Definitions

in quired after

Former countries in Europe after 1815

This article gives an overview of countries (including puppet-countries) that existed in Europe after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. For each country, information is given about the period of existence and what has happened to the territory since.

A

Principality of Abkhazia (?-1864)

  • Annexed by Russia in 1864. Nowadays it is part of Georgia. It has declared independence. Russia and Nicaragua recognize it as an independent country and few others have expressed intent of doing so, as of September 2008.

Ajaria (1921; აჭარა / Ačara)

  • In 1921 the former Russian region of Adjaria seceded from Turkey as the Republic of Adjaria. It became part of Georgia later that year.

Alsace Soviet Republic (1918)

  • Short-lived Soviet Republic created in 1918 in the province of Alsace, Germany.

Anhalt (1813–1867, Anhalt-Dessau until 1863)

Anhalt-Bernburg (1813–63)

Anhalt-Köthen (1813–47)

Armenia (1918–22; Հայաստան / Hayastan)

Austrian Empire (1804–67; Kaisertum Österreich)
Austria–Hungary (1867–1918; Österreich-Ungarn, Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia)

Azerbaijan (1918–22; Azərbaycan)

B

Baden (1806-1871)

  • Baden was a member state of the German Confederation between 1815 and 1866. In 1849 Baden was briefly renamed the Republic of Baden. Its more or less independent status ended with the formation of the German Empire in 1871, of which it became a state. Currently it is part of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Baltic Duchy, United (1918: Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum)

  • Livonia, Estonia and Riga and its surrounding area seceded from Russia in 1918 and formed the United Baltic Duchy. Courland joined the new country later, but by the end of the year the United Baltic Duchy collapsed and was succeeded by Estonia and Latvia.

Banat (1918)

Baranya-Baja (August 14-25 1921)

Bavaria (1806-1871: Königreich Bayern)

Bavarian Soviet Republic (1919; Bayerische Räterepublik)

Belarus (1918-1919, 1919-1922: Беларусь / Biełaruś)

Bihać, (1994-95).

Bremen (1813-1867)

Brunswick (1813-1867: Braunschweig)

C

Carpatho-Ukraine (1939: Карпатська Україна / Karpats’ka Ukrayina)

Republic of Central Lithuania (1920-1922: Litwa Środkowa/Vidurinė Lietuva)

  • In 1920 Polish troops occupied a part of Lithuania, where they established Central Lithuania. In 1922 the country was formally annexed by Poland. Nowadays it is divided between Lithuania and Belarus.

Centrocaspian Dictatorship (1918; Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya)

Cospaia (1441-1826)

  • Due to an error in a treaty between Florence and the Papal States in 1441, a small area of territory between the two was no longer incorporated in either; the inhabitants then declared the Republic of Cospaia. In 1826 it was divided between Tuscany and the Papal States.

Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1918: Kurland/Kurzeme)

Couto Mixto (?-1864)

Cracow (1815-1846: Kraków)

  • In 1815 the Free, Independent, and Strictly Neutral City of Cracow With Its Territory (or the "Republic of Cracow" for short) was established under a joint Austrian, Prussian and Russian protectorate. It was occupied by Austria between 1836 and 1841, and was formally annexed by Austria in 1846. Nowadays it is part of Poland.

Crete (1898-1913: Kriti)

  • After various periods of rebellion against the Ottoman Empire, in 1898 the Cretan State became autonomous under Ottoman suzerainty. It joined Greece in 1913.

Croatia (1941-1945: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska)

  • After the Axis invasion of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, in 1941 the puppet state Independent State of Croatia was established. Parts of the country were reincorporated into liberated Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, starting in 1943. In 1945 the state was dissolved. Nowadays Croatia is independent again, but its territory is much smaller from the 1941-1945 Croatia.

Czechoslovakia (1918-1939, 1945-1993: Československo)

D

Dagestan (1919-1920)

Danzig (1920-1939: Danzig/Gdańsk)

Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic (1918)

  • Former socialist republic created from the Russian SFSR in 1918. Nowadays it is part of Ukraine.

