Hoover

Hoover

[hoo-ver]
Hoover, Herbert Clark, 1874-1964, 31st President of the United States (1929-33), b. West Branch, Iowa.

Wartime Relief Efforts

After graduating (1895) from Stanford, he worked as a mining engineer in many parts of the world. He became an independent mining consultant and established offices in New York City, San Francisco, and London. When World War I broke out in 1914, Hoover, then in London, was made chairman of the American Relief Commission. In this post he arranged the return to the United States of some 150,000 Americans stranded in Europe. As chairman (1915-19) of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, he secured food and clothing for civilians of war-devastated Belgium and N France. After the United States entered the war, he became U.S. Food Administrator, a member of the War Trade Council, and chairman of the Interallied Food Council.

Appointed a chairman of the Supreme Economic Council and director of the European Relief and Reconstruction Commission at the Paris Peace Conference, he coordinated the work of the various relief agencies; he was given direct authority over the transportation systems of Eastern Europe in order to ensure efficient distribution of supplies. After the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, Hoover returned (1919) to the United States, although he continued to direct the American Relief Administration, which was to feed millions in the 1921-23 famine in the USSR.

Presidency

As Secretary of Commerce (1921-29) under Presidents Harding and Coolidge, Hoover reorganized and expanded the department, sponsored conferences on unemployment, fostered trade associations, and gave his support to such engineering projects as the St. Lawrence Waterway and the Hoover Dam. Hoover gained great popular approval, and he easily won the Republican nomination for President in 1928 and defeated Democratic candidate Alfred E. Smith.

In the first year of his administration Hoover established the Federal Farm Board, pressed for tariff revision (which resulted in the Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act), and appointed the National Commission on Law Observance and Law Enforcement, with George W. Wickersham as chairman, to study the problem of enforcing prohibition. The rest of his administration was dominated by the major economic depression ushered in by the stock market crash of Oct., 1929.

Hoover, believing in the basic soundness of the economy, felt that it would regenerate spontaneously and was reluctant to extend federal activities. Nonetheless he did recommend, and Congress gave the funds for, a large public works program, and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation was created (1932) to stimulate industry by giving loans unobtainable elsewhere. Congress, which had a Democratic majority after the 1930 elections, passed the Emergency Relief Act and created the federal home loan banks. As the Great Depression deepened, veterans demanded immediate payment of bonus certificates (issued to them in 1924 for redemption in 1945). In 1932 some 15,000 ex-servicemen, known as the Bonus Marchers, marched on Washington; Hoover ordered federal troops to oust them from federal property.

In foreign affairs Hoover was confronted with the problems of disarmament, reparations and war debts, and Japanese aggression in East Asia. The United States participated in the London Conference of 1930 (see naval conferences) and signed the resulting treaty; it also took part in the abortive Disarmament Conference. In 1931, Hoover proposed a one-year moratorium on reparations and war debts to ease the financial situation in Europe. The administration's reaction to the Japanese invasion (1931) of Manchuria was expressed by Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson, who declared that the United States would not recognize territorial changes achieved by force or by infringement of American treaty rights. Hoover ran for reelection in 1932 but was overwhelmingly defeated by Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

The Hoover Commissions

Except for major speeches before the Republican conventions and a 1938 European tour, Hoover retired from public life until the close of World War II, when he undertook (1946) the coordination of food supplies to countries badly affected by the war. He then headed (1947-49) the Hoover Commission, a committee empowered by Congress to study the executive branch of government. Many of its recommendations were adopted, including establishment of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Under President Eisenhower he headed the second Hoover Commission (1953-55), which made recommendations on policy as well as organization. The Herbert Hoover Library was dedicated at West Branch, Iowa, in 1962. Hoover died on Oct. 20, 1964, in New York City.

Bibliography

Among Hoover's writings are Principles of Mining (1909), The Challenge to Liberty (1934), The Ordeal of Woodrow Wilson (1958), and An American Epic (3 vol., 1959-61). With his wife, Lou Henry Hoover (1875-1944), he translated Agricola's De re metallica (1912).

