(born Jan. 22, 1849, Carbondale, Pa., U.S.—died June 24, 1924, Washington, D.C.) U.S. labour leader. The son of Irish immigrants, he became a railroad worker at age 13 and a machinist's apprentice at 17. He joined the Machinists' and Blacksmiths' Union in 1871. Three years later he joined the secret order of the Knights of Labor, and in 1879 he was chosen for its highest post, grand master workman. He presided over the union in its period of greatest membership, but attacks by opponents such as Jay Gould caused membership to decline. Powderly became absorbed in internal disputes and finally resigned in 1893. Seealso labour union; Uriah Smith Stephens.
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(born Oct. 29, 1885, Marquette, Mich., U.S.—died June 11, 1963, Cambridge, Mass.) U.S. archaeologist. Kidder received his Ph.D. from Harvard University (1914) for developing the first effective pottery typology relating to the prehistory of the southwestern U.S. He later extended these interests to a classic study (1924) of the development of the Pueblo cultures and to the creation (1927) of a widely used archaeological classification system (the Pecos system) for the Southwest. In 1929 he also organized an interdisciplinary program that resulted in a far-reaching survey of cultural history in the Old and New Maya empires of Mexico and Central America. He taught at Phillips (Andover) Academy (1915–35) and at Harvard University (1939–50) and oversaw various programs at the Carnegie Institution (1927–50). He was considered the foremost archaeologist of the American Southwest and Mesoamerica of his generation.
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(born Feb. 15, 1892, Beacon, N.Y., U.S.—died May 22, 1949, Bethesda, Md.) U.S. secretary of defense (1947–49). After serving in naval aviation in World War I, he resumed his connection with a New York City investment firm, of which he became president in 1938. Appointed undersecretary of the navy in 1940, he directed the huge naval expansion and procurement programs of World War II. He became secretary of the navy in 1944. Appointed the first secretary of defense in 1947, he began to reorganize and coordinate the armed services. He resigned in 1949. Suffering from a depression similar to battle fatigue, he entered Bethesda Naval Medical Center; soon after, he plunged to his death from a window.
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He is noted for being one of the agents of the Lord Chancellor Thomas Cromwell responsible for the sequestration of religious properties during the Dissolution of the Monasteries. His home in Berkhamsted, built in 1500, remains in use to the present day, situated on the High Street facing St Peter's Church.