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World War II casualties

World War II was humanity's deadliest war, causing tens of millions of deaths. The tables below provide a detailed country-by-country count of human losses.

Total human losses

The total estimated human loss of life caused by World War II was roughly 72 million people, making it the deadliest and most destructive war in human history. The civilian toll was around 47 million, including 20 million deaths due to war-related famine and disease. The military toll was about 25 million, including the deaths of about 4 million prisoners of war in captivity. The Allies lost approximately 61 million people, and the Axis powers lost 11 million.

Recent historical scholarship

World War II casualty statistics vary to a great extent. Estimates of the death toll range from 50 million to over 70 million. Recent historical scholarship has shed new light on the casualties of World War II. Research in Russia since the fall of communism has revised the estimate of Soviet war dead. Losses of the USSR, within postwar borders, are now estimated at 26.6 million. Historians in post-communist Poland now estimate the losses of Polish citizens at between 4.9 and 5.1 million in German hands. , The German Army historian Dr. Rüdiger Overmans published a study in 2000 that estimated German military dead and missing at 5.3 million. The war dead totals on this page for the British Commonwealth are based on the research by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission to identify and commemorate Commonwealth war dead.. The casualties listed here include about 12 million war related famine deaths in China, Indonesia, French Indochina and India that are often omitted from other compilations of World War II casualties.

Casualties by country

The casualties of World War II were suffered disproportionately by the various participants. This is especially true regarding civilian casualties. The following chart gives data on the casualties suffered by each country, along with population information to show the relative impact of losses. Military casualties include battle deaths and personnel missing in action, as well as fatalities due to accidents, disease and deaths of prisoners of war in captivity. Civilian casualties include deaths caused by strategic bombing, Nazi persecution, Japanese war crimes, population transfers in the Soviet Union and deaths due to war related famine and disease. Jewish losses in the Holocaust are listed separately for each nation, since they are known. Compiling or estimating the numbers of deaths caused during wars and other violent conflicts is a controversial subject. Historians often put forward many different estimates of the numbers killed during World War II. The distinction between military and civilian casualties caused directly by warfare and collateral damage is not always clear cut. For nations that suffered huge losses such as the U.S.S.R, China, Poland and Yugoslavia, our sources can give us only the total estimated population loss caused by the war and a rough estimate of the breakdown between deaths caused by military activity, crimes against humanity and war related famine. The footnotes give a detailed breakdown of the casualties and their Citing sources.

Human Losses of World War Two by Country
Country Population 1939 Military deaths Civilian deaths Jewish Holocaust deaths Total deaths Deaths as % of 1939 population
1,073,000 28,000 200 28,200 2.63%
6,998,000 39,400 700 40,100 0.57%
6,653,000 40,500 65,000 105,500 1.59%
8,387,000 12,100 49,600 24,400 86,100 1.02%
40,289,000 1,000 1,000 2,000 0.00%
6,458,000 22,000 3,000 25,000 0.38%
16,119,000 22,000 250,000 272,000 1.16%
11,267,000 45,300 45,300 0.40%
517,568,000 3,800,000 16,200,000 20,000,000 3.86%
4,235,000 100 100 0.00%
15,300,000 25,000 43,000 277,000 345,000 2.25%
3,795,000 2,100 1,000 100 3,200 0.08%
1,134,000 48,000 1,000 49,000 4.62%
17,700,000 5,000 95,000 100,000 0.6%
3,700,000 95,000 2,000 97,000 2.62%
41,700,000 217,600 267,000 83,000 567,600 1.35%
24,600,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 4.07%
69,623,000 5,533,000 1,600,000 160,000 7,293,000 10.47%
7,222,000 20,000 220,000 71,300 311,300 4.31%
9,129,000 300,000 80,000 200,000 580,000 6.35%
119,000 200 200 0.17%
378,000,000 87,000 1,500,000 1,587,000 0.42%
69,435,000 4,000,000 4,000,000 5.76%
14,340,000 200 200 0.00%
3,698,000 1,000 1,000 0.03%
2,960,000 200 200 0.00%
44,394,000 301,400 145,100 8,000 454,500 1.02%
71,380,000 2,120,000 580,000 2,700,000 3.78%
23,400,000 378,000 378,000 1.6%
1,995,000 147,000 80,000 227,000 11.38%
2,575,000 212,000 141,000 353,000 13.71%
295,000 1,300 700 2,000 0.68%
4,391,000 100,000 100,000 2.28%
269,000 1,500 1,500 0.56%
19,320,000 100 100 0.00%
819,000 300 300 0.04%
8,729,000 15,800 109,300 106,000 231,100 2.65%
300,000 1,000 100 1,100 0.37%
1,629,000 11,900 11,900 0.67%
2,945,000 3,000 5,800 700 9,500 0.32%
16,000,000 57,000 90,000 147,000 0.92%
Micronesia 1,900,000 57,000 57,000 3.00%
34,849,000 240,000 2,360,000 3,000,000 5,600,000 16.07%
500,000 55,000 55,000 11.00%
19,934,000 300,000 64,000 469,000 833,000 4.22%
728,000 50,000 50,000 6.87%
10,160,000 11,900 11,900 0.12%
168,500,000 10,700,000 11,400,000 1,000,000 23,100,000 13.71%
25,637,000 4,500 4,500 0.02%
6,341,000 200 2,000 2,200 0.03%
4,210,000 100 100 0.00%
15,023,000 5,600 300 5,900 0.04%
47,760,000 382,600 67,800 450,400 0.94%
131,028,000 416,800 1,700 418,500 0.32%
15,400,000 446,000 514,000 67,000 1,027,000 6.67%
Totals 1,961,913,000 25,273,700 41,743,400 5,754,400 72,771,500 3.71%

Notes

  • Figures rounded to the nearest hundredth place.
  • Population in 1939 - Source: Population Statistics
  • War losses are for the national boundaries of 1939.
  • Total Soviet losses in the postwar 1946-91 boundaries were 26.6 million.
  • Total Polish losses in the postwar 1946 boundaries were 2,723,000.
  • Total Romanian losses in the postwar 1946 boundaries. were 460,000
  • Military Deaths - Losses include deaths of regular military forces from combat as well as non combat causes. Partisan (military) and Resistance fighter deaths forces are included with military losses. The deaths of prisoners of war in captivity and personnel missing in action are also included with military deaths. The armed forces of the various nations are treated as single entities, for example the deaths of Austrians, Soviets, French and ethnic Germans in the Wehrmacht are included with German military losses.
    Prisoner of war deaths in Nazi captivity totaled 3.1 Million600,000 in Soviet captivity .
    POW deaths in Japanese captivity totaled 467,000. Detailed by country: China 400,000 . ; Netherlands-Military 8,500 ; U.K. 12,430 ; U.K. Colonies 11,060 ; Canada 270 ; Philippines 27,260.; Australia 7,410; and the United States 12,643
  • Civilian Deaths - Includes losses from military action and war related deaths caused by famine and disease.
    The Holocaust took the lives of between 5.1 to 6.0 million Jews. Other groups persecuted and killed by the Nazis . included 130,000 to 500,000 Gypsies ; 150,000 to 200,000 handicapped persons ; 2.6 to 3 million Soviet prisoners of war; 1.8 to 1.9 million Poles ; 4.5 to 8.2 million Soviet civilians ; about 10,000 Gay men; about 1,000 Jehovah's Witnesses ; between 1,000 to 2,000 Roman Catholic clergy and an unknown number of Freemasons . "The fate of black people from 1933 to 1945 in Nazi Germany and in German-occupied territories ranged from isolation to persecution, sterilization, medical experimentation, incarceration, brutality, and murder." From 1933-1939 the number of German deaths in Nazi concentration camps were 165,415, primarily Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, and trade union leaders.
    The civilian victims of Japanese war crimes totaled 5,469,000. Detailed by country: China 3,695,000; Indochina 457,000; Korea 378,000; Indonesia 375,000; Malaya 346,000 ; Philippines 119,000, Burma 60,000 and Pacific Islands 57,000. ..
    The deaths of 400,000 civilians deported during the Soviet annexations in 1939-40 are included with World War II casualties.Civilian losses in the postwar era (1946-47) due to famine and disease are not included with these losses.
  • Jewish Holocaust Deaths. 5.7 million (78%) of the 7.3 million Jews in German dominated Europe perished in the war.-
  • Sources - The footnotes list the details of the losses and their sources.

