Hopper, Edward

Hopper, Edward

Hopper, Edward, 1882-1967, American painter and engraver, b. Nyack, N.Y., studied in New York City with Robert Henri. Hopper lived in France for a year but was little influenced by the artistic currents there. His early paintings had slight success; he gained a reputation, however, through his etchings, which remain popular. The first one-man show of his paintings was held in 1920. Hopper excelled in creating realistic pictures of clear-cut, sunlit streets and houses, often without figures. In his paintings there is a frequent atmosphere of loneliness, an almost menacing starkness, and a clear sense of time of day or night. His work in oil and watercolor is slowly and carefully painted, with light and shade used for pattern rather than for modeling. Hopper is represented in many leading American museums. Early Sunday Morning (1930; Whitney Museum, N.Y.C.) and Nighthawks (1942; Art Institute of Chicago) are characteristic oils.

See catalog raisonné ed. by G. Levin (1995); catalog and study by L. Goodrich (both: 1971); biographies by R. Hobbs (1987) and G. Levin (1995, repr. 2007); studies by G. Levin (1981, repr. 1986); S. Wagstaff, D. Anfam, and B. O'Doherty (2004); and C. Troyen, J. Barter, and E. Davis (2007).

(b. July 22, 1882, Nyack, N.Y., U.S.—d. May 15, 1967, New York, N.Y.) U.S. painter. He was initially trained as an illustrator but later studied painting with Robert Henri. In 1913 he exhibited in the Armory Show but spent much of his time on advertising art and illustrative etchings. In the mid 1920s he turned to watercolours and oil paintings of urban life. His House by the Railroad (1925) and Room in Brooklyn (1932) depict still, anonymous figures within geometric building forms, producing the haunting sense of isolation that was to be his hallmark. He used light to isolate figures and objects, as in Early Sunday Morning (1930) and Nighthawks (1942). His mature style was already formed in the 1920s; his later development showed constant refinement and an even greater mastery of light.

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Mechanical parts

  • A general term for a chute with additional width and depth to provide a volume for temporary storage of material(s). The bottom of the hopper chute typically has a mechanism to control the flow of materials, thus allowing them to be metered out at the desired rate.
  • Part of a combine harvester
  • Part of a paintball gun



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