Fire, one of the four classical elements was vital to the development of civilization. Once humans had learned to contain, control and sustain fires, they had an invaluable tool for cooking food that would otherwise have been indigestible, for sharpening spears, for hollowing out canoes, for baking pottery and for many other uses including simply keeping warm.
At first, humans would have relied on natural fires caused by lightening, learning to prolong the life of these fires by feeding fuel as the fire died down. But such fires would have been rare and would not have lasted long. At some point, humans discovered how to make fires by igniting tinder from sparks caused by striking stones together, or by using a bow drill or similar way of creating fire through friction.
Creating fire can be tedious process. Eventually, humans began to use earthenware vessels, or fire pots, in which slow-burning fires could by kept alight indefinitely by adding small quantities of fuel as needed. Nomadic people could carry these small fires with them, using them to start larger fires for their evening camps. Fire pots were in use at least 10,000 years ago, as evidenced by finds in 1936-37 in Fells Cave in the valley of the Rio Chico, not far from the Strait of Magellan. Fire pots appear to have been developed independently and at different times in many locations.
Semi-nomadic people, or people in contact with more settled people, would have made or acquired the more advanced forms of firepot. A portable clay fire pot is most useful while on the move, but it is most easily made by sedentary people accustomed to working with clay and kilns.
Portable fire pots have long been used as a source of warmth.
A Kangdi is a traditional earthen fire pot from Kashmir, used to warm the hands or feet. In Kashmir, in winter, people usually wear a "Phiran" or long woolen gown over their normal dress. To keep the inside of the Phiran warm, they sometimes use a Manann, a fire-pot made of clay. But with no insulation on its clay handles, the Manann is inconvenient.
A Kangdi is an improved version of the Manann, a semi-spherical clay pot enclosed in willow rushes, with handles also made of willow rushes. The pot holds burning coals that stay warm throughout the day. Throughout Kashmir in winter, it is common to see people with one hand holding their Kangdi inside their Phiran, doing the daily chores with the other.
The fire pot was probably invented long after people discovered the value of cooking over fire. Once fire-proof containers became available, such as iron pots, it was natural to design fire pots that both heated and supported the cooking vessel. Over time, these developed into stoves, used both for cooking and heating.
An earthenware fire-pot or indigenous stove found in West Africa , notably in Ilora and Oyo, an Adogan has a flat bottom with a carinated wall and an out-turned rim with three decorated lugs to support the cooking pot. A U-shaped hole is cut in one side to allow air to enter, and through which fuel is inserted.
Unlike the other uses of the word in this article, the hanging fire pot does not contain the fire, but hangs from a hook above the fire. It is an ideal implement for cooking soup or stews that do not need precisely controlled temperatures or cooking times. The cook could throw in the basic ingredients, light a fire under the pot, then forget about it except for making sure that the fire was still going. Goulash was traditionally made in this way, prepared by cowherds in a "bogrács" (cauldron) that hung on a tripod over a fire in the field. Started early, the soup/stew would be ready by mid-day.
In modern times, electric crock pots, as well as simple stock pots on the stove have replaced the need for a hanging fire pot while adding a degree of flexibility and safety to the soup-making procedure.
Hot pot or Huoguo (Simplified Chinese: 火锅) is a traditional Chinese social meal. The literal Chinese translation is fire pot, as huo means fire, while guo refers to pot. Hot pot is also called Chinese Steamboat.
The Chinese Hot pot consists of a simmering metal pot of stock at the center of the dining table. While the hot pot is kept simmering, thinly sliced ingredients are placed into the pot and are cooked at the table. This type of cuisine is referred to as "steamboat". In Western cooking, the fondue is used in a similar way, although usually with different ingredients.
Small earthen pots filled with combustibles, were used as early thermal weapons during the classical and medieval periods. Containers made at first from clay, later from cast iron, known as 'carcasses', were launched by a siege engine, filled with pitch, Greek fire or other incendiary mixtures. These fire pots could cause great damage to besieged cities with largely wooden construction.
