Hunger is a feeling experienced usually followed by a desire to eat. The often unpleasant feeling originates in the hypothalamus and is released through receptors in the liver. Although an average nourished individual can survive weeks without food intake, the sensation of hunger typically begins after a couple of hours without eating and is generally considered quite uncomfortable. The sensation of hunger can often be alleviated and even mitigated entirely with the consumption of food.
When hunger contractions start to occur in the stomach
, these are commonly referred to as hunger pangs (lesser known as hunger pains
). Hunger pangs usually do not begin until 12 to 24 hours after the last ingestion of food, in starvation
. A single hunger contraction lasts about 30 seconds, and pains continue for around 30-45 minutes, then hunger subsides for around 30-150 minutes. Individual contractions are separated at first, but are almost continuous after a certain amount of time. Emotional
states (anger, joy etc.) may inhibit hunger contractions. Levels of hunger are increased by lower blood sugar
levels, and are higher in diabetics
. They reach their greatest intensity in 3 to 4 days and may weaken in the succeeding days, though hunger never disappears. Hunger contractions are most intense in young, healthy people who have high degrees of gastrointestinal tonus
. Periods between contractions increase with old age.
The fluctuation of leptin
hormone levels results in the motivation
of an organism to consume food. When an organism eats, adipocytes
trigger the release of leptin into the body. Increasing levels of leptin results in a reduction of one's motivation to eat. After hours of non-consumption, leptin levels drop significantly. These low levels of leptin cause the release of secondary hormone, ghrelin, which in turn reinitiates the feeling of hunger.
Some studies have suggested that an increased production of grehlin may enhance desire towards perceptive food cues, while an increase in stress may also influence the hormone's production. These findings support why hunger can prevail under stressful situations.
Hunger appears to increase activity and movement in many animals - for example, an experiment on spiders
showed increased activity and predation
in starved spiders, resulting in larger weight gain. This pattern is seen in many animals, including humans
while sleeping. It even occurs in rats
with their cerebral cortex
or stomachs completely removed. Increased activity on hamster wheels
occurred when rats were deprived not only of food, but also water or B vitamins
such as thiamine
This response may increase the animal's chance of finding food, though it has also been speculated the reaction relieves pressure on the home population.