Casualties by alliance

Casualties by branch of service

Casualties of World War Two by Branch of Service
Country Branch of service Number served Killed/missing Wounded Prisoner of war Percent killed
Germany Army 13,600,000 4,202,000 30.9%
Air Force 2,500,000 433,000 17.32%
Navy 1,200,000 138,000 11.5%
Waffen SS 900,000 314,000 34.9%
Volkssturm and Police 231,000
Soviet citizens in German military service 215,000
Unidentified by branch of service (see note below) 6,035,000 11,100,000
Japan Army 6,300,000 1,526,000 85,600 30,000 24.22%
Navy 2,100,000 414,900 8,900 10,000 19.76%
Soviet Union 1939-40 All branches of service 136,945 205,924
Soviet Union 1941-45 All branches of service 34,476,700 8,668,400 14,685,593 4,059,000 25.1%
Conscripted Reservists (see note below) 1,500,000 1,200,000
Paramilitary and Soviet partisan units 400,000
British Commonwealth All branches of service 11,115,000 580,000 475,000 318,000 5.2%
United States Army 11,260,000 318,274 565,861 2.8%
United States Army Air Forces(included in Army) (3,400,000) (88,119) (17,360) 2.5%
Navy 4,183,446 62,614 37,778 1.5%
Marine Corps 669,100 24,511 68,207 3.66%
United States Coast Guard 241,093 1,917 0.78%
United States Merchant Marine 243,000 9,521 12,000 3.9%
Unidentified by branch of service 130,201

Notes

Germany

  1. The number killed in action was 2,303,320; died of wounds, disease or accidents 500,165; 11,000 sentenced to death by court martial; 2,007,571 missing in action or unaccounted for after the war; 25,000 suicides; 12,000 unknown ; 459,475 confirmed POW deaths, of whom 77,000 were in the custody of the U.S., UK and France; and 363,000 in Soviet custody. POW deaths includes 266,000 in the post war period after June 1945, primarily in Soviet captivity;.
  2. Dr. Rüdiger Overmans believes that “It seems entirely plausible, while not provable,that one half of the missing were killed in action, the other half however in fact died in Soviet custody”
  3. Soviet sources list the deaths of 474,967 of the 2,652,672 German Armed Forces POW taken in the War.
  4. The number of wounded includes 1,600,000 permanently disabled which was listed in Geschichte Des Zweiten Weltkrieges A.G. Plötz 1960. P. 81

USSR

  1. The official recorded military war dead from 1941-45 were 8,668,400 comprising 6,329,600 combat related deaths, 555,500 non combat deaths.., 500,000 missing in action and 1,283,300 POWs.. Figures include Navy losses of 154,771. Non combat deaths include 157,000 sentenced to death by court martial
  2. Casualties in 1939-40 include the following dead and missing, Battle of Khalkhin Gol in 1939 (8,931); Invasion of Poland of 1939 (1,139); Winter War with Finland (1939-40) (126,875).
  3. The number of wounded includes 2,576,000 permanently disabled.
  4. The number of Soviet POW who survived the war was 1,836,000, plus and additional 939,700 POW and MIA who were redrafted as territory was liberated
  5. Conscripted reservists is an estimate of men called up, primarily in 1941, who were killed in battle or died as POWs before being listed on active strength.
  6. Estimated total Soviet military war dead fom 1941-45 on the Eastern Front (World War II) including missing in action, POWs and Soviet partisans range from 8.6 to 10.6 million. There were an additional 127,000 war dead in 1939-40 during the Winter War with Finland

British Commonwealth

  1. Number served: UK & Crown Colonies (5,896,000); India (2,582,000), Australia (993,000); Canada (1,100,000); New Zealand (295,000); South Africa (250,000).
  2. Total war related deaths reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission: UK & Crown Colonies (383,038); India (86,838), Australia (40,376); Canada (45,363); New Zealand (11,929); South Africa (11,902);.
  3. Wounded: UK & Crown Colonies (284,049); India (64,354), Australia (39,803); Canada (53,174); New Zealand (19,314); South Africa (14,363)
  4. Prisoner of war: UK & Crown Colonies (180,488); India (79,481); Australia (26,358); South Africa (14,750); Canada (9,334); New Zealand (8,415)
  5. The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars.

U.S.

  1. Battle deaths were 292,131, Army 234,874, Navy 36,950, Marine Corps 19,733, Coast Guard 574, and United States Army Air Forces (included in Army) 52,173
  2. The United States Merchant Marine war dead of 9,521 are included with military losses ..
  3. During World War Two 1.2 million African Americans served in the Armed Forces and 708 were killed in combat. 350,000 American women served in the military during World War Two and 16 were killed in action.