A description of how to make military fire pots is given in Lucar, 1588, cited by Martin 1994:207-217
"Make great and small earthen pottes which must be but half baked, and like unto the picture in the mergent . . . . Fill every of those pottes halfe with grosse gunpowder pressed downe harde, and with one of the five severall mixtures next following in this Chapter, fill up the other half of those pottes: This done, cover the mouth of every potte with a peece of canvasse bound hard about the mouth of the potte, and well imbrued in melted brimstone. Also tie round about the middle of every potte a packthreed, and then hang upon the same packthreed round about the potte so many Gunmatches of a finger length as you wil, & when you wil throe any of these pottes among enemies, light the same gun-matches that they may so soone as the potte is broken with his fall uppon the ground, fire the mixture of the potte. Or rather put fire to the mixture at the mouth of the potte, & by so doing make the same to burn before you doe throe the potte from you, because it is a better and more surer way than the other: I meane than to fire the said mixture after the potte is broken with burning gunmatches. Moreover this is to be noted, that the small pottes do serve for to be throne out of one shippe into an other in fight uppon the sea, and that the great pottes are to be used in service uppon the lande for the defence of townes, fortes, walles, and gates, and to burne such things as the enemies shall throe into ditches for to fill up the same ditches, and also to destroy emenies in their trenches and campes"
There is an element of mystery in fire, which at times has led to fire worship. Fire pots have been used in religious ceremonies for thousands of years. It would be inappropriate, and probably impossible, to cover all religious uses of fire pots in this article, but a few examples are relevant.
A Censer is any type of vessel made for burning incense. They range from simple earthenware bowls to intricately carved silver or gold vessels, small table top objects a few centimetres tall to as many as several metres high. In many cultures, burning incense has spiritual and religious connotations, and this influences the design and decoration of the censer.
Before a Buddhist tantric ritual, an assisting monk may swing a censer or thurible as he passes to 'purify' the room. This is a container usually made of metal that hangs form three chains. Inside it, powdered incense that has been put on a smoldering bit of charcoal burns slowly, and the smoke escapes through pierced openings in the closed lid. One tradition says that during one of the Buddha's sermons a monk heedlessly swatted a mosquito. The Tathagatha is said to have ordered that, in the future, incense ought to be lit in order to keep the flies away, so that people could more easily concentrate on Dharma teachings, but also to prevent the needless taking of lives.
Censers are used in the Roman Catholic, Anglo-Catholic, Old Catholic and Eastern Orthodox sects of the Christian religion during important rituals such as benedictions, processions and important masses.
In Genesis 15, a chapter of the Bible, God instructs Abraham to cut a heifer, a she goat, a ram, a turtledove, and a young pigeon into halves. When it got dark, "a smoking fire pot and a flaming torch passed between the pieces", and later God made a covenant with Abraham granting him and his heirs extensive lands between the River of Egypt (either the Nile or the Wadi el Arish in the Sinai) and the Euphrates.
Texts from Mari in northern Mesopotamia from about the same period say that parties entering into a covenant would seal the agreement by cutting a donkey in half and then walking between the severed pieces. One interpretation of the ceremony described in Genesis 15 is that God made an unconditional covenant when God alone (symbolized by the fire pot, or the fire in it) passed between the two halves of the slaughtered animals.
Kōdō (香道 - Way of Fragrance) is the Japanese art of appreciating incense, and involves using incense within a structure of codified conduct. Participants sit near one another and take turns smelling incense from a censer as they pass it around the group. Participants comment on and make observations about the incense, and play games to guess the incense material.
Sakthi Karagam is a dance performed in Tamil Nadu with a fire pot on the head in the Mariamman or Durga temple rituals. Today it is danced with a pot decorated with flowers on the head and is known as 'Aatta Karagam' and symbolises joy and merriment. In earlier times, the clay pot, or Karagam, was considered the residence of the local deity during the festival, which played a crucial role in community bonding. It is not clear whether the pot ever contained fire, or was so named because it was carried over fire by fire walkers.
Although the fire pot and its ancestor the fire pit are still in use in their original forms, successive technical refinements have led to many modern descendants whose origin in the simple clay container might be hard to guess. Some have been driven by the need to adapt to new fuels, such as charcoal, oil, coal, coke, kerosene, propane, electricity and microwaves. Others have been made possible through discovery of new materials such as iron, bronze, ceramics and asbestos. Always the motive would have been to improve the design, to make a device for managing fire that was cheaper, more robust, more convenient, more capable of meeting new demands. Often improvements made for industrial purposes found their way into improved cooking devices, and vice-versa.
An incomplete list of fire pot descendants includes: