Hulun

Hulun

Hulun: see Hailar; China.
Hulun was the original Manchu and Tungus name for the territory between the Stanovoi mountains and the Amur river; it was also bordered by the Manchu coast and the Shantar Archipelago.

The first known residents were the Xianbei and Mohe peoples. According to Wei Yuan's work Military history of the Qing Dynasty Ming chronicle, a Tungu "Nation" area exists with same name in the Yehe, Hada, Hoifa and Ula tribes. Nurhaci, the Great Manchu Leader who founded the Qing dynasty, was from here.

This territory is also known as Eastern Heilongjiang; during the Manchu administration, it was managed by General of Jilin, who secured the national coasts from the Sea of Ohkostk and Sea of Japan while the General of Heilongjiang managed the West side of the Amur river. These lands were returned to Chinese control under the Treaty of Nerchinsk, which established the north frontier in the Stanovoy Mountains. The Manchu authorities decided to close off this area to Han Chinese migration. The geography of this region included Bailim (Khabarovsk), Gunkhing Cheng (Komsomolsk-on-Amur), the important port in Fuyioru (ancient Japanese name of Miaoyie present-day Nikolayevsk-on-Amur), Hailanpao (Blagoveshchensk), and the ancient town of Aigun. Deleng, also in Hulun, was an important commercial center long ago.

Ancient Japanese history explains why the northern ancestors of Chosio or Izumo, the ancient clans, proceeded from this area and East or Maritime Tartary to come to Kita Ezo (Karafuto), Hokkaidō, and North Honshū. Japanese historians and archeologists encountered this knowledge in ancient chronicles found in Manchukuo. Japanese legends tell similar tales of the journey from the Amur valley.

All of these territories were lost with the Treaty of Aigun between Russia and the Chinese Empire. Today most or all of them are part of the Russian Far East.

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