E

Eastern Rumelia (1879-1908: Източна Румелия / Istočna Rumelija)

  • In 1878 inside the Ottoman Empire the Vilayet of Eastern Rumelia was created, gaining autonomy in 1879. Between 1885 and 1886 it was annexed to Bulgaria, but nominal Ottoman rule was restored in 1886. In 1908 Eastern Rumelia was incorporated into Bulgaria.

Estonia (1918-1940: Eesti)

  • After the Russian revolution Estonia seceded from Russia in 1918 as the Republic of Estonia. It was added by German occupiers to the Baltic State during most of 1918, but restored later that year. A counter-government of the Estonian Conciliar Republic was active from 1918-1919 in Russian-occupied territory. In 1940 Estonia was occupied by the USSR, renamed into Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and incorporated in to the USSR. It was restored for 5 days in 1944, but remained part of the USSR. It regained its independence on August 20 1991

F

Finnish Democratic Republic (1939-1940: Suomi)

  • During the Russo-Finnish War the USSR created the Finnish Democratic Republic in 1939. It was dissolved the following year and its part of Finland incorporated into the USSR.

Fiume (1920-1924)

Flanders (1917-1918: Vlaanderen)

  • In 1917, during the German occupation of Belgium, the Independent State of Flanders was proclaimed. This state was terminated by the Allied occupation forces in 1918. It consisted of the occupied part of the Dutch speaking provinces of Belgium, including the Belgian part of the former County of Flanders (which had declared its independence in 1789 but was soon occupied by the Austrians and later the French), the Dutch-speaking Belgian part of the former Duchy of Brabant and the former County of Loon.

Frankfurt (1813-1866)

Free Territory (1919-1921; Víĺna Terytoriya)

  • Anarchist stateless territory created in Ukraine in 1919.

G

Gagauzia (1992-1995: Gagauz-Yeri/)

  • In 1992 Gagauzia unilaterally seceded from Moldova as the Republic of Gagauzia. After negotiations Gagauzia was reincorporated into Moldova in 1995.

Georgia (1918-1922: საქართველო / Sakartvelo)

German Austria (1918-1919; Deutsch-Österreich)

German Democratic Republic (1949-1990: Deutsche Demokratische Republik)

Goust

  • Self governed for centuries. Independence was recognized by France and Spain in 1648. De facto annexed by modern France.

Guastalla (1814-1859)

  • After periods of French occupation, the Duchy of Guastalla, an Italian state since 1402, was restored in 1814. It was annexed by Modena in 1859. Nowadays it is part of Italy.

Republic of Gumuljina (1913)

  • The Republic of Gumuljina, was a short-lived republic in Thrace established in 1913 after Bulgarian forces retreated at the end of the second Balkan War. Nowadays it is part of Greece and its main town, Gumuldjina, is known as Komotini.

Guria (1352-1830: გურია / Guria)

  • The Principality of Guria, established in 1352, was incorporated into Russia in 1830. Nowadays it is part of Georgia.

H

Hamburg (1813-1867)

In 1871 Hamburg became a member state of the German Empire. Nowadays it is a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Kingdom of Hanover (1814-1866: Hannover)

Herceg-Bosna (1993-1994)

Grand Duchy of Hesse (1813-1867/1871)

Hesse-Homburg (1813-1866: Hessen (-Homburg))

Hesse-Kassel or Hesse-Cassel (1813-1866: Kurhessen)

Hohenzollern-Hechingen (1813-1849)

Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1813-1849)

I

Icaria {1912: Ικαρία / Ikaria)

  • The Free State of Icaria seceded in 1912 from the Ottoman Empire. Later that year it was incorporated into Greece

Ingria, North (1918-1920: Pohjois Inkeri)

  • After the Russian Revolution, the Republic of North Ingria seceded from Russia with the support of Finland with the aim to be incorporated into Finland. It ruled parts of Ingria from 1919 until 1920. With the Peace Treaty of Tartu it was re-integrated into Russia.

