In 1888 Ménétrier first described this disorder while performing post-mortem studies, and noticing hyperplastic changes of the gastric mucosa in cadavers. At the time, he named the disease polyadenomes en nappe. Although Ménétrier understood the debilitative factors of the disease, it wouldn't be until years later that the associated protein-losing enteropathic aspects of the disorder were realized. Other names for Ménétrier's disease are hyperplastic hypersecretory gastropathy and giant hypertrophic gastritis. He published his findings concerning this condition in a treatise titled Des polyadenomes gastriques et de leurs rapports avec le cancer de l’estomac.
Ménétrier also published written works on Byzantine and Greco-Roman medicine. In 1935 he died from injuries sustained in an automobile accident in Lisieux.