Human body

Human body

The human body is the entire physical and mental structure of a human organism.

The human body consists of a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs.

By the time the human reaches adulthood, the body consists of close to 100 trillion (100,000,000,000,000) cells, the basic unit of life. Groups of cells combine and work in tandem to form tissue, which combines to form organs, which work together to form organ systems.

Size, type, proportion

The average height of an adult male human is about 1.8 m (6 feet) tall and the adult female about 1.6 to 1.7 m (5 to 5.5 feet) tall. This size is firstly determined by diet and secondly by genes. Body type and body composition are influenced by postnatal factors such as diet and exercise.

The proportions of human body is different from that of animal body. In art, these ratios are used in veristic depictions of the figure.


The organ systems of the body are: the Musculoskeletal system, the Cardiovascular system, the Digestive system, the Endocrine system, the Integumentary system, the Urinary system, the Lymphatic system, the Immune system, the Respiratory system, the Nervous system, and the Reproductive system.

Musculoskeletal system

Main article: Musculoskeletal system Or, see Muscular system and Skeletal system

The human musculoskeletal system consists of the human skeleton, made by bones attached to other bones with joints, and skeletal muscle attached to the skeleton by tendons.

Cardiovascular system

Main article: Cardiovascular system

The cardiovascular system comprises of the heart, veins, arteries, and capillaries. The primary function of the heart is to circulate the blood, and through the blood, oxygen and vital minerals, to the tissues and organs that comprise the body. The main organ of the cardiovascular system, the heart, is generally located in the middle of the thorax. The left side (the left ventricle and left atrium) is responsible for pumping blood to all parts of the body, while the right side (right ventricle and right atrium pumps only to the lungs.

The heart itself is divided into three layers called the endocardium, myocardium and epicardium, which vary in thickness and function.

Reproductive System

Main ArticleReproductive System

Human reproduction takes place as internal fertilization by sexual intercourse. During this process, the erect penis of the male is inserted into the female's vagina until the male ejaculates semen, which contains sperm, into the female's vagina. The sperm then travels through the vagina and cervix into the uterus or fallopian tubes for fertilization of the ovum.

The human male reproductive system is a series of organs located outside of the body and around the pelvic region of a male that contribute towards the reproductive process. The primary direct function of the male reproductive system is to provide the male gamete or spermatozoa for fertilization of the ovum.

The major reproductive organs of the male can be grouped into three categories. The first category is sperm production and storage. Production takes place in the testes which are housed in the temperature regulating scrotum, immature sperm then travel to the epididymis for development and storage. The second category are the ejaculatory fluid producing glands which include the seminal vesicles, prostate, and the vas deferens. The final category are those used for copulation, and deposition of the spermatozoa (sperm) within the female, these include the penis, urethra, vas deferens, and Cowper's gland.

The human female reproductive system is a series of organs primarily located inside of the body and around the pelvic region of a female that contribute towards the reproductive process. The human female reproductive system contains three main parts: the vagina, which acts as the receptacle for the male's sperm, the uterus, which holds the developing fetus, and the ovaries, which produce the female's ova. The breasts are also an important reproductive organ during the parenting stage of reproduction.

The vagina meets the outside at the vulva, which also includes the labia, clitoris and urethra; during intercourse this area is lubricated by mucus secreted by the Bartholin's glands. The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the uterus is attached to the ovaries via the fallopian tubes. At certain intervals, typically approximately every 28 days, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the fallopian tube into the uterus. The lining of the uterus, called the endometrium, and unfertilized ova are shed each cycle through a process known as menstruation.


An adult skeleton consists of approximately 200 distinct bones:
Spine and vertebral column (26)
Cranium (8)
Face (14)
Hyoid bone, sternum and ribs (26)
Upper extremities (64)
Lower extremities (62)

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See also

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