Ionian Islands (1800-1807 and 1815-1864: Ιόνιοι Νήσοι / Isole Ionie)

  • The Ionian Islands, formerly part of the Venetian Republic, became after periods of occupation by various foreign countries (French Republic 1797-1799, Russian and Ottoman Empires 1799-1800, French Empire 1807-1815 and the United Kingdom 1809-1815), in 1800 the Septinsular Republic (Επτάνησος Πολιτεία / Repubblica Settinsulare), a republic under the suzerainty of the Ottoman and the protection of the Russian Empires and in 1815 the United States of the Ionian Islands (Ηνωμένον Κράτος των Ιονίων Νήσων / Stati Uniti delle Isole Ionie), a republic under British protectorate. On postage stamps issued in 1859 the country is referred as Ιονικόν Κράτος (Ionian State). The islands were incorporated into the Kingdom of Greece in 1864.

Irish Republic (1916-1922: Saorstát Éireann / Poblacht na hÉireann)

K

Kruševo Republic (1903: Крушевo / Kruševo)

L

Labin Republic (1921)

  • The Labin Republic was a short lived republic declared by miners in Labin, Istria, in 1921. The republic lasted from March 2 until April 8. Nowadays it is part of Croatia.

Lajtabansag State (1921: Lajtabánság)

Latvia (1918-1940: Latvija)

  • After attempts to create an independent Latvia in early 1918, German puppet states of Courland and the Baltic State were formed. Courland joined the Baltic State later that year, but after the German defeat, Latvia became independent as the Republic of Latvia in the end of 1918. Russia took over power in 1919 and established the Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic. Later in 1919 the Republic of Latvia was restored. After the occupation by the USSR in 1940, it was again renamed Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic and incorporated in the USSR. During the first days of the German attack on the USSR in 1941 an independent republic of Latvia was declared, as was the case for 1 day in 1945. Nowadays it is independent again.

Lemko-Rusyn (1918-1920: Ruska Lemkivshchyna)

Limerick Soviet (1919)

Lippe (1813-1867)

Litbel (1919: Litbelas)

  • In 1919 the two soviet republics of Lithuania and Byelorussia merge into the Lithuanian-Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Later that year the republic is defeated and the territory divided between Lithuania and Poland.

Lithuania (1918-1940: Lietuva)

  • After the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1918 the independence of the State of Lithuania is proclaimed. It is renamed Kingdom of Lithuania and subsequently Republic of Lithuania the same year. Parts of the country came under control of the Russian puppet state of Litbel in 1918 and 1919, but Lithuanian rule is restored. Poland occupied parts of Lithuania to create Central Lithuania in 1920. After the occupation by the USSR in 1940, it is renamed Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic and incorporated in the USSR. During the first days of the German attack on the USSR in 1941 an independent republic of Lithuania is declared. Nowadays it is independent again.

Lübeck (1813-1867)

Lucca (1817-1847)

  • After periods of French and Austrian occupation, the Duchy of Lucca, an Italian state since 1288, was restored in 1817. It was annexed by Tuscany in 1847. Nowadays it is part of Italy.

M

Massa and Carrara (1814-1859)

  • After periods of French occupation, the double state of the Duchy of Massa and Principality of Carrara, an Italian state since 1467, was restored in 1814. It was annexed by Modena in 1859. Nowadays it is part of Italy.

Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1813-1867)

Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1813-1867)

Memel Territory (1920-1923: Memelgebiet, Memelland, Klaipėda region)

  • In 1920, area on the northern bank of the Neman River up to the city of Memel and surroundings were detached from Germany. A form of free state was established as Memelland. In 1923 it was annexed by Lithuania under the name of Klaipėda Region.

Menton (1848)

  • The Free States of Menton and Roquebrune seceded from Monaco in 1848. Later that year it was de facto annexed by Sardinia. Nowadays it is part of France.

Mirdita Republic (1921: Mirditë)

  • The Republic of Mirdita was proclaimed in northern Albania during the transition period to independence in 1921. Later that year it was extinguished by Albania.

Modena (1814-1859: Modena)

  • After periods of French occupation, the Duchies of Modena and Reggio, an Italian state since 1289, was restored in 1814. It was renamed Modena in 1859 and annexed by the United Provinces of Central Italy in 1859, Central Italy being annexed by Sardinia the same year. Nowadays it is part of Italy.

