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Hemanta Kumar Mukhopadhyay

Hemanta Kumar Mukhopadhyay (Bangla: হেমন্ত কুমার মুখোপাধ্যায় Hemonto Kumar Mukhopaddhae) also known as Hemanta Mukherjee (June 16, 1920 - September 26, 1989) was an Indian singer, composer and producer. He sang in Hindi films under the name Hemant Kumar.

Early life

Hemanta was born in the city of Varanasi, India. His family hailed from a village named Baharu in West Bengal. They migrated to Calcutta in the early 20th century. Hemanta grew up there and attended Mitra Institution school of Bhawanipore area. There he met his longtime friend, Subhas Mukhopadhyay who later became a Bengali poet. After passing the intermediate examinations (12th grade), Hemanta was admitted to Jadavpur University to study Engineering. However, he quit academics to pursue a career in music, despite parental objection. He briefly tried his hand at literature and also published a short story in a prestigious Bengali magazine called Desh, but by the late-1930s he was committed entirely to music.

Early music career

Under the influence of his friend Subhas Mukhopadhyay, Hemanta recorded his first song for All India Radio in 1933. The first line of the song was amar ganete ele nabarupi chirantanii. Hemanta's music career was mentored by the Bengali musician Sailesh Duttagupta. In an interview on television in the early 1980s, Hemanta had mentioned that he had also received training in classical music from Ustad Faiyaz Khan, but his tutelage was cut short by Ustad's untimely death. In 1937, Hemanta cut his first gramophone disc under the Columbia label. The songs (non-film) on this disc were janite jadi go tumi and balo go balo more whose lyrics were by Naresh Bhattacharya and music was composed by Sailesh Duttagupta. Thereafter, every year Hemanta continued to record non-film discs for the Gramophone Company of India (GCI) till 1984. His first Hindi songs were kitana dukh bhulaya tumne and o preet nibhabewali, released in 1940 under GCI's Columbia label. Music for these songs were composed by Kamal Dasgupta, lyrics were by Faiyaz Hashmi.

Hemanta's first film song was in the Bengali film Nimai Sanyas released in 1941. Music for this film was scored by Hariprasanna Das. Hemanta's first compositions for himself were the Bengali non-film songs katha kayonako shudhu shono and amar biraha akashe priya in 1944. Lyrics of these two songs were by Amiya Bagchi. His first Hindi film songs were in Irada in 1944 under Pt. Amarnath's music direction. Lyrics were by Aziz Kashmiri.

Hemanta is considered a foremost exponent of Rabindrasangeet. Hemanta recorded his first Rabindrasangeet disc in 1944 under the Columbia label. The songs were prangane mor shirishh shakhay and he nirupama.

His first movie as a music director was the Bengali film Abhiyatri in 1947. Although many of the songs Hemanta recorded in during this time received critical acclaim, major commercial success still eluded him, right until 1947. Some contemporary male singers of Hemanta in Bengali around that period were Jaganmay Mitra, Robin Majumdar, Satya Chowdhury, Dhananjay Bhattacharya, Sudhirlal Chakraborty and Talat Mahmood.

Family

Hemanta had three brothers. Elder brother, Tarajyoti, was a short-story writer in Bengali. Youngest brother, Amal, composed music for some Bengali movies, most notably Hospital and Abak Prithibi. He also recorded a few Bengali songs in the 1960s.

In 1945, Hemanta married Bela Mukherjee, a singer from Bengal. Although Bela had sung some popular songs in a Bengali movie titled Kashinath (1943) - with music by Pankaj Mullick - she did not actively pursue her musical career after marriage.

Hemanta and Bela have two children: son Jayant, and daughter Ranu. Ranu pursued a music career in the late 1960s and early 1970s, with somewhat limited success. Jayant is married to Moushmi Chatterjee, an Indian film actress who was popular in the 1970s.