See his memoirs (3 vol., 1951-52); biographies by E. Lyons (1948, repr. 1964), H. Wolfe (1956), and C. Wilson (1968); H. G. Warren, Herbert Hoover and the Great Depression (1959); A. U. Romasco, Poverty of Abundance (1965, repr. 1968); J. Hoff, Herbert Hoover: Forgotten Progressive (1975).

Hoover, J. Edgar (John Edgar Hoover), 1895-1972, American administrator, director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), b. Washington, D.C. Shortly after he was admitted to the bar, he entered (1917) the Dept. of Justice and served (1919-21) as special assistant to Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. In this capacity he directed the so-called Palmer Raids against allegedly radical aliens. Director of the Bureau of Investigation (renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935) after 1924, Hoover built a more efficient crime-fighting agency, establishing a centralized fingerprint file, a crime laboratory, and a training school for police. During the 1930s, to publicize the work of his agency in fighting organized crime, he participated directly in the arrest of several major gangsters. After World War II, Hoover focused on the perceived threat of Communist subversion. In office until his death, he became increasingly controversial. His many critics considered his anticommunism obsessive, and it has been verified that he orchestrated systematic harassment of political dissenters and activists, including Martin Luther King, Jr. Hoover accumulated enormous power, in part from amassing secret files on the activities and private lives of political leaders and their associates. After his death reforms designed to prevent these abuses were undertaken. His writings include Persons in Hiding (1938), Masters of Deceit (1958), and A Study of Communism (1962).

See biographies by T. G. Powers (1987) and A. G. Theoharis (1988); D. J. Garrow, The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr. (1981); K. O'Reilly, Hoover and the Un-Americans (1983); A. G. Theoharis and J. S. Cox, The Boss (1988); B. Burrough, Public Enemies: America's Greatest Crime Wave and the Birth of the FBI, 1933-34 (2004).

J. Edgar Hoover

(born Jan. 1, 1895, Washington, D.C., U.S.—died May 2, 1972, Washington, D.C.) U.S. director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). He entered the Department of Justice as a file reviewer in 1917; two years later, as special assistant to Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, he helped in the roundup and deportation of suspected Bolsheviks. In 1924 he was named director of the Bureau of Investigation, which he remade into a professional, merit-based organization. In the 1930s he successfully publicized the FBI's success in tracking down and capturing well-known criminals. During this time, both the FBI's size and its responsibilities grew steadily. In the late 1930s Hoover received authorization to investigate foreign espionage in the U.S. and the activities of communists and fascists alike. When the Cold War began in the late 1940s, the FBI undertook intensive surveillance of communists and other left-wing activists in the U.S. Hoover's animus toward radicals of every kind led him to investigate both the Ku Klux Klan and Martin Luther King, Jr., as well as other African American activists in the 1960s. At the same time, he maintained a hands-off policy toward the Mafia, which was allowed to conduct its operations nationwide practically free of FBI scrutiny or interference. Hoover habitually used the FBI's enormous surveillance and information-gathering powers to collect damaging information on politicians throughout the country, and apparently he was able to intimidate even sitting presidents by threatening to leak damaging disclosures about them. He retained his post for 48 years, until his death.

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J. Edgar Hoover

(born Jan. 1, 1895, Washington, D.C., U.S.—died May 2, 1972, Washington, D.C.) U.S. director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). He entered the Department of Justice as a file reviewer in 1917; two years later, as special assistant to Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, he helped in the roundup and deportation of suspected Bolsheviks. In 1924 he was named director of the Bureau of Investigation, which he remade into a professional, merit-based organization. In the 1930s he successfully publicized the FBI's success in tracking down and capturing well-known criminals. During this time, both the FBI's size and its responsibilities grew steadily. In the late 1930s Hoover received authorization to investigate foreign espionage in the U.S. and the activities of communists and fascists alike. When the Cold War began in the late 1940s, the FBI undertook intensive surveillance of communists and other left-wing activists in the U.S. Hoover's animus toward radicals of every kind led him to investigate both the Ku Klux Klan and Martin Luther King, Jr., as well as other African American activists in the 1960s. At the same time, he maintained a hands-off policy toward the Mafia, which was allowed to conduct its operations nationwide practically free of FBI scrutiny or interference. Hoover habitually used the FBI's enormous surveillance and information-gathering powers to collect damaging information on politicians throughout the country, and apparently he was able to intimidate even sitting presidents by threatening to leak damaging disclosures about them. He retained his post for 48 years, until his death.

