa' , 'Vada-Sambhar' to 'Dal-Bafla' typical Malwa Food.
Indore is known for its wide variety of "Namkeens", Gujarati and Indochineserestaurants, and Bengali & Rajasthani sweets.'''
The staple food (snacks) of the city is Poha-Jalebi. People are also fond of Sabudane-ki-Khichdi. Life in Indore starts early with cups of 'Chai' (tea) with Poha & Jalebi followed by lunch which invariably includes popular 'besan' (gram flour) preparations. Later in the day one can easily find snacks like 'Khaman', 'Kachori' - 'aloo kachori', 'dal kachori', 'Dahi Chat', 'Tokri Chat', 'samosa', 'petis', 'Baked Samosa', 'Bhel puri', 'Pani Puri', 'mathri' etc. Numerous shops of sweets have enjoyed nice business in Indore. Late nights another market comes alive at 11:00 PM in Sarafa (in the heart of city) where one finds lots of delicacies to enjoy after a nice dinner like - 'Gajak','Bhutte ka kis', 'Dahi Bada' 'Gulab Jamun', 'garadu', 'Rabri', 'aalo tikiya', 'Halwa (JMB Gajar, Moong)', icecreams, milkshakes, rabdi (milk custard), malpuye, etc. and finally tasty 'paan' to end your day.
Indore is also famous for it's nonvegitarian cuisine. Muglai dishes are very famous. Gastronomous Chicken Lollipops, Chicken-Tikka, 'Murg-Malai', 'Biryani', 'Nalli Gosht', 'Paye' and often nahari gosht is very famous. Bafle-Gosht is a delicacy of Indore and Malwa Region.
Sweets: Moong ka Halwa, Gajar ka Halwa, Rabri Gulab Jamun, Ras Malai, Ras Gulla, Mithe Tukade, Bengali Sweets and the thick Shikanji.
Savouries: Sev with all its varieties, Mixtures , Dhania-Chivda, Dal Moth, Papdi, Gathiya, Khaman, Kachori-Samosa, Petis, Garadu, Aalo Tikiya, Pani-Puri, Bhel-Puri, Saboodana Khichadi, Dahi Bada, Pakoda, Bhutte ka Kis.
Drinks: Shikanji (Milk Preparation+Dry Fruits), Lassi, Cold Milk, Hot Boiled Milk with Malai & dry fruits+keshar, Jal-Jira, Nimboo Shikanji, Fruit Juice, Shakes, Ice cream Soda, Santrola.
Politically, Indore is a traditional BJP (Bharatiya Janta Party) stronghold.
Total Number of Parliamentary Seats: 1
Total Number of Constituencies for State Assembly : 9
City Mayor: Ms. Uma Shashi Sharma
District Collector: Rakesh Shrivastava - IAS
Suprindent of Police: R. K. Chowdhary - IPS
Indore Development Authority President: Madhu Verma
Hat-trick of GATE toppers from Indore: 2000:Lokesh Kumath, 2001:Arnold D'zouza, 2002:Sachin Nagar