After graduating (1895) from Stanford, he worked as a mining engineer in many parts of the world. He became an independent mining consultant and established offices in New York City, San Francisco, and London. When World War I broke out in 1914, Hoover, then in London, was made chairman of the American Relief Commission. In this post he arranged the return to the United States of some 150,000 Americans stranded in Europe. As chairman (1915-19) of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, he secured food and clothing for civilians of war-devastated Belgium and N France. After the United States entered the war, he became U.S. Food Administrator, a member of the War Trade Council, and chairman of the Interallied Food Council.
Appointed a chairman of the Supreme Economic Council and director of the European Relief and Reconstruction Commission at the Paris Peace Conference, he coordinated the work of the various relief agencies; he was given direct authority over the transportation systems of Eastern Europe in order to ensure efficient distribution of supplies. After the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, Hoover returned (1919) to the United States, although he continued to direct the American Relief Administration, which was to feed millions in the 1921-23 famine in the USSR.
As Secretary of Commerce (1921-29) under Presidents Harding and Coolidge, Hoover reorganized and expanded the department, sponsored conferences on unemployment, fostered trade associations, and gave his support to such engineering projects as the St. Lawrence Waterway and the Hoover Dam. Hoover gained great popular approval, and he easily won the Republican nomination for President in 1928 and defeated Democratic candidate Alfred E. Smith.
In the first year of his administration Hoover established the Federal Farm Board, pressed for tariff revision (which resulted in the Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act), and appointed the National Commission on Law Observance and Law Enforcement, with George W. Wickersham as chairman, to study the problem of enforcing prohibition. The rest of his administration was dominated by the major economic depression ushered in by the stock market crash of Oct., 1929.
Hoover, believing in the basic soundness of the economy, felt that it would regenerate spontaneously and was reluctant to extend federal activities. Nonetheless he did recommend, and Congress gave the funds for, a large public works program, and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation was created (1932) to stimulate industry by giving loans unobtainable elsewhere. Congress, which had a Democratic majority after the 1930 elections, passed the Emergency Relief Act and created the federal home loan banks. As the Great Depression deepened, veterans demanded immediate payment of bonus certificates (issued to them in 1924 for redemption in 1945). In 1932 some 15,000 ex-servicemen, known as the Bonus Marchers, marched on Washington; Hoover ordered federal troops to oust them from federal property.
In foreign affairs Hoover was confronted with the problems of disarmament, reparations and war debts, and Japanese aggression in East Asia. The United States participated in the London Conference of 1930 (see naval conferences) and signed the resulting treaty; it also took part in the abortive Disarmament Conference. In 1931, Hoover proposed a one-year moratorium on reparations and war debts to ease the financial situation in Europe. The administration's reaction to the Japanese invasion (1931) of Manchuria was expressed by Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson, who declared that the United States would not recognize territorial changes achieved by force or by infringement of American treaty rights. Hoover ran for reelection in 1932 but was overwhelmingly defeated by Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
Except for major speeches before the Republican conventions and a 1938 European tour, Hoover retired from public life until the close of World War II, when he undertook (1946) the coordination of food supplies to countries badly affected by the war. He then headed (1947-49) the Hoover Commission, a committee empowered by Congress to study the executive branch of government. Many of its recommendations were adopted, including establishment of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Under President Eisenhower he headed the second Hoover Commission (1953-55), which made recommendations on policy as well as organization. The Herbert Hoover Library was dedicated at West Branch, Iowa, in 1962. Hoover died on Oct. 20, 1964, in New York City.
Among Hoover's writings are Principles of Mining (1909), The Challenge to Liberty (1934), The Ordeal of Woodrow Wilson (1958), and An American Epic (3 vol., 1959-61). With his wife, Lou Henry Hoover (1875-1944), he translated Agricola's De re metallica (1912).
See his memoirs (3 vol., 1951-52); biographies by E. Lyons (1948, repr. 1964), H. Wolfe (1956), and C. Wilson (1968); H. G. Warren, Herbert Hoover and the Great Depression (1959); A. U. Romasco, Poverty of Abundance (1965, repr. 1968); J. Hoff, Herbert Hoover: Forgotten Progressive (1975).