Footnotes

  1. Albania
    War dead listed here are from Albania : a country study Federal Research Division, Library of Congress ; edited by Raymond E. Zickel and Walter R. Iwaskiw. 2nd ed. 1994 ISBN 0-8444-0792-5. Available online at Federal Research Division of the U.S. Library of Congress, go to 'Country Studies-Albania' -Chapter 5: Sec-World War Two.
    Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 200.
  2. Austria
    Military war dead of 260,749 are included with Germany. Civilian war dead included 24,000 killed by military operations, including Allied Strategic Bombing.and 10,000 victims of Nazi political persecution from 1939 to 1945,the genocide of Roma people of 6,500 persons and Jewish Holocaust victims totaling 65,000.
  3. Australia
    The war dead listed here are those reported by the Australian War Memorial website article, Australian Military Statistics: WWII- Australian civilian deaths were due primarily to Air raids on Australia, 1942–43 and Axis naval activity in Australian waters
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission.reports total deaths were 40,463, which included Army (26,516), Air Force (11,105), Navy (2,315), Merchant Navy (440), unidentified by branch of service (1), and civilian deaths (86). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47 (1,731) The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars.
    The preliminary 1945 data for Australian losses was killed 23,365, missing 6,030, wounded 39,803 and POW 26,363.
  4. Belgium
    Military war dead included 8,800 killed, 500 missing in action, 200 executed, 800 resistance movement fighters and 1,800 POWs. Civilian losses included deaths due to military operations of 32,200 and 16,900 non-Jewish victims of Nazi reprisals and repression. Losses of about 10,000 in the German Armed Forces are not included in these figures. The genocide of Roma people was 500 persons.Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 24,387.
  5. Brazil
    The Brazilian Expeditionary Force war dead were 510, Navy losses in the Battle of the Atlantic were 492. Civilian losses due to attacks on merchant shipping were 470 merchant mariners and 502 passengers.
  6. Bulgaria
    Bulgarian military war dead were as follows, 2,000 military with Axis in Yugoslavia and Greece; 10,124 military dead as allies of the USSR and 10,000 Anti-Fascist Partisan deaths. Regarding partisan and civilian casualties Vadim Erlikman notes " According to the official data of the royal government 2,320 were killed and 199 executed. The communists claim that 20-35,000 persons died. In reality deaths were 10,000, including and unknown number of civilians." 3,000 civilians were killed by Anglo-American air raids; including 1,374 in Bombing of Sofia in World War II.
  7. Burma
    Military dead of 22,000 were with the pro-Japanese Burma National Army Civilian deaths during the Japanese occupation of Burma totaled 250,000; 110,000 Burmese, plus 100,000 Indian and 40,000 Chinese civilians in Burma..
  8. Canada
    The war dead listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Total deaths were 45,365 which included Army (24,530), Air Force (17,394), Navy (2,169), Merchant Navy (1,270), unidentified by branch of service(1), and civilian deaths(2). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47 (1,298) However, the Canadian War Museum puts military losses at 42,000 plus 1,600 Merchant Navy deaths CANADIAN VIRTUAL WAR MEMORIAL contains a registry of information about the graves and memorials of more than 116,000 Canadians and Newfoundlanders who served valiantly and gave their lives for their country. Newfoundland's losses are not included in these figures and are listed separately since it was not part of Canada during World War II. The preliminary 1945 data for Canadian losses was killed 37,476, missing 1,843, wounded 53,174 and POW 9,045.
  9. China
    The official Chinese Communist statistics of China's civilian and military casualties in the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937-1945 are 20 million dead and 15 million wounded. The figures for total military casualties, killed and wounded are: Nationalist 3.2 million; Communist 580,000 and collaborator forces 1.18 million; captured: collaborator forces 950,000.
    A study based on Chinese Nationalist sources estimates total war deaths of 15-20 million from all causes: military casualties: 1.5 million killed in battle, 750,000 missing in action, 1.5 million deaths due to disease and 3 million wounded; civilian casualties: due to military activity, killed 1,073,496 and 237,319 wounded; 335,934 killed and 426,249 wounded in Japanese air attacks
    John W. Dower has noted “ So great was the devastation and suffering in China that in the end it is necessary to speak of uncertain “millions” of deaths. Certainly, it is reasonable to think in general terms of approximately 10 million Chinese war dead, a total surpassed only by the Soviet Union” .R. J. Rummel's estimate of total war dead from 1937-45 is 19,605,000. The details are as follows:
    Military dead: 3,400,000(including 400,000 POW ) Nationalist/Communist and 432,000 collaborator forces .
    Civilian war deaths: 3,808,000 killed in fighting and 3,549,000 victims of Japanese war crimes(not including an additional 400,000 POWs);
    Other deaths: Repression by Chinese Nationalist's 5,907,000 (including 3,081,000 military conscripts and 2,826,00 civilian deaths caused by Nationalist government, including the 1938 Yellow River flood; political repression by Chinese Communists 250,000 and by Warlords 110,000. Additional deaths due to famine were 2,250,000.
  10. Cuba
    Cuba lost 5 merchant ships and 79 dead merchant mariners The Cuban sub chaser CS-13 sank U-176 on May 15,1943.
  11. Czechoslovakia
    Military war dead of 25,000 included Killed during 1938 occupation(171); Czechoslovak Forces with the western allies (3,220); Czechoslovak military units on Eastern front (4,570); Slovak Republic (WWII) Axis forces (7,000); Partisan (military) losses of (2,170) and killed in 1945 uprising(8,000).--Totals do not include an additional estimated 30,000 dead in Hungarian Army. Civilian losses in include killed during 1938 occupation(262); non Jewish victims of Nazi reprisals (26,500) and killed in military operations (10,000)).-- Civilian losses include the territories of prewar Czechoslovakia, including Carpathian Ruthenia which was ceded to the USSR after the war. The genocide of Roma people was 7,500 persons.Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 277,000.
  12. Denmark
    During the Occupation of Denmark military war dead included 1,281Merchant Marine, 797 resistance fighters and 49 Army personnel. Civilian deaths included 628 victims of Nazi reprisals and 440 killed during military operations. The 3,900 Danish deaths in German military service are included with German losses. Figures are from Danish Military Historie website
    It has been argued that the disproportionately low figure for Danish dead is due mainly to the non violent policy of the Danish resistance movement during the occupation (see video: "A Force More Powerful", OCLC 45399754).
    Deaths of Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 77.
  13. Estonia
    Includes the 34,000 civilian losses due to the Soviet occupation in 1940-41 (including the 13,800 deaths of arrested and deported people , 5,000 deaths of people evacuated to the Soviet Union, the 1,100 people gone missing during the occupation, and the 14,000 perishes of Estonian conscripts en route to Soviet Union and in the work battalions of the rear), and the 15,000 civilian deaths due to the war (including the 7800 people executed by German authorities, the 5,000 people executed in 1944 - 1945 by Soviet authorities and more). Does not include military dead with Soviet(10,000 – 13,000) and German Armed Forces(10,000 – 22,000). Total deaths from 1940-53 due the war and the Soviet occupation were 81,000(8% of the population). The genocide of Roma people was 243 people, Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 1,000.
  14. Ethiopia
    Total military and civilian dead in the East African Campaign were 100,000.. Military losses were 5,000.
    These totals do not include losses in the Italian Second Italo-Abyssinian War and Italian occupation from 1935-41. The official Ethiopian government report lists 760,000 deaths due to the war and Italian occupation from 1935-41. . However, R. J. Rummel estimates 200,000 Ethiopians and Libyans killed by the Italians from the 1920's-41, his estimate is " based on Discovery TV Cable Channel Program "Timewatch" 1/17/92.
  15. Finland
    Figures include killed and missing from the Winter War and Continuation War with the Soviet Union as well as action against German forces in 1944-45, Winter War (1939-40) losses were 22,830, military deaths from 1941-44 were 58,715 and 1,036 in 1944-45 in the Lapland War The Finnish Defense Forces website lists the names of the 95,000 Finnish military war dead , which includes 2,400 soldiers who died after the war due to their wounds. Soviet sources list the deaths of 403 of the 2,377 Finnish POW taken in the War. During the Winter war of 1939-40 the Swedish Volunteer Corps served alongside the Finns and lost 28 men in combat. 1,407 Finnish volunteers served in the German SS-Volunteer Battalion Nordost and 256 were killed in action. On November 6, 1942, eight foreign Jewish refugees (out of more than 500 Jewish refugees) were handed over to the Germans. Although the exact reason for their handover is not known, Finland did not enforce anti-Semitic racial policies, leaving this case as isolated among more than 500 Jewish refugees who were granted asylum.
