(Hewlett Packard UniX) is Hewlett-Packard
implementation of the Unix operating system
, based on System V
(initially System III
). It runs on the HP 9000 PA-RISC
-based range of processors
and HP Integrity Intel
-based systems, and was also available for later Apollo/Domain
systems. Earlier versions also ran on the HP 9000
Series 200, 300, and 400 computer systems based on the Motorola 68000
series of processors, as well as the HP 9000
Series 500 computers based on HP's proprietary FOCUS
HP-UX was the first Unix to use access control lists for file access permissions rather than the standard Unix permissions system. HP-UX was also among the first Unix systems to include a built-in logical volume manager. HP has had a long partnership with VERITAS, and they use VxFS as their primary file system. For legacy as well as technical reasons, however, the file system used for the boot kernel remained Hi Performance FileSystem (HPFS; a variant of UFS) until the release of version 11.23 and so this older technology has continued to receive support from HP.
The current shipping release is HP-UX 11i v3 with Update 2 (0803). HP-UX 11i v3 currently is credited with leadership in observed performance, high availability and manageability. Version 3 of the HP-UX 11i operating system will scale as follows:
Since about 2000, the focus of HP-UX has increasingly been on enhanced reliability, security, and partitioning. The reliability is provided through clustering technology and package failover on a system outage, as well as redundant hardware, increased quality testing, and error monitoring and correction. Security features have significantly increased with 11i v2, with the addition of kernel-based intrusion detection
, strong random number generation
, stack buffer overflow protection, security partitioning, role-based access management, and various open source security tools. The system partitioning ranges from hardware partitions to isolated OS virtual partitions, and most recently the Virtual Server Environment
Following the merger of HP with Compaq in 2001, HP offered two UNIX operating systems: HP-UX 11i, its strategic UNIX product, and Tru64 UNIX with TruCluster technology for AlphaServer systems. HP continues to sell Tru64 UNIX but discontinued AlphaServer system sales in 2007, although options and refurbished systems may be available. HP has contributed the Tru64 UNIX Advanced File System (AdvFS) to the open source community. HP-UX 11i offers a common root disk for its clustered file system. HP provides HP Serviceguard as the clustering solution for HP-UX 11i as well as for Linux and Windows.
Prior to the release of HP-UX version 11.11, HP used a decimal version numbering scheme with the first number giving the major release and the number following the decimal showing the minor release. With 11.11, HP made a marketing decision to name their releases 11i followed by a v(decimal-number) for the version. The i was intended to indicate the OS is Internet-enabled, but the effective result was a dual version-numbering scheme. (The name change was apparently made to pay homage to the World War I Armistice anniversary, which occurs on 11.11 in nations that use decimal dates.)
6.x (1989): Support for 300 series only. Introduced sockets from 4.3BSD
.7.x (1990): Support for 300/400, 600/700 (in 7.03) /800 HP systems. Provided OSF/Motif
.8.x (January 1991): Support for 300/400 600/700/800 HP systems. Shared libraries introduced.9.x (July 1992–1995): 9.00, 9.01, 9.03 (s700), 9.04 (s800), 9.05, 9.07, 9.10. These provided support for the series 300, 700 and 800 HP systems. Introduced SAM
. This version also introduced a feature of context dependent files (CDF), a method of allowing a fileserver to serve different configurations and binaries to different client machines (and even architectures) in a heterogeneous environment. A directory containing such files had its suid
bit set and was made hidden from both ordinary and root processes under normal use. Such a scheme was sometimes exploited by hackers to hide exploits. CDF's and the CDF filesystem were dropped with release 10.0.10.0 (1995): This major release saw a convergence of the operating system between the series 700 (workstation) and series 800 (server) systems. (The OS no longer supported the older series.) There was also a significant change in the layout in the system files and directories, based on the AT&T
SVR4 UNIX standard. Applications were removed from /usr and moved under /opt; startup configuration files were placed under /etc/rc.config.d; users were moved to /home from /users. The Logical Volume Manager
(LVM) was presented at 10.0 as a replacement for the older methods of disk management. Software for HP-UX was now packaged, shipped, installed, and removed via the Software Distributor
(SD) tools.10.20 (1996): This release included support for PA-RISC processors that support PA2.0, including 64-bit data registers. Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) were introduced for use within CDE