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(born Aug. 10, 1874, West Branch, Iowa, U.S.—died Oct. 20, 1964, New York, N.Y.) 31st president of the U.S. (1929–33). After graduating from Stanford University (1895), he became a mining engineer, administering engineering projects on four continents (1895–1913). He then headed Allied relief operations in England and Belgium. As U.S. national food administrator during World War I, he instituted programs that furnished food to the Allies and to famine-stricken areas of Europe. Appointed U.S. secretary of commerce (1921–27), he reorganized the department, creating divisions to regulate broadcasting and aviation. He oversaw commissions to build Boulder (later Hoover) Dam and the St. Lawrence Seaway. In 1928, as the Republican presidential candidate, he soundly defeated Alfred E. Smith. His hopes for a “New Day” program were quickly overwhelmed by the Great Depression. In response, he called business leaders to the White House to urge them not to lay off workers or cut wages, and he urged state and local governments to join private charities in caring for destitute Americans. Believing that a dole would sap the will of Americans to provide for themselves, he adamantly opposed direct federal relief payments to individuals, though in 1932 he finally allowed relief to farmers through the Reconstruction Finance Corp. After his electoral defeat in 1932 by Franklin D. Roosevelt, he regularly spoke out against what he considered the radicalism of the New Deal and Roosevelt's attempts to involve the U.S. in countering German and Japanese aggression. After World War II he participated in famine-relief work in Europe and was appointed head of the Hoover Commission.

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formerly Boulder Dam

Highest concrete arch dam in the U.S., built on the Colorado River at the Arizona-Nevada border. It impounds Lake Mead. The dam, completed in 1936, is used for flood and silt control, electric power, irrigation, and domestic and industrial water supplies. It is 726 ft (221 m) high and 1,244 ft (379 m) long (along the crest), has a power capacity of 1,345 megawatts, and a volume of 4.4 million cu yd (3.36 million cu m).

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(born Aug. 10, 1874, West Branch, Iowa, U.S.—died Oct. 20, 1964, New York, N.Y.) 31st president of the U.S. (1929–33). After graduating from Stanford University (1895), he became a mining engineer, administering engineering projects on four continents (1895–1913). He then headed Allied relief operations in England and Belgium. As U.S. national food administrator during World War I, he instituted programs that furnished food to the Allies and to famine-stricken areas of Europe. Appointed U.S. secretary of commerce (1921–27), he reorganized the department, creating divisions to regulate broadcasting and aviation. He oversaw commissions to build Boulder (later Hoover) Dam and the St. Lawrence Seaway. In 1928, as the Republican presidential candidate, he soundly defeated Alfred E. Smith. His hopes for a “New Day” program were quickly overwhelmed by the Great Depression. In response, he called business leaders to the White House to urge them not to lay off workers or cut wages, and he urged state and local governments to join private charities in caring for destitute Americans. Believing that a dole would sap the will of Americans to provide for themselves, he adamantly opposed direct federal relief payments to individuals, though in 1932 he finally allowed relief to farmers through the Reconstruction Finance Corp. After his electoral defeat in 1932 by Franklin D. Roosevelt, he regularly spoke out against what he considered the radicalism of the New Deal and Roosevelt's attempts to involve the U.S. in countering German and Japanese aggression. After World War II he participated in famine-relief work in Europe and was appointed head of the Hoover Commission.

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Hoover is a city in Jefferson and Shelby Counties in north central Alabama, in the United States. The largest suburb of Birmingham, the population of the city was 62,742 as of the 2000 census and was estimated to be 68,707 in 2006. Hoover is part of the Birmingham-Hoover, AL MSA (metropolitan statistical area) and is also included in the Birmingham-Hoover-Cullman, AL CSA. Hoover’s neighborhoods and planned communities are located along the rolling foothills of the Appalachian Mountains.