Success and migration to Bombay

In the mid 1940s, Hemanta became an active member of the Indian People's Theatre Association (IPTA) and started an association with another active IPTA member - songwriter and composer - Salil Chowdhury. One of the main driving forces behind the establishment of IPTA was the Bengal famine of 1943 and the inaction of the British administration and wealthy Indians to prevent it from happening. In 1948, Hemanta recorded a non-film song called gaNyer badhu (literally translates to 'The rural bride') that had music and lyrics by Salil Chowdhury. The six minute song recorded on two sides of a 78 rpm disc was sung at a varying pace and lacked the conventional structure and romantic theme of a Bengali song. It depicted an idyllic, prosperous and caring rural woman's life and family, and how it gets ravaged by the demons of famine and ensuing poverty. This song generated an unforeseen popularity for Hemanta and Salil in eastern India, and, in a way, established Hemanta ahead of his male contemporaries. Hemanta and Salil paired again in several songs over the next four years and almost all these songs proved to be very popular.

Around the same period, Hemanta started receiving more assignments for music composition for Bengali films. Some of these films were for a director named Hemen Gupta. When Hemen moved to Bombay a few years later, he called upon Hemanta to compose music for his first directorial venture in Hindi titled Anandmath under the Filmistan banner. Responding to this call, Hemanta migrated to Bombay in 1951 and joined the Filmistan Studios. The music of Anandmath (1952) was a moderate success. Perhaps, the most notable songs from this movie is vande mataram sung by Lata Mangeshkar, which Hemanta set to a marching tune. Following Anandmath, Hemanta scored music for a few Filmistan movies like Shart in subsequent years, the songs of which received moderate popularity. Simultaneously, Hemanta also gained popularity in Bombay as a playback singer. His songs playbacked for actor Dev Anand under music director Sachin Dev Burman in movies like Jaal, House No. 44, and Solva Saal became quite popular.

Career rise

By the mid-1950s, Hemanta had consolidated his position as a prominent singer and composer. In Bengal, he was one of the foremost exponents of Rabindrasangeet and perhaps the most sought after male singer. In Bombay, along with playback singing, He also carved a niche as a composer. He composed music for a Hindi film called Nagin (1954) which became a major success owing largely to its music. Songs of Nagin remained chart-toppers continuously for two years and culminated in Hemant receiving the prestigious Filmfare Best Music Director Award in 1955. The very same year, he scored music for a Bengali movie called Shapmochan in which he also played back four songs for the Bengali actor Uttam Kumar. This started a long partnership between Hemant and Uttam as a playback singer-actor pair. They were the most popular singer-actor duo in Bengali Cinema over the next decade.

In the latter part of the 1950s, Hemanta composed music and sang for several Bengali and Hindi films, recorded several Rabindrasangeets and Bengali non-film songs. Almost all of these, especially his Bengali songs became very popular. This period can be termed as the zenith of his career and lasted for almost a decade. He sang songs composed by the major music directors in Bengal such as Nachiketa Ghosh, Robin Chatterjee and Salil Chowdhury. Some of the notable films Hemanta himself composed music for during this period include Harano Sur, Marutirtha Hinglaj, Neel Akasher Neechey, Lukochuri, Swaralipi, Deep Jwele Jaai, Shesh Parjanta, Kuhak, Dui Bhai, and Saptapadi in Bengali, and, Jagriti and Ek Hi Raasta in Hindi. Through his illustrous career Hemanta worked extensively with celebrated Bengali lyricist Gouriprasanna Mazumdar, labling this period the golden age of Bengali cinema and music.

Movie production

In the late 1950s, Hemanta ventured into movie production under his own banner Hemanta-Bela productions. The first movie under this banner was a Bengali film directed by Mrinal Sen, titled Neel Akasher Neechey(1959). The story of this film was based on the travails of a Chinese street hawker in Calcutta in the backdrop of India's freedom struggle. The movie went onto win the President's Gold Medal - the highest honour for a movie from Government of India. In the next decade, Hemanta's production company was renamed Geetanjali productions and it produced several Hindi movies such as Bees Saal Baad, Kohraa, Biwi Aur Makaan, Faraar, Rahgir and Khamoshi - all of which had music by Hemanta. Almost all of these, except Bees Saal Baad and Khamoshi, weren't major commercial successes. Back in Bengal, Hemanta scored music for a movie titled Palatak in 1963 where he experimented with merging Bengal Folk Music and light music. This proved to be a major success and Hemanta's composition style changed noticeably for many of his future films in Bengal such as Baghini, and Balika Badhu. In Bengali films Manihar and Adwitiya, both of which were major musical as well as commercial successes, his compositions had a light classical tinge. In 1961, for commemorating Rabindranath Tagore's birth centenary, Gramophone company of India featured Rabindrasangeet by Hemanta in a large portion of its commemorative output. This too proved to be a major commercial success. Hemanta also went on several overseas concert tours in this period including his trip to the West Indies. Overall, in the 1960s decade he retained his position as the major male singer in Bengal, and, as a composer and singer to be reckoned with in Hindi films.