. The root file system could be configured to use the Veritas VxFS
. 10.20 also supported 32-bit user and group identifiers. The prior limit was 60,000, or 16-bit. This and earlier releases of HP-UX are now effectively obsolete, and support by HP ended on June 30, 2003.10.24: This is a Virtual Vault
release of HP-UX, providing enhanced security features.10.30 (1997): This was primarily a developer release with various incremental enhancements. The use of PAM continued to expand in the system security components. Various changes to system calls were also made. This OS also provided the first support for Kernel Threads, with a 1x1 thread model (each user thread is bound to one kernel thread). 10.30 was also the first release of HP-UX that was fully year 2000
compliant.11.00 (1997): The first HP-UX release to also support 64-bit addressing; previous releases had been 32-bit only. It could still run 32-bit applications on a 64-bit system. This release was also deemed Y2K
-compliant. It supported 1×1 kernel threads
, symmetric multiprocessing
, fibre channel
, and NFS
PV3. It also included tools and documentation to convert 32-bit code to 64-bit.11.04: Virtual Vault
release.11.10: This was a limited release to support the V2500 SCA (Scalable Computing Architecture) and V2600 SCA servers. Other versions supported the V-class server in a single cabinet configuration, 11.10 ran on the SCA versions where two servers are stacked on top of each other, interconnected by a hyperplane crossbar. 11.10 also added JFS 3.3, 128-CPU support, AutoFS, and a new ftpd. It was not available separately.11.11 (2000): Also known as 11i
, this release of HP-UX introduced the concept of Operating Environments. It was released in December, 2000. These are bundled groups of layered applications intended for use with a general category of usage. The available types were the Mission Critical, Enterprise, Internet, Technical Computing, and Minimal Technical OEs. (The last two were intended for HP 9000
workstations.) The main enhancements with this release were support for hard partitions, gigabit ethernet
, Loadable Kernel
Modules, dynamic kernel tunable parameters, kernel event Notifications, and protected stacks.11.20 (2001): Also known as 11i v1.5
, this release of HP-UX was the first to support the new line of Itanium
) systems. It was not intended for mission critical
computing environments and did not support HP's ServiceGuard cluster software. It did provide support for running PA-RISC compiled applications on IA-64 systems, and for Veritas
Volume Manager 18.104.22.168 (2002): An incremental release of the Itanium
version of HP-UX, it was designated 11i v1.6
. This version achieved 64-way scalability
, MxN threads
, added more dynamic kernel tunable parameters, and supported HP's Logical Volume Manager on IA-64. It was built from the 11i v1 source code stream.11.23 (2003): The original release of this version was in September 2003 to support the Itanium-based systems. This version is also identified as 11i v2
. In September 2004 the OS was updated to provide support for both Itanium and PA-RISC systems. Besides running on IA-64 systems, this release includes support for ccNUMA
, web-based kernel and device configuration, IPv6
and a strong random number generation.11.31 (2007): This release is also identified as 11i v3
. This release supports both PA-RISC and IA-64. It was released on February 15, 2007. Major new features include native multipathing
support, a unified file cache, NFS
v4, Veritas ClusterFS, multi-volume VxFS. Hyperthreading is supported on Itanium systems with Montecito processors.
The first version of HP-UX was 1.0, built about 1983. It started out based on System III Unix, and later on System V.
The first HP-UX, for the FOCUS systems (Series 500s), had a kernel written in MODCAL, a modified Pascal with extensions for
low-level programming. Pascal/MODCAL was in vogue at HP for operating system work in the early-to-mid 1980s. This kernel in turn was hosted on top of another lower-level kernel called SUNOS (no relation to Sun Microsystems' SunOS) and emulated a file system similar to UFS on top of an HP-peculiar filesystem called Structured Directory Format (which led to curious features like . and .. not actually existing in a directory as opened and read). The
userland was a mix of AT&T, UCB, and HP sources.
The series 200/300 history also started out claiming System III and later System V. The HP-UX ROMs for the HP Integral PC had two versions: 1.0 which was System III based and 5.0 which was System V based.
HP announced its Precision Architecture in the second half of 1986, for two hardware lines: the HP3000 series 930 which had an equivalent HP9000 series 840, and the HP3000 series 950 which also had an HP9000 series 8xx equivalent. Unlike later PA-RISC systems, in the 3000/930 and 9000/840, the PA-RISC processor was spread across several boards of TTL.