Moldavia (1601-1861: Moldova)

  • Moldavia, that had become independent from the Ottoman Empire and united with Wallachia in 1593, became finally in 1601 part of the Ottoman Empire as the tributary Principality of Moldavia with a various growing degree of independence. The eastern parts of Moldavia were separated by Russia in 1812. In 1861 it merged with Wallachia into the United Romanian Principalities (renamed Romania in 1866), that became independent in 1877. Parts of the former Principality are now part of Moldova and Ukraine.

Moldavian Democratic Republic (1918: Moldova)

  • In January 1918 Bessarabia, before 1812 part of the Principality of Moldavia secedes from Russia as Moldavian Democratic Republic. It merged in April 1918 into Romania. Nowadays it is independent again as Moldova, but some parts in the north and south are part of Ukraine.

Montenegro (1878-1918, 1941-1944: Црна Гора / Crna Gora)

  • In 1878 the independence of the Principality of Montenegro, nominally under Ottoman suzerainty and de facto independent since 1516, was internationally recognized. It was renamed Kingdom of Montenegro in 1910, and, after the Austrian-Hungarian occupation of 1916, was united with Serbia in 1918, and was absorbed later that year into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, Kingdom of Yugoslavia since 1929. Between 1941 and 1944 Montenegro was a Nazi-occupied puppet state. After the breakup of Yugoslavia, it became republic within the state union of Serbia and Montenegro. It is now independent again as Montenegro.

Moresnet (1816-1919)

  • In 1816 Neutral Moresnet became a territory under common administration of the Netherlands and Prussia. The Netherlands were replaced by Belgium in 1830. After World War I in 1919 the territory was ceded to Belgium by Germany under Treaty of Versailles and formally annexed in 1920.

Munster Republic (1922)

  • In 1922 Irish Republicans formed the Munster Republic. The republic was defeated later that year and was integrated into the Irish Free State. Today, the territory is part of the Republic of Ireland.

N

Naissaar (1917-1918)

  • During World War I the Soviet Republic of Naissaar was established in 1917. In 1918 it was conquered by Germany. Nowadays it is part of Estonia.

Nakhichevan (1747-1828, 1918-1921, 1990: Naxçıvan)

  • In 1747 the Khanate of Nakhichevan became more or less independent from Persia. In 1828 it was annexed by Russia.
  • Under the name of Republic of Araks it proclaimed independence in 1918, renamed in 1919 into Aradayan Republic. Aradayan was occupied by Armenia in 1919, but after the conquest by soviet forces in 1920 it became the soviet puppet state Soviet Socialist Republic of Nakhichevan. Nakhichevan was incorporated into Azerbaijan in 1921.
  • In 1990 independence is declared again, without becoming reality.

Nassau (1813-1866)

O

Oldenburg (1813-1867)

Ottoman Empire (1307-1920: Aliye-i Osmaniye)

  • In 1307 the Ottoman Emirate was formed. It gradually developed into the Ottoman Empire in 1473, a country that ruled large parts of South-Eastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. In 1920 it was dissolved and continued in a smaller form by Turkey.

P

Palatinate (1923: Pfalz)

  • Separatists seceded in 1923 from Germany and proclaimed the Palatinate Republic. This effort collapsed within months.

Papal States (1814-1870: Stati Pontificii)

  • After periods of French occupation, the Papal States, an Italian state since 754 ruled by the Pope, was restored in 1814. It was temporarily named United Italian Provinces in 1831 and Roman Republic in 1849. In 1870 it was annexed by Italy. In 1929, during Mussolini's rule, Italy recognized the continuing sovereignty of the pope over the much smaller Vatican City State.

Parma and Piacenza (1814-1859: Parma e Piacenza)

  • After periods of French occupation, the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza, an Italian state since 1545, was restored in 1814. It was temporarily annexed by Austria in 1848 and Sardinia in 1859. The duchies were annexed by the United Provinces of Central Italy in 1859. Nowadays it is part of Italy.

