Berners-Lee considered HTML to be, at the time, an application of SGML, but it was not formally defined as such until the mid-1993 publication, by the IETF, of the first proposal for an HTML specification: Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly's "Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)" Internet-Draft, which included an SGML Document Type Definition to define the grammar. The draft expired after six months, but was notable for its acknowledgment of the NCSA Mosaic browser's custom tag for embedding in-line images, reflecting the IETF's philosophy of basing standards on successful prototypes. Similarly, Dave Raggett's competing Internet-Draft, "HTML+ (Hypertext Markup Format)", from late 1993, suggested standardizing already-implemented features like tables and fill-out forms.
After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed "HTML 2.0", the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based. Published as Request for Comments 1996, HTML 2.0 included ideas from the HTML and HTML+ drafts. There was no "HTML 1.0"; the 2.0 designation was intended to distinguish the new edition from previous drafts.
Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests. Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). However, in 2000, HTML also became an international standard (ISO/IEC 15445:2000). The last HTML specification published by the W3C is the HTML 4.01 Recommendation, published in late 1999. Its issues and errors were last acknowledged by errata published in 2001.
As of mid-2008, HTML 4.01 and ISO/IEC 15445:2000 are the most recent versions of HTML. Development of the parallel, XML-based language XHTML occupied the W3C's HTML Working Group through the early and mid-2000s.
The Hello world program, a common computer program employed for comparing programming languages, scripting languages, and markup languages is made of 10 lines of code in HTML, albeit line breaks are optional:
) and an end tag (e.g.
). The element's attributes are contained in the start tag and content is located between the tags (e.g.
). Some elements, such as
, do not have any content and must not have a closing tag. Listed below are several types of markup elements used in HTML.
Structural markup describes the purpose of text. For example,
establishes "Golf" as a second-level heading, which would be rendered in a browser in a manner similar to the "HTML markup" title at the start of this section. Structural markup does not denote any specific rendering, but most Web browsers have standardized on how elements should be formatted. Text may be further styled with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).
Presentational markup describes the appearance of the text, regardless of its function. For example
boldface indicates that visual output devices should render "boldface" in bold text, but gives no indication what devices which are unable to do this (such as aural devices that read the text aloud) should do. In the case of both
italic, there are elements which usually have an equivalent visual rendering but are more semantic in nature, namely
strong emphasis and
emphasis respectively. It is easier to see how an aural user agent should interpret the latter two elements. However, they are not equivalent to their presentational counterparts: it would be undesirable for a screen-reader to emphasize the name of a book, for instance, but on a screen such a name would be italicized. Most presentational markup elements have become deprecated under the HTML 4.0 specification, in favor of CSS based style design.
Hypertext markup links parts of the document to other documents. HTML up through version XHTML 1.1 requires the use of an anchor element to create a hyperlink in the flow of text:
Wikipedia. However, the
href attribute must also be set to a valid URL so for example the HTML code,
Wikipedia, will render the word " " as a hyperlink.To link on an image, the anchor tag use the following syntax:
ismapattribute for the
Most elements can take any of several common attributes:
idattribute provides a document-wide unique identifier for an element. This can be used by stylesheets to provide presentational properties, by browsers to focus attention on the specific element, or by scripts to alter the contents or presentation of an element.
classattribute provides a way of classifying similar elements for presentation purposes. For example, an HTML document might use the designation
class="notation"to indicate that all elements with this class value are subordinate to the main text of the document. Such elements might be gathered together and presented as footnotes on a page instead of appearing in the place where they occur in the HTML source.
stylenon-attributal codes presentational properties to a particular element. It is considered better practice to use an element’s son-
idpage and select the element with a stylesheet, though sometimes this can be too cumbersome for a simple ad hoc application of styled properties.
titleattribute is used to attach subtextual explanation to an element. In most browsers this attribute is displayed as what is often referred to as a tooltip.
The generic inline element
span can be used to demonstrate these various attributes:
This example displays as HTML; in most browsers, pointing the cursor at the abbreviation should display the title text "Hypertext Markup Language."
Most elements also take the language-related attributes
As of version 4.0, HTML defines a set of 252 character entity references and a set of 1,114,050 numeric character references, both of which allow individual characters to be written via simple markup, rather than literally. A literal character and its markup counterpart are considered equivalent and are rendered identically.