  16. France
    Military war dead include 150,000 regular forces(1939-40 Battle of France 92,000; 1940-45 on Western Front (World War II) 58,000); 20,000 French resistance fighters and 40,000 POWs in Germany. There were an additional 5,000 military deaths in French Indochina. The pro-German Vichy France forces lost 2,653 killed. Vadim Erlikman, a Russian historian, estimates losses of Africans in the French Colonial Forces at about 22,000. French deaths in German Army (30-40,000), mostly men conscripted in Alsace-Lorraine, are not included in these totals.
    Civilian losses include 120,000 killed due to military action and 230,000 victims of the Nazi reprisals and genocide(including 83,000 Jews).The genocide of Roma people was 15,000 persons.Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 83,000.
  17. French Indochina
    Deaths due to Vietnamese Famine of 1945 during Japanese occupation
  18. Germany
    The 1939 Population is for Germany within 1937 borders and the Free City of Danzig. Not included in the German population are Austria and the 6,912,000 ethnic Germans of eastern Europe However, the 534,000 military deaths of ethnic Germans in eastern Europe and 261,000 from Austria are included with total German losses.
  19. Dr. Rűdiger Overmans of the German Armed Forces Military History Research Office has provided a reassessment of German military war dead based on a statistical analysis of German military personnel records.. Overmans concluded that these losses were 5,318,0000.. , not including the deaths of 215,000 Soviet citizens conscripted by Germany . German losses were previously estimated at 4.5 million, Overmans includes 344,000 deaths that were previously listed as civilian losses in eastern Europe and 230,000 as paramilitary, Volkssturm and police forces fighting with the regular forces. Overmans lists the following losses- Africa 16,066; the Balkans 103,693; Northern Europe 30,165; Western Europe until 12/31/44- 339,957; Italy 150,660; against the U.S.S.R. until 12/31/44- 2,742,909; final battles in Germany during 1945-1,230,045; other (including air war in Germany & at sea ) 245,561; confirmed deaths of POWs in captivity 459,475(including 363,000 in Soviet captivity)- Grand Total 5.318 million. Overmans lists losses of 4,456,000 from pre-war Germany, 261,000 from Austria, 534,000 ethnic Germans from eastern Europe, 30,0000 French and 37,000 volunteers from western Europe. Included in the total of 5.3 Million war dead are 2.0 Million men listed as missing in action or unaccounted for after the war.Dr. Rüdiger Overmans believes that “It seems entirely plausible, while not provable,that one half of the missing were killed in action, the other half however in fact died in Soviet custody” Soviet sources list the deaths of 474,967 of the 2,652,672 German Armed Forces POW taken in the War.
    For a critical analysis of the statistical methodology of Overmans see In addition to these losses the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht reported the losses of Soviet citizens serving in the German military separately, these losses were not included in the Overmans analysis of German casualties.. A Russian source, G. I. Krivosheev reported these losses as 215,000. In this schedule they are included with German military war dead.
  20. Civilian war dead include 360-370,000 killed by Strategic bombing within the 1937 German boundaries. 762,000 victims of Nazi persecution and genocide from 1933 to 1945 including political prisoners, victims of the Action T4 euthanasia program, Gay men and 160,000 German Jews .
    German civilian deaths due to the expulsion of Germans after World War II were estimated in 1958 to be 2.3 million However Rűdiger Overmans points out that only about 500,000 are confirmed deaths, the balance being estimated deaths. .A study published by the German government in 1989 estimated the death toll at about 635,000. (270,000) as the result of Red Army atrocities,(160,000) during the expulsion of Germans after World War II and (205,000) in the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union
    The genocide of Roma people was 15,000 persons. Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 160,000.
  21. In 1949 the West German government estimate of war losses, of the population in the borders of 1937 Germany only, was 3,250,000 military dead and missing plus 500,000 civilian dead and 1,533,000 missing civilians. In 1956 these figures were revised; 3,760,000 military dead and missing, 410,000 civilians killed by Strategic bombing and 1,260,000 civilians killed in the expulsions from Poland.. These figures were for Germany in 1937 borders only and did not include additional losses from Austria (280,000 military and 24,000 civilians); ethnic Germans from eastern Europe (432,000 military and 886,000 civilians killed in expulsions); and 60,000 military deaths of men from France and western Europe. Total 4,530,000 for entire German Armed Forces and 2,556,000 civilians.
  22. Greece
    The war dead included 20,000 military deaths in the Greco-Italian War of 1940-41, 60,000 non-Jewish civilians, 20,000 non Jewish deportees and 140,000 famine deaths during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II.
    Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 71,301.
  23. Hungary
    Tamás Stark of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences has provided the following assessment of losses from 1941-45 in Hungary. Military losses were 300,000-310,000 including 110-120,000 killed in battle and 200,000 missing in action and POW in the Soviet Union. Hungarian military losses include 110,000 men who were conscripted from the annexed territories of Greater Hungary in Slovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia and the deaths of 20-25,000 Jews conscripted for Army labor units. Soviet sources list the deaths of 54,700 of the 513,700 Hungarian POW taken in the War. Civilian losses of about 80,000 include 45,500 killed in the 1944-45 military campaign and in air attacks, and the genocide of Roma people of 28,000 persons.Jewish Holocaust victims, in 1939 borders, totaled 200,000..
  24. Iceland
    Confirmed losses of civilian sailors due to German attacks and mines.
  25. Indian Empire
    1939 Population of the Indian Empire included the present day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The war dead listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Total deaths were 87,040 which included Army (79,326), Air Force (897), Navy (501), Merchant Navy (6,114), unidentified by branch of service(9), and civilian deaths(193). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47 (8,522)The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars. The preliminary 1945 data for Indian losses was, killed 24,338, missing 11,754, wounded 64,354 and POW 79,489.The pro-Japanese Indian National Army lost 2,615 dead and missing. Gurkhas recruited from Nepal fought with the British Indian Army during the Second World War.
    Civilian losses were caused by the Bengal famine of 1943.
  26. Indonesia-Dutch East Indies
    John W. Dower cites a UN report that estimated 4 million famine and forced labor dead during the Japanese Occupation of Indonesia. .
    The United Nations reported in 1947 that “about 30,000 Europeans and 300,000 Indonesian internees and forced laborers died during the occupation.” They reported, “The total number who were killed by the Japanese, or who died from, hunger, disease and lack of medical attention is estimated at 3,000,000 for Java alone, 1,000,000 for the Outer Islands. Altogether 35,000 of the 240,000 Europeans died; most of them were men of working age.”
    The Dutch Red Cross reported the deaths in Japanese custody of 14,800 European civilians out of 80,000 interned and 12,500 of the 34,000 POW captured.
  27. Iran
    Losses during allied occupation in 1941..
  28. Iraq
    Losses during Anglo-Iraqi War and UK occupation in 1941..
  29. Ireland
    Despite being neutral, Ireland suffered casualties. In 1995 Irish Taoiseach(Prime Minister)John Bruton claimed at least 10,000 Irish were killed serving in the British or Commonwealth armed forces. The civilian death figure includes 33 Irish merchantmen were killed when a U-Boat torpedoed the Irish Pine , and deaths caused by the presumably accidental bombing of Ireland in three instances. .
  30. Italy
    The official Italian government accounting of World War Two 1940-45 losses listed the following data. . Total military dead and missing from 1940-45 were 291,376, losses prior to the September 8, 1943 Armistice with Italy totaled 204,346 (66,686 killed, 111,579 missing, 26,081 died of disease), after the September 8, 1943 Armistice with Italy, 87,030 (42,916 killed, 19,840 missing, 24,274 died of disease). Losses by branch of service: Army 201,405; Navy 22,034; Air Force 9,096; Colonial Forces 354; Chaplains 91; Fascist militia 10,066; Paramilitary 3,252; not indicated 45,078. Military Losses by theatre of war: Italy 74,725 (37,573 post armistice); France 2,060 (1,039 post armistice); Germany 25,430 (24,020 post armistice); Greece, Albania & Yugoslavia 49,459 (10,090 post armistice); USSR 82,079 (3,522 post armistice); Africa 22,341 (1,565 post armistice), at sea 28,438 (5,526 post armistice); other & unknown 6,844 (3,695 post armistice). POW losses are included with military losses mentioned above. Civilian losses were 153,147 (123,119 post armistice) including 61,432 (42,613 post armistice) in air attacks. A brief summary of data from this report can be found online at - (go to Vol 13, No. 15).