See biographies by T. G. Powers (1987) and A. G. Theoharis (1988); D. J. Garrow, The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr. (1981); K. O'Reilly, Hoover and the Un-Americans (1983); A. G. Theoharis and J. S. Cox, The Boss (1988); B. Burrough, Public Enemies: America's Greatest Crime Wave and the Birth of the FBI, 1933-34 (2004).
Hoover is home to the Riverchase Galleria, one of the largest shopping centers in the Southeast and one of the largest mixed-use centers in the U.S. with 2.4 million square feet (222,967 m²) of total retail floor area. The Riverchase Galleria complex includes shopping, hotel, and office space. The shopping complex major anchor stores are JCPenney, Belk, Macy's, and Sears. A Nordstrom store will be added by 2012.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 43.65 square miles (113.1 km²), of which, 43.13 square miles (111.7 km²) of it is land and 0.51 square miles (1.3 km²) of it (1.17%) is water.
|Current City Council Membership|
|1||Trey D. Lott||Councilor|
|4||Gary M. Ivey||Council President|
|5||Jack Wright||President Pro Tem|
|7||Mike G. Natter||Councilor|
Source: City of Hoover/The Birmingham News
Source: City of Hoover/The Birmingham News
Hoover Fire Department is a full time career department operating from eight fire stations throughout the city. The city is divided into two battalions. There are eight engine companies, three quints, three ALS rescue/ambulances, and two battalion chiefs. All engine companies are staffed with a minimum of three, with at least two being firefighter/paramedics. All engines are classified ALS(Advanced Life Support). The department also operates one heavy rescue truck, and one hazmat unit. Hoover Fire Department holds a Class 2 ISO rating and has done so for over 15 years. The department is very active in the community of over 70,000, providing free blood pressure checks at all stations, participates in Meals on Wheels, installs hundreds of child safety seats each year, participates in Operation Safe Place, in addition to a very active Fire Prevention program taught in all Hoover elementary schools. In 2007, the department will respond to over 9000 calls.
In 2006, the police force of the city of Hoover began using 104 Chevrolet police Tahoes. With this change, the Hoover Police Department became the largest law enforcement fleet in the nation that runs on E85, a fuel that is 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline. The change was recognized by President George W. Bush, who visited the city in September 2006 to see the fleet and fueling facility.
Hoover operates its own enhanced 911 emergency call center which has eight operator positions and is staffed 24/7.
Hoover provides traffic, severe weather, disaster information, and details on special events on low-power AM radio (1610 kHz).
Hoover's first chief of police was Oscar Davis.
There were 25,191 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.9% were non-families. 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.00.
In the city the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 32.6% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.5 males.
According to a 2006 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $67,679, and the median income for a family was $86,160. Males had a median income of $55,660 versus $34,836 for females. The per capita income for the city was $33,361. About 2.1% of families and 3.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.7% of those under age 18 and 3.9% of those age 65 or over.
Berry Middle School, which served as the city's first high school before the present Hoover High was constructed, was closed after the 2005-2006 academic year, with students moved to a new Berry Middle School constructed near the site of Spain Park High School. A poll of residents recently favored selling the school, possibly to the independent Shades Mountain Christian School. Simmons Middle School and Bumpus Middle School are the city's other middle schools, whose students move on to Hoover High.
Before the 2004-2005 academic year, a few schools, most notably Trace Crossings Elementary, had almost, if not more than, 1,000 students, resulting in the building of Riverchase Elementary. After that, the case of overcrowding was resolved, with many students moving to the new school. However, a similar case has started happening with Bumpus Middle School, resulting in meetings at a handful of schools to discuss what to do about the case.
No radio stations operate from Hoover though numerous stations from the Birmingham market serve the city. (WVVB-FM is licensed to Hoover but its studio is located in Birmingham.)
Three newspapers serve Hoover: The Birmingham News, the state's primary daily newspaper, The Hoover Gazette, a weekly newspaper which began publishing in June 2006 but ceased publication in October 2007, and the Over the Mountain Journal, a weekly newspaper that began publishing in 1991. The portion of Hoover which lies in Shelby County is also served by the Shelby County Reporter, a weekly newspaper based in Columbiana, the county seat. During the 1990s, the Hoover Outlook served the city but is no longer in publication.