Latter part of career

In the 1970s, Hemanta's contribution in Hindi films was nominal. He scored music for a handful of his home productions, but none of these movies were successful nor the music of them. In Bengal, however, he remained the foremost exponent of Rabindrasangeet. His non-film output was popular in the early part of the decade. In 1971, Hemanta debuted as a film director in for his self-produced Bengali movie titled Anindita. The movie didn't fare exceedingly well at the box office. In the early to mid 1970s, two major music composers in Bengal, Nachiketa Ghosh and Robin Chatterjee, who had worked closely with Hemanta since the early 1950s, passed away. Simultaneously, music composed by Hemanta for Bengali films like Fuleswari, Raag Anurag and Dadar Kirti established Hemanta as the major film music composer in the Bengal movie scene. In 1979, Hemanta re-recorded some of his earlier works with composer Salil Chowdhury from the 1940s and 1950s. This album, titled 'Legend of Glory, vol. 2' was a major commercial success, despite Hemanta's aged and slightly tired voice.

In 1980, Hemanta suffered a major cardiac arrest that severely affected his vocal capabilities, especially his breath control. He continued to record songs in the early eighties, but his voice was a shade of its rich baritone past. In 1984, Hemanta was felicitated by different organizations, most notably by the Gramophone Company of India, for completing 50 years in music. Ironically, that very year Hemanta released his last album with Gramophone Company of India - a 45 rpm extended play disc with four non-film songs. Over the next few years, Hemanta released non-film songs under various small-time labels that had cropped up in the nascent cassette-based music industry. Only a few of these were commercially successful. He composed music for a handful of Bengali movies and one Bengali and one Hindi tele-series. However, by this time he had become an institution, a beloved personality, and a courteous and friendly gentleman. He continued to feature regularly on All India Radio, Doordarshan (TV) and live programmes/concerts during this period.

In September 1989, he travelled to Dhaka, Bangladesh to receive the Michael Madhusudan Award. He performed a concert in Dhaka as well. Immediately after returning from this trip, he suffered a major cardiac arrest on September 26th and breathed his last at 11:15 pm in a nursing home in South Calcutta. Interestingly, even 15 years after his death, Gramophone Company of India releases at least one album by him every year, repackaging his older songs, because of the commercial viability of his songs. His legacy still lives on through the numerous songs he has recorded, music he has composed and through many male singers in Bengal and the rest of India who continue to imitate his singing style.