The ability to "escape" characters in this way allows for the characters
& (when written as
&, respectively) to be interpreted as character data, rather than markup. For example, a literal
< normally indicates the start of a tag, and
& normally indicates the start of a character entity reference or numeric character reference; writing it as
& to be included in the content of elements or the values of attributes. The double-quote character (
"), when used to quote an attribute value, must also be escaped as
" when it appears within the attribute value itself. The single-quote character (
'), when used to quote an attribute value, must also be escaped as
' (should NOT be escaped as
' except in XHTML documents) when it appears within the attribute value itself. However, since document authors often overlook the need to escape these characters, browsers tend to be very forgiving, treating them as markup only when subsequent text appears to confirm that intent.
Escaping also allows for characters that are not easily typed or that aren't even available in the document's character encoding to be represented within the element and attribute content. For example, the acute-accented
é), a character typically found only on Western European keyboards, can be written in any HTML document as the entity reference
é or as the numeric references
é. The characters comprising those references (that is, the
;, the letters in
eacute, and so on) are available on all keyboards and are supported in all character encodings, whereas the literal
é is not.
This declaration references the Strict DTD of HTML 4.01, which does not have presentational elements like
, leaving formatting to Cascading Style Sheets and the
div tags. SGML-based validators read the DTD in order to properly parse the document and to perform validation. In modern browsers, the HTML 4.01 Strict doctype activates standards layout mode for CSS as opposed to quirks mode.
In addition, HTML 4.01 provides Transitional and Frameset DTDs. The Transitional DTD was intended to gradually phase in the changes made in the Strict DTD, while the Frameset DTD was intended for those documents which contained frames.
<em>) and the italics element (
<i>). Often the emphasis element is displayed in italics, so the presentation is typically the same. However, emphasizing something is different from listing the title of a book, for example, which may also be displayed in italics. In purely semantic HTML, a book title would use a different element than emphasized text uses (for example a
<span>), because they are meaningfully different things.
The goal of semantic HTML requires two things of authors:
<cite class="booktitle">The Grapes of Wrath</cite>.Here, the
<cite>element is used because it most closely matches the meaning of this phrase in the text. However, the
<cite>element is not specific enough to this task, since we mean to cite specifically a book title as opposed to a newspaper article or an academic journal.
Semantic HTML also requires complementary specifications and software compliance with these specifications. Primarily, the development and proliferation of CSS has led to increasing support for semantic HTML, because CSS provides designers with a rich language to alter the presentation of semantic-only documents. With the development of CSS, the need to include presentational properties in a document has virtually disappeared. With the advent and refinement of CSS and the increasing support for it in Web browsers, subsequent editions of HTML increasingly stress only using markup that suggests the semantic structure and phrasing of the document, like headings, paragraphs, quotes, and lists, instead of using markup which is written for visual purposes only, like
<b> (bold), and
<i> (italics). Some of these elements are not permitted in certain varieties of HTML, like HTML 4.01 Strict. CSS provides a way to separate document semantics from the content's presentation, by keeping everything relevant to presentation defined in a CSS file. See separation of style and content.
Semantic HTML offers many advantages. First, it ensures consistency in style across elements that have the same meaning. Every heading, every quotation, every similar element receives the same presentation properties.
Second, semantic HTML frees authors from the need to concern themselves with presentation details. When writing the number two, for example, should it be written out in words ("two"), or should it be written as a numeral (2)? A semantic markup might enter something like
A third advantage is device independence and repurposing of documents. A semantic HTML document can be paired with any number of stylesheets to provide output to computer screens (through Web browsers), high-resolution printers, handheld devices, aural browsers or braille devices for those with visual impairments, and so on. To accomplish this, nothing needs to be changed in a well-coded semantic HTML document. Readily available stylesheets make this a simple matter of pairing a semantic HTML document with the appropriate stylesheets. (Of course, the stylesheet's selectors need to match the appropriate properties in the HTML document.)
Some aspects of authoring documents make separating semantics from style (in other words, meaning from presentation) difficult. Some elements are hybrids, using presentation in their very meaning. For example, a table displays content in a tabular form. Often such content conveys the meaning only when presented in this way. Repurposing a table for an aural device typically involves somehow presenting the table as an inherently visual element in an audible form. On the other hand, we frequently present lyrical songs—something inherently meant for audible presentation—and instead present them in textual form on a Web page. For these types of elements, the meaning is not so easily separated from their presentation. However, for a great many of the elements used and meanings conveyed in HTML, the translation is relatively smooth.