Piana degli Albanesi (June 1940-December 1940)

Pindus (1941-1945: Pindo)

Poland (November 1918-September 1939)

  • The Second Republic of Poland. Nowadays Poland is independent again.

Pontecorvo (1820-1821)

  • In 1820 the Republic of Pontecorvo seceded from the Papal States, but Papal rule was restored in 1821.

Republic of Prekmurje (1919)

Prussia (1525-1867)

  • Inside and outside the Holy Roman Empire the merger of the Markgraviate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia, leads in 1618 to the formation of the double state Electorate Brandenburg and Duchy of Prussia, the latter renamed in 1701 Kingdom of Prussia. In 1772 the double state becomes known as the Royal Prussian States. It was a member state of the German Confederation from 1815 to 1866. After the Prussian-Austrian War it became the leading member state of the North German Federation in 1867. It was a leading force in the creation of the German Empire in 1871. Prussia as a state was abolished de facto by the Nazis in 1934 and de jure by the Allies of World War II in 1947.

R

Reuß Junior Line (1813-1867: Reuß jüngere Linie)

Reuß Senior Line (1813-1867: Reuß ältere Linie)

Rhenish Republic (1923: Rheinland)

  • Separatists supported by French and Belgian occupation forces seceded in 1923 from Germany and proclaimed the Rhine Republic. This effort collapsed within months.

Roquebrune (1848)

  • The Free States of Menton and Roquebrune seceded from Monaco in 1848. Later that year it was de facto annexed by Sardinia. Nowadays it is part of France.

Russian Empire (1547-1922: Россия / Rossija)

  • In 1547 Muscovy was succeeded by the Russian Tsardom, since 1721 known as Russian Empire. In 1917 the polity used the names of Russia, Russian Republic, Russian Soviet Republic, followed in 1918 by Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. It united with the soviet republics in Ukraine, Belarus and Transcaucasia into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922. Nowadays most of its former territory forms the Russian Federation.

S

Saar Territory (1920-1935: Saargebiet)

  • The League of Nations separated the Saar region from Germany and established the Saar Territory under its administration. It was reincorporated by plebiscite into Germany in 1935.

Saarland (1947-1957)

Samegrelo (1557-1857)

  • The Principality of Mingrelia, or Samegrelo, was under Russian suzerainty from 1803 and finally annexed in 1857. Nowadays it is part of Georgia.

Sardinia (1720-1861: Sardegna).

  • The islands of Sardinia became the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1326, in a personal union with Aragon. In 1720 it is acquired by the House of Savoy, giving the name Kingdom of Sardinia or informally Piedmont-Sardinia to the combined Savoy ruled territories. The mainland parts of the countries were occupied between 1800 and 1814. Between 1859 and 1861 it annexed most other Italian states and after the unification with the Two Sicilies succeeded by Italy.

Saxe-Altenburg (1813-1867: Sachsen-Altenburg)

Saxe-Coburg (1815-1826: Sachsen-Coburg)

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1826-1867: Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha)

Saxe-Gotha (1813-1826: Sachsen-Gotha)

Saxe-Hildburghausen (1813-1826: Sachsen-Hildburghausen)

Saxe-Meiningen (1813-1867: Sachsen-Meiningen)

Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1813-1867: Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach)

Saxony (1813-1867: Sachsen)

Schaumburg-Lippe (1813-1867)

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (1813-1867)

Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (1813-1867)

Serbia (1878-1918, 1941-1944: Србија / Srbija)

  • In 1878 the independence of the Principality of Serbia, nominally under Ottoman suzerainty and de facto independent since 1815, is internationally recognized. It was renamed Kingdom of Serbia in 1882. It gradually enlarged its territory and became in 1918 part the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (which later became Yugoslavia). Between 1941 and 1944 Serbia was a Nazi-occupied puppet state. It is now independent again as Serbia.

Serbia and Montenegro (2003-2006: Srbija i Crna Gora)

Slovakia (1939-1945: Slovensko)

Sonderbund (1845-1847)

  • Seven cantons from Switzerland created their own confederation, Sonderbund, in 1845. It was reincorporated into Switzerland in 1847.