Bengali filmography as a composer

Total number of films: 138

  • 1947: Abhiyatri, Purbaraag
  • 1948: Bhuli Naai, Padma Pramatta Nadi, Priyatama
  • 1949: Diner Par Din, '42, Sandipan Pathshala, Swami
  • 1951: Jighansa
  • 1955: Shapmochan
  • 1956: Suryamukhi
  • 1957: Shesh Parichay, Taser Ghar, Harano Sur
  • 1958: Lukochuri, Shikar, Surjatoran, Joutuk, Neel Akasher Neechey
  • 1959: Deep Jwele Jaai, Khelaghar, Marutirtha Hinglaj, Sonar Harin, Kshaniker Atithi
  • 1960: Baishey Shravan, Gariber Meye, Kuhak, Khoka Babur Prayabartan, Shesh Paryanta
  • 1961: Dui Bhai, Agni Sanskar, Madhya Rater Tara, Punashcha, Saptapadi, Sathi Hara, Swaralipi
  • 1962: Atal Jaler Ahwan, Agun, Dada Thakur, Hansuli Banker Upakatha, Nabadiganta
  • 1963: Badshah, Barnachora, Ek Tukro Agun, High Heel, Palatak, Saat Pake Bandha, Shesh Prahar, Tridhara
  • 1964: Arohi, Bibhas, Natun Tirtha, Pratinidhi, Prabhater Rang, Swarga Hotey Biday, Sindure Megh
  • 1965: Alor Pipasa, Ek Tuku Basa, Ek Tuku Chhonya Lage, Suryatapa
  • 1966: Kanch Kata Hirey, Manihar
  • 1967: Balika Badhu, Dushtu Prajapati, Nayika Sangbad, Ajana Shapath
  • 1968: Adwitya, Baghini, Hansamithun, Jiban Sangeet, Panchasar, Parisodh
  • 1969: Chena Achena, Man Niye, Parineeta, Shuk Sari
  • 1970: Deshbandhu Chittaranjan, Duti Mon
  • 1971: Kuheli, Malayadan, Nabarag, Nimantran, Sansar
  • 1972: Anindita, Shriman Prithviraj
  • 1974: Bikele Bhorer Phool, Thagini, Phuleshwari
  • 1975: Agniswar, Mohan Baganer Meye, Nishi Mrigaya, Raag Anuraag, Sansar Simantey
  • 1976: Banhi Sikha, Datta, Sankhabish, Pratisruti
  • 1977: Din Amader, Hatey Roilo Tin, Mantramugdha, Pratima, Proxy, Rajani, Sanai, Shesh Raksha, Swati
  • 1978: Ganadevta, Nadi Theke Sagare, Pranay Pasha
  • 1979: Shahar Theke Dooray, Nauka Dubi
  • 1980: Bandhan, Dadar Kirti, Paka Dekha, Pankhiraj, Shesh Bichar
  • 1981: Kapal Kundala, Khelar Putul, Meghmukti, Subarna Golak
  • 1982: Chhoto Maa
  • 1983: Amar Geeti, Rajeshwari
  • 1984: Agni Shuddhi, Ajantay, Bishabriksha, Didi, Madhuban
  • 1985: Bhalobasa Bhalobasa, Tagari
  • 1986: Pathbhola
  • 1987: Pratibha, Tunibou, Agaman, Boba sanai, Parasmani, Surer Sathi

Hindi filmography as a composer

  • A: Anand Math, Anjaan, Anupama, Arab Ka Saudagar
  • B: Bahu, Bandhan, Bandi, Bandish, Bees Saal Baad, Bees Saal Pehle, Bhagwat Mahima, Bin Badal Barsaat, Biwi Aur Makaan
  • C: Chand, Champakali
  • D: Daku Ki Ladki, Do Dil, Do Dooni Char, Do Ladke Dono Kadke, Do Mastane, Durgesh Nandini
  • E: Ek hi Raasta, Ek Jhalak
  • F: Ferry, Faraar, Fashion
  • G: Girl Friend
  • H: Hamara Watan, Hill Station, Hum Bhi Insaan Hai
  • I: Inspector, Insaaf Kahan Hai
  • J: Jagriti
  • K: Khamoshi, Kohraa, Kitna Badal Gaya Insaan
  • L: Lagan, Laalten, Love in Canada
  • M: Maa Beta, Majhli Didi
  • N: Nagin, Nayakeenicha Sajja
  • P: Payal, Police
  • R: Rahgeer
  • S: Sahara, Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam, Samrat, Sannata, Shart
  • T: Taj
  • U: Us Raat Ke Baad
  • Y: Yahudi Ki Ladki

References

  • 1. Hemanta Kumar Mukhopadhyay, "Ananda dhara", Deb Sahitya Kutir Press, Calcutta, 1970.
  • 2. A. Rajadhakshya and P. Wilhelm, "An Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema," 2nd ed., British Film Institute, 1999.
  • 3. S. Bhattacharya, "Amar gaaner swaralipi," A. Mukherjee Press, Calcutta, 1988.

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