    There were in addition to these losses the deaths of African soldiers conscripted by Italy which were estimated by the Italian military at 10,000 in East African Campaign of 1940-41..
    Included in the losses are 64,000 victims of Nazi reprisals and genocide including 30,000 POWs and 8,500 Jews. Soviet sources list the deaths of 28,000 of the 49,000 Italian war prisoners in Soviet Union 1942-1954 Military losses in Italy after the September 1943 Armistice with Italy, included 5,927 with the Allies, 17,488 Italian resistance movement fighters and 13,000 RSI Italian Social Republic Fascist forces. The genocide of Roma people was 1,000 persons.Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 8,562. (including Libya)
  31. Japan
    1939 Japanese population includes 1.7 million Japanese in China and Korea.
    John W. Dower reported that Japanese government figures list the military deaths of 1,740,955 from 1937-45. The details are as follows: 185,647 in China from 1937-41 and 1,555,308 from 1941-45 in the Pacific War. Army - Against US- 485,717; Against UK/Netherlands-208,026; In China-202,958; Against Australia -199,511; French Indochina -2,803; Against USSR -7,483; Other overseas -23,388; Japan proper -10,543. Navy 1941/45 -414,879."only one third of the military deaths occurred in actual combat, the majority being caused by illness and starvation". In addition there were the deaths of prisoners after the surrender. According to John W. Dower; the "Known deaths of Japanese troops awaiting repatriation in Allied (non-Soviet) hands were listed as 81,090 by U.S. authorities". An additional 300,000 Japanese prisoners died in Soviet hands after the surrender in Manchuria, Korea and the U.S.S.R.. The Japanese Ministry of Welfare and Foreign Office reported that 347,000 military personnel and civilians were dead or missing in Soviet hands after the war. The Japanese list the losses of 199,000 in Manchurian transit camps, 36,000 in North Korea, 9,000 from Sakhalin and 103,000 in the U.S.S.R.. These figures were disputed by the Soviet Union, which reported the deaths of only about 60,000 of the 609,400 Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
    Military deaths include Koreans (14,527) and Chinese from Taiwan(30,304) conscripted by Japan. Not included in Japanese war dead are 432,000 Chinese military forces collaborating with Japan.
    John W. Dower reports civilian losses due to U. S. Strategic bombing according to official Japanese figures were 393,367 dead, including 210,000 killed in the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and 97,031 in the Bombing of Tokyo in World War II. In addition to these deaths 150,000 civilians were killed on Okinawa and 10,000 on Saipan during the fighting. War related deaths of Japanese merchant marine personnel were 27,000.
    The Yasukuni Shrine in Japan lists a total of 2,325,128 military deaths from 1937-1945 including civilians who participated in combat, Chinese(Taiwan) and Koreans in the Japanese Armed Forces.
  32. Korea
    The American researcher R. J. Rummel's estimates 378,000 Korean dead due to forced labor in Japan and Manchuria. According to Rummel “Information on Korean deaths under Japanese occupation is difficult to uncover. We do know that 5,400,000 Koreans were conscripted for labor beginning in 1939, but how many died can only be roughly estimated.”..
    John W. Dower has reported “ Between 1939 and 1945, close to 670,000 Koreans were brought to Japan for fixed terms of work, mostly in mines and heavy industry, and it has been estimated that 60,000 or more of them died under harsh conditions of their work places. Over 10,000 others were probably killed in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki” .
    A Korean demographic study reports “the mortality level and the course of mortality changes among Koreans in Korea during the war, appear not to have been much affected. Even for all Koreans living in Korea, Japan and Manchuria, the impact of World War II on the trend and level of mortality is not likely to have been significant. The same source reports '6,369 Koreans to have died in the Japanese military forces, and the number rises to 14,527 when civilians attached to the military forces is added’
    Korean military forces fighting against Japan were the Korean Liberation Army under Chinese Nationalist command and the Korean Volunteer Army which fought with the Chinese Communist guerrillas.
  33. Latvia
    Includes civilian losses due to war (220,000) and Soviet occupation in 1940-41(7,000). Does not include military dead with Soviet(13,000) and German Armed Forces (24,000).Total deaths from 1940-53 due the war and the Soviet occupation were 287,000(14% of the population)The genocide of Roma people was 2,500 persons.Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 80,000
  34. Lithuania
    Includes civilian losses due to war (345,000) and Soviet occupation in 1940-41(8,000). Does not include military dead with Soviet (27,000) and German Armed Forces (8,000).Total deaths from 1940-53 due the war and the Soviet occupation were 448,000(15% of the population) The genocide of Roma people was 1,000 persons.Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 141,000
  35. Luxembourg
    Total war dead were 5,000 which included military losses of about 3,000 with the German Armed Forces and 200 in Belgian Army. The genocide of Roma people was 200 persons.Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 700.
  36. Malaysia
    Victims of forced labor and reprisals during the Japanese occupation.
  37. Malta
    Air attack victims.. The BBC has an online report on the siege of Malta
  38. Mexico
    Mexico lost 7 merchant ships and 63 dead merchant marinersA Mexican Air Force unit Escuadrón 201 served in the Pacific and suffered 5 combat deaths.
  39. Mongolia
    Military losses with USSR against Japan in the 1939 Battle of Khalkhin Gol (200) and 1945 Operation August Storm (72) campaigns.
  40. Netherlands
    Military and merchant marine deaths were: 2,900 in the 1940 Battle of the Netherlands; 900 in the 1942 Japanese occupation of Indonesia, 8,500 military POW deaths in Japanese captivity. and 3,500 Merchant Marine dead. The Australian War Memorial website reports 8,000 of the 37,0000(including 27,000 Indonesians)POW died in Japanese captivity Civilian losses in Europe of 94,450 include: 20,400 killed due to military action; 58,050 non Jewish victims of Nazi reprisals and repression; 16,000 deaths in the Dutch famine of 1944 . The Dutch Red Cross reported the deaths in Japanese custody of 14,800 European civilians out of 80,000 interned The Netherlands War Graves Foundation maintains a registry of the names of Dutch war dead. Losses of about 10,000 in the German Armed Forces are not included in these figures. The genocide of Roma people was 500 persons.Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 106,000.
  41. Newfoundland
    Newfoundland's losses are listed separately since it was not part of Canada during World War II. Military losses with UK(574) and Canadian forces(100). Source: Canadian War Museum. Military losses include 333 from the Newfoundland Merchant Navy, Civilian due to the sinking of the SS Caribou in October 1942
  42. New Zealand
    The military deaths listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Total deaths were 11,929 which included Army(7,595), Air Force(3,787), Navy(539), Merchant Navy (7) and a civilian death(1). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47(269)The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars. Details can be found online at the New Zealand Armed Forces Memorial Project The preliminary 1945 data for New Zealand losses was, killed 10,033, missing 2,129, wounded 19,314 and POW 8,453.
  43. Norway
    Military deaths were 2,000 regular forces and 1,000 resistance fighters. Civilian dead include 3,600 merchant marine. Total does not include 700 deaths with German Armed Forces. The Norwegian Foreign Ministry reported that "10,262 Norwegians had been killed, including 3,670 seamen. The Germans had executed 366 and tortured 39 to death. Among political prisoners and members of the underground, 658 died at home and 1,433 abroad. About 6,000 Norwegians had served the German war cause, and 709 of them had fallen in battle. Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 728.
  44. Philippines
    Military war dead include 7,000 in the Battle of the Philippines (1941-42), 8,000 anti-Japanese guerrillas and 42,000 (out of 98,000) POWs in Japanese captivity. Civilian losses were victims of Japanese war crimes including the Manila massacre.
  45. Micronesia
    R. J. Rummel's estimate of victims of Japanese war crimeson the various Pacific Islands is 57,000.
    The plight of the civilian population of Micronesia was the subject of a study published by the University of Hawaii, The Typhoon of War. They reported Micronesian war related civilian deaths were caused by American bombing and shellfire; and malnutrition caused by the U.S. blockade of the islands. In addition the civilian population was conscripted by the Japanese as forced laborers and were subjected to numerous mindless atrocities by the Japanese military.