Srpska (1992-1995: Српска / Srpska)

Srpska Krajina (1991-1997: Српска Крајина / Srpska Krajina)

  • Serbs in Croatia created the Republika Srpska Krajina in 1991 after the breakup of Socialist Yugoslavia. In 1995 it was mostly captured by the Croatian forces after the military operation named Operation Storm (Oluja). The remainder of Srpska Krajina (Srem-Baranja Oblast) was peacefully incorporated into Croatia in 1997. Nowadays it is part of Croatia.

State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (1918: Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba / Држава Словенаца, Хрвата и Срба / Država Slovencev, Hrvatov in Srbov)

T

Tavolara (1836-1934)

  • In 1836 the Kingdom of Tavolara asserted its independence and was recognized by King Charles Albert of Sardinia. Queen Mariangela died in 1934, leaving the kingdom to Italy.

Transcaucasia (1918, 1922: Закавказье / Zakavkazye)

  • After the Communists took power in Russia in 1918, the Democratic Federative Republic of Transcaucasia seceded from Russia. Later that year, Transcaucasia separated into Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia.
  • In 1922 these countries were united by Soviet occupiers into the Federative Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of Transcaucasia, later in 1922 renamed the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. The TSFSR became in the same month part of the USSR.

Transylvania (1918: Transilvania / Erdély / Siebenbürgen)

Trieste (1947-1954: Trieste / Trst)

Tuscany (1814-1859: Toscane)

Two Sicilies (1759-1861: Due Sicilie)

  • The southern parts of mainland Italy and Sicily become in 1130 the Kingdom of Sicily. In 1281 the kingdom was split into the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of Sicily. The two kingdoms were sometimes in personal union and ruled by Aragon, Spain and Austria between 1442 and 1759. From 1759 the two kingdoms had a joint king, the king of Naples. After the French period the country was reunited as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1816. Between 1848 and 1849 the entities had two separate administrations. It was united with Sardinia in 1860. Nowadays it is part of Italy.

U

Ukraine (1917-1922: Україна / Ukrayina)

  • Ukraine seceded in 1917 from Russia as the Ukrainian Democratic Republic. Owing to the civil war, and the aftermath of World War I, power shifted between communists and non-communists, which led to a succession of names: Ukrainian People's Republic, Ukrainian State, Hetmanate of Ukraine, Ukrainian People's Republic and finally Ukrainian Socialist Conciliar Republic. The latter became in 1922 a founding component of the USSR. Nowadays it is independent again as Ukraine.

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (1922-1991: Союз Советских Социалистических Республик / Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, SSSR)

Užice (1941: Ужичка република / Užička Republika)

  • The Republic of Užice was a short-lived military state that existed in Autumn 1941 in the western part of Nazi-occupied Serbia. The Republic was established by the fighters of the Partisan resistance movement and its capital was in the town of Užice. In November 1941, German troops occupied this territory again, while the majority of Partisan forces escaped towards Bosnia and Sandžak.

V

Venice (1848-1849: Venezia)

  • Venice, part of Austria since 1813, declared independence twice in 1848 as the Venetian State as a restoration of the Republic of Venice. Austrian rule was restored in 1849. Nowadays it is part of Italy.

W

Waldeck-Pyrmont (1813-1867)

Wallachia (1593-1861: Ţara Românească or Valahia)

  • Wallachia, which briefly gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1593, was subsumed back into the Empire in 1601 as the tributary Principality of Wallachia with a variable degree of independence. In 1861 it merged with Moldavia into the United Romanian Principalities (renamed Romania in 1866), that became independent in 1877.

Western Bosnia (1993-1995: Zapadna Bosna)

Western Ukraine (1918–1919: Західна Українa / Zakhidna Ukrayina)

  • After the defeat of Austria-Hungary in World War I, the Ukrainian State seceded in 1918 from Austria. It was renamed the West Ukrainian People's Republic within a month. In 1919 Western Ukraine united with the Ukrainian National Republic, but was incorporated into Poland in 1920, and annexed by the Soviet Union in 1939. Today it is part of Ukraine.

Württemberg (1813-1871)

Y

Yugoslavia (1918-2003: Jugoslavija / Југославија)

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