Hoover is home to the Riverchase Galleria, one of the largest shopping centers in the Southeast and one of the largest mixed-use centers in the U.S. with 2.4 million square feet (222,967 m²) of total retail floor area. The Riverchase Galleria complex includes shopping, hotel, and office space. The shopping complex major anchor stores are JCPenney, Belk, Macy's, and Sears. A Nordstrom store will be added by 2012.

The Birmingham Barons minor league baseball team, which traces its history to 1885, plays its home games at the 10,800 seat Regions Park.

History

The City of Hoover was incorporated in 1967. It was named after William H. Hoover (a local insurance company owner). The area had been known as the Hoover community since the 1930s and was mostly a residential community. In the late 1970s and early 1980s the city was still mostly residential with a small City Hall that included space for the police department. The annexation of the Riverchase business community provided a base of large office buildings and employers to the city. A significant change to the city occurred when Interstate I-459 was created with a major interchange with Interstate I-65 within the city. The most dramatic change occurred in 1986 when the Riverchase Galleria shopping-hotel-office complex opened. This significantly increased the tax revenue for the city. It was the catalyst to bring new residents and businesses to the city. The city has grown extremely fast with annexations and new developments. The city now provides services from many large city facilities including a Municipal Center, a Library, and a Public Safety Center. Residents and businesses are drawn to the city because of the rolling hills and nice residential areas, schools, city services, shopping, and business communities.

Geography

Hoover is located at (33.386435, -86.804938).

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 43.65 square miles (113.1 km²), of which, 43.13 square miles (111.7 km²) of it is land and 0.51 square miles (1.3 km²) of it (1.17%) is water.

Government

The municipal government has operated under the Mayor-Council form of government since incorporation. The Mayor and City Council are elected on a non-partisan basis to concurrent four-year terms of office which begin on October 1 of election year. Policy-making and legislative authority is vested in the City Council, which consists of seven "at-large" elected members (prior to 2004, the council consisted of five at-large members.) The city council is responsible for, among other things, considering local resolutions and ordinances, adopting an annual budget, and appointing members to local boards and committees. The Mayor is responsible for carrying out and enforcing the city's policies and ordinances.

Current Mayor
Tony Petelos

Current City Council Membership
Council Place Representative Position
1 Trey D. Lott Councilor
2 Gene Smith Councilor
3 Mari Morrison Councilor
4 Gary M. Ivey Council President
5 Jack Wright President Pro Tem
6 Brian Skelton Councilor
7 Mike G. Natter Councilor

Economy

The Riverchase Galleria shopping-hotel-office complex provides a large amount of tax money to the city and provides the location for many retail, hotel, and office workers. The Riverchase business community provides the location for many large businesses. Other office parks and buildings are located across Hoover. The Central Business District includes the US 31, Highway 150, and US 280 locations. Interstate highways I-65 and I-459 intersect in the city.

Top employers in the city (2006)

Source: City of Hoover/The Birmingham News

Top providers of sales tax (2006)

Source: City of Hoover/The Birmingham News

Public Safety

Hoover Fire Department is a full time career department operating from eight fire stations throughout the city. The city is divided into two battalions. There are eight engine companies, three quints, three ALS rescue/ambulances, and two battalion chiefs. All engine companies are staffed with a minimum of three, with at least two being firefighter/paramedics. All engines are classified ALS(Advanced Life Support). The department also operates one heavy rescue truck, and one hazmat unit. Hoover Fire Department holds a Class 2 ISO rating and has done so for over 15 years. The department is very active in the community of over 70,000, providing free blood pressure checks at all stations, participates in Meals on Wheels, installs hundreds of child safety seats each year, participates in Operation Safe Place, in addition to a very active Fire Prevention program taught in all Hoover elementary schools. In 2007, the department will respond to over 9000 calls.