    During the Battle of Guam (1944) the number of Chamorro people killed or wounded is not accurately known but it was well over six hundred. , During the Battle of Saipan 10,000 persons perished in a mass suicide of the Japanese civilian population.
  46. Poland
    Tadeusz Piotrowski Professor of Sociology at the University of New Hampshire has provided a reassessment of Poland’s losses in World War Two. Polish war dead include 5,150,000 victims of Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles and the Holocaust, 350,000 deaths during the Soviet occupation in 1940-41 and about 100,000 Poles killed in 1943-44 during the massacres of Poles in Volhynia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. Losses by ethnic group were 3,100,000 Jews; 2,000,000 ethnic Poles; 500,000 Ukrainians,Belarusians and ethnic Germans
    Losses by geographic area were 2.9 million in present day Poland and about 2.5 million in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union
    The official Polish government report prepared in 1947 claimed 6,028,000 war victims in German hands (including 123,178 military deaths, 2.8 million Poles and 3.2 million Jews), out of a population of 27,007,000 ethnic Poles and Jews; this report excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses. Losses were calculated for the territory of Poland in 1939, including the territories annexed by the U.S.S.R. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum has reported that in addition to 3 million Polish Jews killed in the Holocaust. "Documentation remains fragmentary, but today scholars of independent Poland believe that 1.8 to 1.9 million Polish civilians (non-Jews) were victims of German Occupation policies and the war",; not including deaths caused by the Soviets. This revision of estimated war losses was the topic of articles in the Polish academic journals Dzieje Najnowsze . and The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs
    Previously it was believed that about 1.0 million Polish citizens died at the hands of the Soviets ; however recently Polish historians, based on research in the Soviet archives, estimate the number of deaths at 120,000 to 350,000 people deported in 1939-1941.
    Poland lost a total of 239,800 regular soldiers and Polish resistance movement fighters during the war. . Military dead and missing were 95,000-97,000 and 130,000 wounded in the 1939 Invasion of Poland, including 17-19,000 killed by the Soviets in the Katyn massacre . The Polish contribution to World War II included the Polish Armed Forces in the West, and the 1st Polish Army fighting alongside the USSR. Total casualties of these forces in exile were 33,256 killed in action, 8,548 missing in action, 42,666 wounded and 29,385 interned. The Polish Red Cross reported that the 1944 Warsaw Uprising cost the lives of 120,000 -130,000 Polish civilians and 16-17,000 Polish resistance movement fighters .
    During the war 2,762,000 Polish citizens of German descent declared their loyalty to Germany by signing the Deutsche Volksliste. A German source lists the deaths of 108,000 Polish citizens serving in the German armed forces .
    The genocide of Roma people was 35,000 persons. Jewish Holocaust victims, in 1939 borders, totaled 3,000,000, including 2 million within the borders of contemporary Poland and 1 million in the territories annexed by the U.S.S.R , ,
  47. Timor
    Officially neutral, East Timor was occupied by Japan during 1942-45. Allied commandos initiated a guerilla resistance campaign and most deaths were caused by Japanese reprisals against the civilian population Department of Defence (Australia), 2002, "A Short History of East Timor" (Access date: January 3, 2007.)
  48. Romania
    Total Romanian military war dead were approximately 300,000. Total Killed were 93,326 (72,291 with Axis and 21,035 with allies) Total POW deaths of about 215,000; (200,000 in Soviet captivity and 15,000 in German captivity . Soviet sources list the deaths of 54,600 of the 201,800 Romanian POW taken in the War. Figures do not include an additional estimated 40,000 to 50,000 dead in Hungarian Army.
    Civilian losses of 64,000 included 20,000 during Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Bukovina in 1940-41 ; the genocide of Roma people 36,000 deaths.; Allied air raids on Romania caused the deaths of 7,693 civilians.
    Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 469,000 in 1939 borders which includes 325,000 in Bessarabia and Bukovina occupied by the U.S.S.R. in 1940.
  49. Singapore
    Victims of Japanese war crimes including the Japanese Occupation of Singapore and the Sook Ching massacre
  50. South Africa
    The losses listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission . Total deaths were 11,902 which included Army (8,782), Air Force (2,706), Navy (349), Merchant Navy (0) and civilian deaths (65). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47 (878)The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars. The preliminary 1945 data for South African losses was killed 6,840, missing 1,841 wounded 14,363 and POW 14,589.
  51. Soviet Union
    Military losses of 10.7 million include 7.7 million killed or missing in action and 2.6 million POW dead (out of 5.2 million total POWs), plus 400,000 paramilitary and Soviet partisan losses. The official total of military deaths from 1941-1945 is 8,668,400; including 6,330,000 killed in action/died of wounds and 556,000 dead from non-combat causes plus an estimated 500,000 MIA and 1,283,000 POW dead out of 4,059,000 total POW. Additional casualties in 1939-40 were 136,945 which included the following dead and missing, Battle of Khalkhin Gol in 1939 (8,931); Invasion of Poland of 1939 (1,139); Winter War with Finland (1939-40) (126,875).
    However, the estimate by western historians of Soviet military POW deaths is about 3 million out of 5.7 million total POWs in German hands Richard Overy has noted that " The official figures themselves must be viewed critically, given the difficulty of knowing in the chaos of 1941 and 1942 exactly who had been killed, wounded or even conscripted". The official statistics do not include an additional estimated 1,500,000 conscripted reservists missing or killed, primarily in 1941, before being listed on active strength,150,000 militia and 250,000 Soviet partisan dead. Total Soviet population losses included approximately 12 million men aged 18 to 39.
    The names of many Soviet war dead are presented in the OBD Memorial database online
    Civilian deaths listed here of 12.4 million are for USSR within 1939 borders , these losses do not include an estimated 3.5 million civilian dead in the territories annexed by the USSR in 1939-1945 and the 215,000 Soviet war dead in the German armed forces.-. Civilian losses in territories annexed by USSR are included in totals of the Baltic states(600,000), Poland(2,500,000) Czechoslovakia(80,000) and Romania(300,000).
    Total deaths in the USSR, including the annexed territories, exceeded the pre war level by 26.6 million from 1941-45, including an increase of 1.3 million in infant mortality, based on a study by the Russian Academy of Science , Contemporary Russian historians estimate 2.5 to 3.2 million civilian dead due to famine in Soviet territory not occupied by the Germans, these deaths are included in the total of 12.4 million Soviet civilian losses.. Additional famine deaths which totaled 1 million during 1946-47 are not included with in these figures .
    The deaths of 8.2 million Soviet civilians, including Jews, were documented from 1942-1946 by the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission. The official Soviet era statistics for war losses list 25.3 million war related deaths. Military losses of 8.7 million including 1.8 million missing in action and POW dead (out of 4.0 million total POWs). Civilian deaths in German hands totaled 13.7 million, including 7.4 million victims of Nazi genocide and reprisals; 2.2 million deaths of persons deported to Germany for forced labor; and 4.1 million famine and disease deaths in occupied territory. There were an additional estimated 3.0 million famine deaths in the territory not under German occupation. These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR in 1941, including territories annexed in 1939-40 Documents from the Soviet archives list the total deaths of prisoners in the Gulag from 1941 to 1945 at 621,637. . However, an independent Russian journalist believes the actual death toll may be as high as 1.7 million, when one takes into account summary executions and deaths of those forcibly deported during the war..
    Total Soviet military dead from 1941-45, including partisans & militia, of the individual Soviet republics were 10.5 million:
    Russia 6,750,000; Armenia 150,000; Azerbaijan 210,000; Belarus 620,000; Georgia 190,000; Moldova 41,000; Ukraine 1,620,000; Estonia 13,000; Latvia 18,000; Lithuania 27,000; Kazakhstan 310,000; Kyrgyzstan 70,00; Tajikistan 50,000; Turkmenistan 70,000; Uzbekistan 330,000.
    Total war related civilian deaths, including territories annexed 1939-45, of the individual Soviet republics were 15.7 million:
    Russia 7,200,000; Armenia 30,000; Azerbaijan 110,000; Belarus 1,670,000; Georgia 110,000; Moldova 120,000; Ukraine 5,200,000; Estonia 35,000; Latvia 220,000; Lithuania 345,000; Kazakhstan 350,000; Kyrgyzstan 50,00; Tajikistan 70,000; Turkmenistan 30,000; Uzbekistan 220,000.
