Hulme is an inner city area and electoral ward of the City of Manchester, in North West England. Located immediately south of Manchester City Centre, it is an area with significant industrial heritage.
Historically a part of Lancashire, the name Hulme is derived from the Old Norse word for a small island, or land surrounded by water or marsh, indicating that it may have been first settled by Norse invaders during the period of the Danelaw.
Many cotton mills and a railway link to Hulme soon followed, and thousands of people came to work in the rapidly expanding mills in the city. The number of people living in Hulme multiplied 50-fold during the first half of the 19th century. Housing had to be built rapidly, and space was limited, which resulted in low-quality housing interspersed with the myriad smoking chimneys of the mills and the railway. Added to the lack of sanitation and rampant spread of disease, this gave an extremely low quality of life for residents. Reports of the time suggest that at times the air quality became so poor that poisonous fumes and smoke literally "blocked out the sun" for long periods.
By 1844, the situation had grown so serious that Manchester Borough Council had to pass a law banning further building. However, the thousands of "slum" homes that were already built continued to be lived in, and many were still in use into the first half of the 20th century.
By the start of the 1960s England had begun to remove many of the 19th century slums and consequently, most of the slum areas of Hulme were demolished. The modernist and brutalist architectural style of the period, as well as practicalities of speed and cost of construction dictated high rise "modular" living in tower blocks and "cities in the sky" consisting of deck-access apartments and terraces.
In Hulme, a new and (at the time) innovative design for deck access and tower living was attempted. This consisted of curved rows of low-rise flats with deck access far above the streets was created, known as the "Crescents" (which were, with unintentional irony, architecturally based on terraced housing in Bath). In this arrangement, motor vehicles remained on ground level with pedestrians on concrete walkways overhead, above the smoke and fumes of the street.
High-density housing was balanced with large green spaces and trees below, and the pedestrian had priority on the ground over cars. The 1960s redevelopment of Hulme split the area's new council housing into a number of sections. Hulme 2 was the area between Jackson Crescent and Royce Road. Hulme 3 was between Princess Road and Boundary Road based along the pedestrianised Epping Walk, Hulme 4 was between Princess Road and Royce Road and Hulme 5 - the "Crescents" themselves were between Royce Road and Rolls Crescent.
The names of the "Crescents" harked back to the Georgian Era, being named after architects of that time: Robert Adam Crescent, Charles Barry Crescent, William Kent Crescent and John Nash Crescent, together with Hawksmoor Close (a small straight block of similar design attached to Charles Barry Crescent).
At the time, the "Crescents" won several design awards, and introduced technologies such as underfloor heating to the masses. They were also popular because they were some of the first council homes in Manchester to have central heating. The development even had some notable first occupants, such as Nico and Alain Delon.
However, what eventually turned out be recognised as poor design, workmanship, and maintenance meant that the crescents introduced their own problems. Design flaws and unreliable 'system build' construction methods, as well as the 1970s Oil Crisis meant that heating the poorly insulated homes became too expensive for their low income residents, and the crescents soon became notorious for being cold, damp and riddled with cockroaches and other vermin.
In 1978 Tony Wilson opened the Factory Club next to the Crescents, which became the home of Factory recoirds and the forerunner of the famnous Hacienda club
Crime and drug abuse became significant problems in Hulme, as police did not patrol the long, often dark decks, due to the fact that they were not officially considered streets. The decks made muggings and burglary relatively easy, as any crime could be carried out in almost total privacy, with no hope for quick assistance from police below.
The crescents became troublesome very shortly after their construction - within a decade, they were declared 'unfit for purpose', and several plans were drawn up that suggested various differing types of renovation and renewal for the blocks, including splitting the buildings into smaller, more manageable structures by removing sections.
In the 1980s and 90s many of these vacant deck-access flats were squatted and the area acquired a 'bohemian' reputation for it's many punks, artists and musicians.
Changing the reputation of Hulme that was gained in the 1970s and 1980s has been a long process, but one that appears to be being achieved. A green area, the Birley Fields, has been partly developed for a series of office blocks, and partly retained as urban parkland. The office development houses companies such as Michelin, Laing O'Rourke, and the University of Manchester/IFL/Server Hotel data centre.
One significant part of 1970s Hulme that still exists is the Moss Side Sports and Leisure Complex. Upgraded for the 2002 Commonwealth Games, the centre has a gym and a variety of other sporting facilities.
Hulme's proximity to the city centre has meant that it has become a popular place to live for a new generation of city dwellers; students of the University of Manchester are also choosing to live in many of the student-focused residential developments in the area.
Ethnic group - percentages; mixed (persons)% 5.95 Ethnic group - percentages; Asian or Asian British (persons)% 5.39 Ethnic group - percentages; black or black British (persons)% 15.19 Ethnic group - percentages; Chinese or other ethnic group (persons)% 5.50
In 1904, Henry Royce and Charles Stewart Rolls created a business partnership after meeting at Manchester's Midland Hotel and decided to start to build their own versions of the relatively new invention of the motor car - and chose Hulme for their first Rolls-Royce factory, though moving to Derby shortly afterwards.
Many street names in the current Hulme commemorate this little piece of history, such as Royce Road and Rolls Crescent, though the Royce public house, a popular drinking establishment with a distinctive ceramic historical 'mural' was razed for the creation of modern flats, in the 1990s regeneration of Hulme.
On Friday 10 August, 2007, a sculpture by George Wyllie MBE "Temple" was based on a Rolls Royce radiator grille and was unveiled in Hulme Park by the Scottish artist and is dedicated to Hulme's older residents, some of whom could have worked at the factory.
In February, 2008, ALL FM opened it's 2nd satellite studio in Hulme to broadcast live shows from the Zion Arts Centre. This was to bring the radio station closer to the area and gave Hulme another radio show the South Central Experience, presented by Karen Depasois, bi-weekly on Saturdays 11am-1pm.
The Hulme Tune from May 2008 started broadcasting bi-weekly at it's usual time of 10-11am on a Thursday. Actress and performer, Australian born Kaite Boltain, joined the show as Studio Assistant.
In September, 2008, Paul left the show to study Journalism at the University of Central Lancashire.
Jazz trumpeter Kevin Davy lived in Hulme during his time as a student at Manchester Polytechnic. Poet and BBC Radio 4 presenter Lemn Sissay spent the first 17 years of his life in care, in Hulme and its surrounding areas. TV presenter and author John Robb lives in Hulme. A Certain Ratio called the flats home in the 1980s and The Kitchen, 3 transformed flats provided a venue for acid house parties was a 10 minute walk for the legendary Hacienda Club.