In 2006, the police force of the city of Hoover began using 104 Chevrolet police Tahoes. With this change, the Hoover Police Department became the largest law enforcement fleet in the nation that runs on E85, a fuel that is 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline. The change was recognized by President George W. Bush, who visited the city in September 2006 to see the fleet and fueling facility.

Hoover operates its own enhanced 911 emergency call center which has eight operator positions and is staffed 24/7.

Hoover provides traffic, severe weather, disaster information, and details on special events on low-power AM radio (1610 kHz).

Hoover's first chief of police was Oscar Davis.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 62,742 people, 25,191 households, and 17,406 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,454.6 people per square mile (561.7/km²). There were 27,150 housing units at an average density of 629.4/sq mi (243.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 87.66% White, 6.77% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 2.89% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.40% from other races, and 1.09% from two or more races. 3.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 25,191 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.9% were non-families. 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.00.

In the city the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 32.6% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.5 males.

According to a 2006 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $67,679, and the median income for a family was $86,160. Males had a median income of $55,660 versus $34,836 for females. The per capita income for the city was $33,361. About 2.1% of families and 3.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.7% of those under age 18 and 3.9% of those age 65 or over.

Population of Hoover
Year Population
1980 15,100
1990 40,000
2000 62,742

Communities

  • Bluff Park
  • Caldwell Mill
  • Deer Valley
  • Green Valley
  • Greystone
  • Inverness
  • Lake Crest
  • Lake Cyrus
  • Patton Chapel
  • Riverchase
  • Rocky Ridge
  • Ross Bridge
  • Russell Springs
  • Russet Woods
  • Shades Mountain
  • Trace Crossings
  • The Preserve

Education

Hoover has ten elementary schools, three middle schools, and two high schools, Spain Park High School and Hoover High School. Spain Park High School has always ranked high in the country for excellent schools and it has been rated close to the top of the top five-hundred schools in the country. The 2005-2006 school year saw 2,451 students enrolled in Hoover High School, 1,400 in Spain Park High School, with a total of 11,433 students in the Hoover City School system.Spain Park received the National Blue Ribbon Award in September of 2008.

Berry Middle School, which served as the city's first high school before the present Hoover High was constructed, was closed after the 2005-2006 academic year, with students moved to a new Berry Middle School constructed near the site of Spain Park High School. A poll of residents recently favored selling the school, possibly to the independent Shades Mountain Christian School. Simmons Middle School and Bumpus Middle School are the city's other middle schools, whose students move on to Hoover High.

Before the 2004-2005 academic year, a few schools, most notably Trace Crossings Elementary, had almost, if not more than, 1,000 students, resulting in the building of Riverchase Elementary. After that, the case of overcrowding was resolved, with many students moving to the new school. However, a similar case has started happening with Bumpus Middle School, resulting in meetings at a handful of schools to discuss what to do about the case.

Media

Hoover has one television station ABC 33/40 with main studios within its city limits. The metro area has TV broadcasting stations that serve the Birmingham TV (DMA) as defined by Nielsen Media Research and provide broadcasting for ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox, PBS, The CW, MyNetworkTV, and ION TV networks. Charter Communications and Bright House Networks provide cable television service to specific communities in Hoover. DirecTV and Dish Network provide direct broadcast satellite television including both local and national channels to Hoover residents. AT&T has a contract to provide U-verse service to the city.

No radio stations operate from Hoover though numerous stations from the Birmingham market serve the city. (WVVB-FM is licensed to Hoover but its studio is located in Birmingham.)

Three newspapers serve Hoover: The Birmingham News, the state's primary daily newspaper, The Hoover Gazette, a weekly newspaper which began publishing in June 2006 but ceased publication in October 2007, and the Over the Mountain Journal, a weekly newspaper that began publishing in 1991. The portion of Hoover which lies in Shelby County is also served by the Shelby County Reporter, a weekly newspaper based in Columbiana, the county seat. During the 1990s, the Hoover Outlook served the city but is no longer in publication.

See also List of television stations in Alabama
See also List of radio stations in Alabama

Points of interest

References

External links

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