    The genocide of Roma people was 30,000 persons.Jewish Holocaust victims, within 1939 borders, totaled 1,000,000.
  52. Spain
    Military deaths were of volunteer soldiers from the all Spanish Blue Division serving alongside Germany Army in the U.S.S.R. The unit was withdrawn by Spain in 1943.. R. J. Rummel estimates the deaths of 20,000 anti-Fascist Spanish refugees resident in France who were deported to Nazi camps, these deaths are included with French civilian casualties.
  53. Sweden
    During the Winter war of 1939-40 the Swedish Volunteer Corps served alongside the Finns and lost 117 men in combat (combined Swedish losses in Finland between 1939-45) About 300 Swedish volunteers served in the German Wehrmacht and 30-45 were killed in action.
    33 Swedish sailors were killed when submarine HMS Ulven was sunk by a German mine on April 16, 1943.
    187 Swedish merchant marine crew were killed by Soviet submarine attacks. Immediately following the outbreak of the Second World War, Sweden concluded war-trade agreements with Great Britain and Germany, which anticipated largely unchanged trade with both sides during the conflict., in all there were 226 sailings to and 222 sailings from Sweden within the framework of the war-trade agreements . Nine ships were lost, claiming the lives of 142 men.
    In total there were about 2000 Swedish casualties in the merchant and fishing marine, with probably several more as many Swedes served in other countries navies, and casualties amongst them has not been investigated. In total 201 Swedish merchant ships and 31 fishing vessels were sunk
  54. Switzerland
    The Americans accidentally bombed Switzerland during the war causing civilian casualties. - Losses of about 300 Swiss in the German Armed Forces are included with German casualties.
  55. Thailand
    Military deaths in French-Thai War 1940-41, the Japanese invasion, and Burma Campaign 1942-45. Civilian deaths caused by Allied bombing 1944-45. Military deaths consists of 143 officers, 474 non-commissioned officers, 4942 other ranks, and 88 field policemen. Royal Thai Armed Forces Education Department
  56. United Kingdom and Colonies
    The losses listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Total deaths were 453,000 which included Army (210,191), Air Force (84,778), Navy (59,164), Merchant Navy (28,905), unidentified by branch of service (610), and civilian deaths (69,384). These losses include war related deaths during 1946-47.(16,628) The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars. The losses of Newfoundland (905) and Malta are included in these figures but are listed separately on this schedule.
    UK casualties include losses of the colonial forces which are the topic of the following BBC article- The losses of colonial troops include 3,700 African war dead which are detailed by V. Erlikman.. UK colonial forces included units from Africa, Malaya, Burma, Ceylon, TransJordan, Cyprus, Gibraltar, Malta and the Jewish Brigade
    The official UK report on war casualties of June 1946 provided a preliminary tally of war losses. This report listed the war deaths of 357,116; Navy (50,758); Army (144,079); Air Force (69,606); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (624); Merchant Navy (30,248); British Home Guard (1,206) and Civilians (60,595). The total still missing on 2/28/1946 was 6,244; Navy (340); Army (2,267); Air Force (3,089); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (18); Merchant Navy (530); British Home Guard (0) and Civilians (0). These figures included the losses of Newfoundland and Southern Rhodesia. There were an additional 31,271 military deaths due to "natural causes" which are not included in these figures. Deaths due to air and rocket attacks were 60,595 civilians and 1,206 British Home Guard. The deaths of civilians interned was unknown at that time. The preliminary 1945 data for colonial forces was killed 6,877, missing 14,208, wounded 6,972 and POW 8,115.
  57. United States
    Total U. S. military deaths in battle and from other causes were 416,837 The breakout by service is as follows, Army 318,274 , Navy 62,614, , Marine Corps 24,511 , United States Coast Guard 1,917. . and United States Merchant Marine 9,521.. Deaths in battle were 291,131 The breakout by service is as follows, Army 234, 874 , Navy 36,950, , Marine Corps 19,733 , United States Coast Guard 574. . These losses were incurred during the period 12/1/41 until 12/31/46 including an additional 126 men in October 1941 when the USS Kearny and the USS Reuben James were attacked by U-Boats. The United States Army Air Forces losses, which are included in the Army total, were 52,173 deaths due to combat and 35,946 from non combat causes.The details of U.S. Army casualties are listed online at The details of United States Army Air Forces losses are listed online at The details of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps losses are listed online at The details of U.S. Merchant Marine casualties are listed online at
    U.S. Combat Dead by Theater of war - Europe-Atlantic 183,588; Army ground forces 141,088; United States Army Air Forces 36,461 and Navy/Coast Guard 6,039; Asia-Pacific 108,504; Army ground forces 41,592; United States Army Air Forces 15,694; Navy/Coast Guard 31,485; Marine Corps 19,733. Unidentified Theatres- Army 39 . Included in combat deaths are 14,059 POWs, in Europe (1,124) and (12,935) in Asia.
    Civilian dead were 1,704 American civilians interned, by the Japanese(1,536) and in Europe (168), which are the subject of a U.S. Congressional Research Service report. Go to page CRS-11 During the Attack on Pearl Harbor 68 U.S. civilians were killed by friendly fire and 6 U.S. civilians were killed in Oregon in 1945 by Japanese balloon bombs .
    The names of individual U.S. military personnel killed in World War II can be found at the U.S. National Archives website
    The names of U.S. Merchant Mariners killed in World War II can be found at the USMM website
    The names of the 6,043 US military personnel buried at sea, during World War II, are listed at
    The names of the 74,384 of the US personnel, who served in World War II, whose remains not recovered are listed at
    American Battle Monuments Commission website lists the names of 176,399 military and civilian war dead from World War II buried in ABMC cemeteries or listed on Walls of the Missing
    A U.S. Department of Defense report puts in the total number of US World War II missing at 73,291
    .Examples of non combat casualties within the continental United States-not listed on the ABMC website-were the Port Chicago explosion where 320 were killed and the Women Airforce Service Pilots of whom 38 lost their lives.
    "Project Priam" website lists Pacific Allied/Axis recoveries from 1958 to 2007. See
  58. Yugoslavia
    The U.S. Bureau of the Census published a report in 1954 that concluded that Yugoslav war related deaths were 1,067,000. The U.S. Bureau of the Census noted that the official Yugoslav government figure of 1.7 million war dead was overstated because it "was released soon after the war and was estimated without the benefit of a postwar census" A recent study by Vladimir Žerjavić estimates total war related deaths at 1,027,000. Military losses of 237,000 Yugoslav partisans and 209,000 Ustaše. Civilian dead of 581,000, including 57,000 Jews. Losses of the Yugoslav Republics were Bosnia 316,000; Serbia 273,000; Croatia 271,000; Slovenia 33,000; Montenegro 27,000; Macedonia 17,000; and killed abroad 80,000. . Bogoljub Kočović a statistician, who is a Bosnian Serb by ethnic affiliation, calculated that the actual war losses were 1,014,000 The late Jozo Tomasevich , Professor Emeritus of Economics at San Francisco State University, believes that the calculations of Kočović and Žerjavić “ seem to be free of bias, we can accept them as reliable”
    The reasons for the high human toll in Yugoslavia were as follows:
    A.Military operations between the Germans, Italians and their Ustaše collaborators on one hand against the Yugoslav partisans and Chetniks
    B.German forces, under express orders from Hitler, fought with a special vengeance against the Serbs, who were considered Untermensch One of the worst massacres during the German military occupation of Serbia was the Kragujevac massacre.
    C. Deliberate acts of reprisal against target populations were perpetrated by all combatants. All sides practiced the shooting of hostages on a large scale. At the end of the war Ustaše collaborators were killed during the Bleiburg massacre
    D.The systematic extermination of large numbers of people for political, religious or racial reasons. The most numerous victims were Serbs The USHMM reports between 56,000 and 97,000 persons were killed at the Jasenovac concentration camp . However, Yad Vashem reports 600,000 deaths at Jasenovac. . The genocide of Roma people was 40,000 persons.Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 67,122.:
    E.The reduced food supply caused famine and disease. :
    F.Allied bombing of German supply lines caused civilian casualties. The hardest hit localities were Podgorica, Leskovac, Zadar and Belgrade. :
    G. The demographic losses due to a 335,000 reduction in the number of births and emigration of about 660,000 are not included with war casualties.

