The computer "operated" by means of pencil and sliding cards. Any arithmetic was done in the head of the person operating the computer. The computer operated in base 10 and had 100 memory cells which could hold signed numbers from ±0 to ±999. It had an instruction set of 10 instructions which allowed CARDIAC to add, subtract, test, shift, input, output and jump.
The “CPU” of the computer consisted of 4 slides that moved various numbers and arrows to have the flow of the real CPU (the user's brain) move the right way. They had one flag (+/-), affected by the result in the accumulator.
Memory consisted of the other half of the cardboard cutout. There were 100 cells. Cell 0 was “ROM”, always containing a numeric "1"; cells 1 to 98 were “RAM”; available for instructions and data; and cell 99 could best be described as “EEPROM”.
Memory cells held signed decimal numbers from ±0 to ±999 and were written with a pencil. Cells were erased with an eraser. A “bug” was provided to act as a program counter, and was placed in a hole beside the current memory cell.
CARDIAC had a 10 instruction machine language. An instruction consisted of three decimal digits (the sign is ignored). The first digit was the op code (O), the second and third digits was an address (A). Addressing was one of accumulator to memory absolute, absolute memory to accumulator, input to absolute memory and absolute memory to output.
High level languages were never developed for CARDIAC, since they would defeat one of the purposes of the device, to teach a little assembly language programming.
Programs were hand assembled, then written, by pencil into the appropriate memory cells.
|0||INP||Input – take a number from the input card and put it in a specified memory cell.|
|1||CLA||Clear and add – clear the accumulator and add the contents of a memory cell to the accumulator.|
|2||ADD||Add - add the contents of a memory cell to the accumulator.|
|3||TAC||Test accumulator contents – performs a sign test on the contents of the accumulator.|
|4||SFT||Shift – shifts the accumulator x places left, then y places right, where x is the upper address digit and y is the lower.|
|5||OUT||Output – take a number from the specified memory cell and write it on the output card.|
|6||STO||Store – copy the contents of the accumulator into a specified memory cell.|
|7||SUB||Subtract – subtract the contents of a specified memory cell from the accumulator.|
|8||JMP||Jump - jump to a specified memory cell. The current cell number is written in cell 99. This allows for one level of subroutines.|
|9||HRS||Halt and reset – move bug to the specified cell, then stop program execution.|
Programs were run by first sliding three slides so that the number in the instruction register equaled the number in the memory cell the bug was sitting in. Once that was done the bug was moved to the next memory cell. The user then followed an arrow which would then tell them what to do next. This would continue for all of program execution.
There are several ways to get one of these devices. One way is from Comspace Corporation at Another way is a recreation based on pictures from the internet here Finally, a simulator for the Java platform, called jcinc, with both command-line and GUI interfaces, is at Sourceforge
Illustrative financial statements for banks and savings institutions, credit unions and mortgage companies posted to AICPA Web site.(accounting & auditing news)
Mar 01, 2004; The AICPA Depository Institutions Expert Panel has updated and posted to the AICPA Web site separate illustrative...
Illustrative Financial Statements for Banks and Savings Institutions, Credit Unions and Mortgage Companies Posted to AICPA Web Site
Mar 01, 2004; accounting & auditing news The AICPA Depository Institutions Expert Panel has updated and posted to the AICPA Web site separate...