At the time, HP did not have shippable quantities of hardware, but did have some installed at third-party developers sites. It was another year before MPE/XL was ready for its 1.0 release to customers, and in that time the HP9000 series 840 had shipped with HP-UX and the HP3000 series 930 had been dropped from the price list, not being enough faster than a classic HP3000 series 70 running a similar workload.
When it came time to do a Unix for the first PA-RISC systems (Series
800), at least the kernel was based on 4BSD but then worked over to
make it behave more like System V and other HP-UXs. BSD-isms
gradually got put back into it over the late 1980s and 1990s. That is, HP started a fresh port of Unix and then layered the old code and APIs on top.
The last release for the series 500 was 5.2.
Series 200 and Series 800 HP-UXs started with versions 1.0 and later
got version number bumps up to other ports' version numbers as they became
more compatible with those ports. So s200 went from 2.x to 5.0 when it got demand paging and more compatible with s500 5.0, and PA-RISC went from 3.1 to 7.0 when its userland was being built from common sources used in 7.0 on the s300.
By HP-UX 7 even the series 300 port was feeling somewhat BSDish, including the BSD Fast File System and a filesystem with long filenames.
Kernel had common source (across series 700/800 at least, maybe
s300/400 too) in 8.0.
HP sells HP-UX 11i in Operating Environments (OEs). OEs are HP-tested and integrated operating system plus application bundles designed to simplify installation and maintenance while providing the functionality needed for the system's purpose. In 2008, HP introduced new OEs for HP-UX 11i v3 to align application bundles with today's typical systems' use. OEs for HP-UX 11i v2 remain unchanged. The following lists the currently available HP-UX 11i v3 OEs:HP-UX 11i v3 Base OE
(BOE): Delivers the full HP-UX 11i operating system plus file system and partitioning software and applications for Web serving, system management and security. BOE includes all the software formerly in FOE & TCOE (see below), plus software formerly sold stand-alone (e.g. Auto Port Aggregator).HP-UX 11i v3 Virtualization Server OE
(VSE-OE): Delivers everything in BOE plus GlancePlus performance analysis and software mirroring, and all Virtual Server Environment software which includes soft or micro partitioning, workload management, capacity advisor and applications. VSE-OE includes all the software formerly in EOE (see below), plus additional virtualization software. HP-UX 11i v3 High Availability OE
(HA-OE): Delivers everything in BOE plus HP Serviceguard clustering software for system failover and tools to manage clusters, as well as GlancePlus performance analysis and software mirroring applications. HP-UX 11i v3 Data Center OE
(DC-OE) -: Delivers everything in one package, combining the HP-UX 11i operating system with virtualization and high availability. Everything in the HA-OE and VSE-OE is in the DC-OE.
Solutions for wide-area disaster recovery and the compiler bundle are sold separately.The following lists the currently available HP-UX 11i v2 OEs:HP-UX 11i v2 Foundation OE (FOE): Designed for the demands of Web servers, content servers and front-end servers, this OE includes applications such as HP-UX Web Server Suite, Java, and Mozilla Application Suite. This OE is bundled as HP-UX 11i FOE.HP-UX 11i v2 Enterprise OE (EOE): Designed for database application servers and logic servers, this OE contains the HP-UX 11i v2 Foundation OE bundles and additional applications such as GlancePlus Pak to enable an enterprise-level server. This OE is bundled as HP-UX 11i EOE.HP-UX 11i v2 Mission Critical OE (MCOE): Designed for the large, powerful back-end application servers and database servers that access customer files and handle transaction processing, this OE contains the Enterprise OE bundles, plus applications such as MC/ServiceGuard and Workload Manager to enable a mission-critical server. This OE is bundled as HP-UX 11i MCOE.HP-UX 11i v2 Minimal Technical OE (MTOE): Designed for workstations running HP-UX 11i v2, this OE includes the Mozilla Application Suite, Perl, VxVM, and Judy applications, plus the OpenGL Graphics Developer's Kit. This OE is bundled as HP-UX 11i MTOE.HP-UX 11i v2 Technical Computing OE (TCOE): Designed for both compute-intensive workstation and server applications, this OE contains the MTOE bundles plus extensive graphics applications and Math Libraries. This OE is bundled as HP-UX 11i-TCOE.
- Scott W. Y. Wang and Jeff B. Lindberg "HP-UX: Implementation of UNIX on the HP 9000 Series 500 Computer Systems", ''Hewlett-Packard Journal (volume 35 number 3, March 1984)
- Frank McConnell, More about the HP 9000, gaby.de