See also

Main articles

Other articles

References

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  • Steinberg, Heinz Günter. Die Bevölkerungsentwicklung in Deutschland im Zweiten Weltkrieg : mit einem Überblick über die Entwicklung von 1945 bis 1990. Bonn 1991. ISBN 3885570890
  • Kiradzhiev, Svetlin. Sofia 125 Years Capital 1879-2004 Chronicle. Sofia 2006 (In Bulgarian) ISBN 954-617-011-9
  • Meshkova, Polya. Bŭlgarskata gilotina. Sofia 1994. ISBN 9548802015
  • China's Anti-Japanese War Combat Operations.(In Chinese) Guo Rugui, editor-in-chief Huang Yuzhang Jiangsu People's Publishing House, 2005 ISBN 7214030349
  • Pacner, K. Osudove okamziky Ceskoslovenska- Praha 1997 ISBN 80-85821-46-X
  • Second Source List and Detailed Death Tolls for the Twentieth Century Hemoclysm
  • Michael Ellman, Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War:a note-World War II- Europe Asia Studies, July 1994
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Poles as Victims of the Nazi Era .
  • Poland. Bureau odszkodowan wojennych, Statement on war losses and damages of Poland in 1939-1945. Warsaw 1947
  • U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington- 1954
  • Krystyna Kersten, Szacunek strat osobowych w Polsce Wschodniej. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI- 1994
  • Czeslaw Luczak, Szanse i trudnosci bilansu demograficznego Polski w latach 1939-1945''. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI- 1994
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust EncyclopediaPolish Victims-
  • Nimmo, William. Behind a curtain of silence : Japanese in Soviet custody, 1945-1956, Greenwood 1989 ISBN 9780313257629
  • Stéphane Bruchfeld & Paul A. Levine, Suomen juutalaisväestöstä ja -pakolaisista: Stéphane Bruchfeld & Paul A. Levine: Kertokaa siitä lapsillenne, Werner Söder
  • Concise statistical year-book of Poland, Polish Ministry of Information. London June 1941 P.9 & 10
  • Project In Posterum (go to note on Polish Casualties by Tadeusz Piotrowski at the bottom of the page)
  • Niewyk, Donald L. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, ISBN 0231112009
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia MOSAIC OF VICTIMS: OVERVIEW
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia. GENOCIDE OF EUROPEAN ROMA (GYPSIES), 1939-1945
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia EUTHANASIA PROGRAM
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia NAZI PERSECUTION OF SOVIET PRISONERS OF WAR
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia THE GERMAN ARMY AND THE RACIAL NATURE OF THE WAR AGAINST THE SOVIET UNION
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia PERSECUTION OF HOMOSEXUALS IN THE THIRD REICH
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia FREEMASONRY UNDER THE NAZI REGIME

  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia How many Catholics were killed during the Holocaust?
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia BLACKS DURING THE HOLOCAUST
  • Kogan, Eugan. The Therory and Practice of Hell. New York 1960.
  • A Mosaic of Victims- Non Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis. Ed. by Michael Berenbaum New York University Press 1990 ISBN 1-85043-251-1
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia. How many Jews were killed during the Holocaust?
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum SINTl AND ROMA ("GYPSIES" ): VICTIMS OF THE NAZI ERA
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum - Holocaust Era in Croatia:1941-1945, Jasenovac (go to section III Concentration Camps)
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia. Jasenovac.
  • . Yadvashem. Jasenovac.
  • Vladimir ŽerjavićYugoslavia manipulations with the number Second World War victims, - Zagreb: Croatian Information center,1993 ISBN 0-919817-32-7 and
  • U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Yugoslavia Ed. Paul F. Meyers and Arthur A. Campbell , Washington

D.C.- 1954

  • Roma:Instituto Centrale Statistica' Morti E Dispersi Per Cause Belliche Negli Anni 1940-45 Rome 1957
  • United States Dept. of the Army, Army Battle Casualties and Non Battle Deaths in World War II. Available online at
  • Nürnberg Document No. 3568. Data from this document is listed in Martin Brozat, Nationalsozialistische Polenpolitik Fischer Bücheri 1961. Page 125
  • Jan T. Gross, Revolution from Abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia, Princeton University Press, 2002 ISBN 0691096031
  • Stephane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard Univ Pr, 1999 ISBN 0674076087
  • Del Boca, Angelo, The Ethiopian war. Univ. of Chicago Press. 1969 ISBN 0226142175
  • Small, Melvin & Singer, Joel David, Resort to Arms : International and Civil Wars 1816-1965. 1982
  • Italy's War Crimes in Ethiopia- 1946 (reprinted 2000), ISBN 0-9679479-0-1.
  • Franciszek Proch, Poland's Way of the Cross, New York 1987
  • Ufficio Storico dello Stato Maggiore dell'Esercito. Commissariato generale C.G.V. Ministero della Difesa - Edizioni 1986.
  • Congressional Research Report – American War and Military Operations Casualties. Updated June 29, 2007,
  • American Merchant Marine at War, www.usmm.org,
  • Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of South Florida , A Teachers Guide to the Holocaust
  • Ho Ping-ti. Studies on the Population of China, 1368-1953. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959.
  • Vertreibung und Vertreibungsverbrechen 1945-1978. Bericht des Bundesarchivs vom 28 Mai 1974. Archivalien und ausgewälte Erlebenisberichte, Bonn 1989.
  • Gerhard Reichling. Die Vertriebenen in Spiegel der Statistik, Bonn 1958.
  • Tai Hawn Kwon. Demography of Korea. Seoul National University Press. 1977
  • Kočović ,Bogoljub-Žrtve Drugog svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji 1990 ISBN 8601019285
  • Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0804736154 In Cap.17 Alleged and True Population Losses there is a detailed account of the controversies related to Yugoslav war losses.
  • Fremy, M. , Quid 1996, Paris.
  • Nationale Koopvaardijmonument Rotterdam
  • CRS Report for Congress-U.S. Prisoners of War and Civilian American Citizens Captured and Interned by Japan in World War II: The Issue of Compensation by Japan Go to page CRS-11
  • Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, D.C. Non-Jewish Resistance
  • United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Report of the Working Group for Asia and the Far East, Supp. 10. 1947
  • M. Z. Aziz. Japan’s Colonialism and Indonesia. The Hague 1955.
  • Poyer, Lin; Falgout, Suzanne; Carucci, Laurence Marshall . The Typhoon of War: Micronesian Experiences of the Pacific War Univ of Hawaii Pr, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2001 ISBN 0824821688
  • ,Gniazdowski, Mateusz. Losses Inflicted on Poland by Germany during World War II. Assessments and Estimates—an Outline The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs, 2007, no. 1.This article is available for purchase from the Central and Eastern European Online Library at http://www.ceeol.com
  • T. Panecki, Wsiłek zbrojny Polski w II wojnie światowej Wojskowy Przegląd Historyczny, 1995, no. 1-2, pp 13-18
  • Estonian State Commission on Examination of Policies of Repression. The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes. 1940 – 1991. Tallinn 2005. ISBN 9985-70-195-X http://www.just.ee/orb.aw/class=file/action=preview/id=12709/TheWhiteBook.pdf

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