In modern browsers, the MIME type that is sent with the HTML document affects how the document is interpreted. A document sent with an XHTML MIME type, or served as application/xhtml+xml, is expected to be well-formed XML, and a syntax error causes the browser to fail to render the document. The same document sent with an HTML MIME type, or served as text/html, might be displayed successfully, since Web browsers are more lenient with HTML. However, XHTML parsed in this way is not considered either proper XHTML or HTML, but so-called tag soup.
If the MIME type is not recognized as HTML, the Web browser should not attempt to render the document as HTML, even if the document is prefaced with a correct Document Type Declaration. Nevertheless, some Web browsers do examine the contents or URL of the document and attempt to infer the file type, despite this being forbidden by the HTTP 1.1 specification.
There are two axes differentiating various flavors of HTML as currently specified: SGML-based HTML versus XML-based HTML (referred to as XHTML) on the one axis, and strict versus transitional (loose) versus frameset on the other axis.
Like HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.0 has three sub-specifications: strict, loose, and frameset.
Aside from the different opening declarations for a document, the differences between an HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.0 document—in each of the corresponding DTDs—are largely syntactic. The underlying syntax of HTML allows many shortcuts that XHTML does not, such as elements with optional opening or closing tags, and even EMPTY elements which must not have an end tag. By contrast, XHTML requires all elements to have an opening tag or a closing tag. XHTML, however, also introduces a new shortcut: an XHTML tag may be opened and closed within the same tag, by including a slash before the end of the tag like this:
<br/>. The introduction of this shorthand, which is not used in the SGML declaration for HTML 4.01, may confuse earlier software unfamiliar with this new convention.
To understand the subtle differences between HTML and XHTML, consider the transformation of a valid and well-formed XHTML 1.0 document that adheres to Appendix C (see below) into a valid HTML 4.01 document. To make this translation requires the following steps:
langattribute rather than the XHTML
xml:langattribute. XHTML uses XML's built in language-defining functionality attribute.
xmlns=URI). HTML has no facilities for namespaces.
text/html. For both HTML and XHTML, this comes from the HTTP
Content-Typeheader sent by the server.
Those are the main changes necessary to translate a document from XHTML 1.0 to HTML 4.01. To translate from HTML to XHTML would also require the addition of any omitted opening or closing tags. Whether coding in HTML or XHTML it may just be best to always include the optional tags within an HTML document rather than remembering which tags can be omitted.
A well-formed XHTML document adheres to all the syntax requirements of XML. A valid document adheres to the content specification for XHTML, which describes the document structure.
The W3C recommends several conventions to ensure an easy migration between HTML and XHTML (see HTML Compatibility Guidelines). The following steps can be applied to XHTML 1.0 documents only:
langattributes on any elements assigning language.
<br />instead of
By carefully following the W3C’s compatibility guidelines, a user agent should be able to interpret the document equally as HTML or XHTML. For documents that are XHTML 1.0 and have been made compatible in this way, the W3C permits them to be served either as HTML (with a
text/html MIME type), or as XHTML (with an
application/xml MIME type). When delivered as XHTML, browsers should use an XML parser, which adheres strictly to the XML specifications for parsing the document's contents.
The primary differences which make the Transitional variant more permissive than the Strict variant (the differences are the same in HTML 4 and XHTML 1.0) are:
paragraph(p), and heading (
menulist (no substitute, though unordered list is recommended; may return in XHTML 2.0 specification)
dirlist (no substitute, though unordered list is recommended)
isindex(element requires server-side support and is typically added to documents server-side)
applet(deprecated in favor of object element)
languageattribute on script element (presumably redundant with
typeattribute, though this is maintained for legacy reasons).
framesetelement (used in place of body for frameset DTD)
anchor, client-side image-map (
In summary, the HTML 4.01 specification primarily reined in all the various HTML implementations into a single clear written specification based on SGML. XHTML 1.0, ported this specification, as is, to the new XML defined specification. Next, XHTML 1.1 takes advantage of the extensible nature of XML and modularizes the whole specification. XHTML 2.0 will be the first step in adding new features to the specification in a standards-body-based approach.
HTML 4 you. (history and future of HTML language, discussion of HTML 4.0) (Internet/ Web/ Online Service Information)(Technical)
Dec 01, 1997; As rapid changes continue to affect the Web, the W3C sets forth some specs for HTML 4.0. In the brave new world of Web design,...