Hooker

Hooker

[hook-er]
Hooker, John Lee, 1917-2001, American blues singer and guitarist, b. near Clarksdale, Miss. From a cotton-sharecropping family, he learned the blues from his stepfather and various visiting Delta bluesmen, constructing his first instrument from strings made of rubber inner tube nailed to a barn. He left home at 14, sang with gospel groups, and ultimately moved (1943) to Detroit. Hooker made his first recording, the rhythm-and-blues hit "Boogie Chillun" in 1948. Accompanying himself on electric guitar, he recorded more than 100 albums, mainly of slow blues or fast boogies, and toured throughout the United States. After Hooker was "discovered" by the white blues-rockers of the 1960s, he recorded with several rock musicians and influenced a generation of players and singers. Hooker again reached a wide public with his albums The Healer (1989) and Don't Look Back (1997). He won three Grammy awards and was inducted (1991) into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

See biography by C. S. Murray (2000).

Hooker, Joseph, 1814-79, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Hadley, Mass. After fighting the Seminole and serving in the Mexican War, Hooker resigned from the army in 1853 and was for several years a farmer in California. At the outbreak of the Civil War he became a brigadier general of volunteers. He distinguished himself in subordinate commands in the Peninsular campaign, at the second battle of Bull Run, and in the Antietam campaign, and was made a brigadier general in the regular army in Sept., 1862. After the battle of Fredericksburg, Hooker severely criticized Ambrose Burnside, whom he succeeded (Jan., 1863) in command of the Army of the Potomac. In Apr., 1863, he advanced against Robert E. Lee, but in the resulting battle of Chancellorsville, he failed to justify his nickname of "Fighting Joe." Hooker followed Lee closely in the subsequent Confederate invasion of Pennsylvania, but, angered at General Halleck's refusal to send him reinforcements from Harpers Ferry, he asked on June 28, 1863, to be relieved. Hooker ably commanded reinforcements from the East in the Chattanooga campaign, and in 1864 he fought in the Atlanta campaign until General Sherman passed him over as successor to John B. McPherson.

See biography by W. H. Hebert (1944).

Hooker, Richard, 1554?-1600, English theologian and clergyman of the Church of England. He studied and lectured at Oxford and preached at Drayton-Beauchamp, Buckinghamshire; at the Temple Church, London; at Boscombe, Wiltshire; and at Bishopsbourne, Kent. His famous Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity (in 8 books, of which only 5 were published in his lifetime) was an epoch-making discussion of church government, written in an excellent prose style. It helped to formulate the intellectual concepts of Anglicanism, and its influence on the theory of government (civil as well as ecclesiastical) as based on rules of reason was widely felt in England. An edition of Hooker's works (1666) contained a celebrated biography by Izaak Walton (1665).

See the critical edition of his complete works, ed. by W. S. Hill et al. (2 vol., 1977-80); W. S. Hill, Richard Hooker: A Descriptive Bibliography of the Early Editions, 1593-1724 (1970); W. S. Hill, Studies in Richard Hooker (1972).

Hooker, Thomas, 1586-1647, Puritan clergyman in the American colonies, chief founder of Hartford, Conn., b. Leicestershire, England. A clergyman, he was ordered to appear before the court of high commission for nonconformist preaching in England and fled (1630) to Holland. In 1633, Hooker immigrated to Massachusetts, where he was pastor at Newtown (now Cambridge). He had a dispute with John Cotton and apparently was discontented with the strict theological rule in Massachusetts. After a group of settlers had been sent ahead in 1635, he and many of his flock moved in 1636 to found Hartford, where he was pastor until his death. Hooker was one of the drafters of the Fundamental Orders (1639), under which Connecticut was long governed and which represent his political views. He also promoted a plan for the New England Confederation.

See biography by G. L. Walker (1891, repr. 1969).

Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1785-1865, English botanist. A leading authority of his time on ferns, he formed a famous herbarium and built up the Glasgow Garden and the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. At Kew he founded the first museum of economic botany. Among his many works are British Jungermanniae (1816), Flora Scotica (1821), British Flora (1830), and a number of works on ferns, including Genera Filicum (1838), Species Filicum (5 vol., 1846-64), and Synopsis Filicum (1868). He edited many botanical journals. His son Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, 1817-1911, was also a botanist. After his first scientific expedition he wrote on the flora of New Zealand and Tasmania. Sir Joseph's great works include Antarctic Flora (1844-47), Genera Plantarum (with George Bentham, 3 vol., 1862-83), and The Flora of British India (7 vol., 1875-97). He edited the Index Kewensis (2 vol., 1895), by B. D. Jackson. He was a friend of Darwin and a defender of his theories.

See M. Allan, The Hookers of Kew, 1785-1911 (1967).

(born probably July 7, 1586, Markfield, Leicestershire, Eng.—died July 7, 1647, Hartford, Conn.) Anglo-American colonial clergyman. He held pastorates in England (1620–30), where he was attacked for Puritan leanings. He fled to Holland before emigrating to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1633. As pastor of a company of Puritans, he moved them to Connecticut to settle Hartford in 1636. He helped frame the Fundamental Orders (1639), which later formed the basis of the Connecticut constitution.

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(born March 1554?, Heavitree, Exeter, Devon, Eng.—died Nov. 2, 1600, Bishopsbourne, near Canterbury, Kent) English clergyman and theologian. He attended the University of Oxford, became a fellow of Corpus Christi College in 1577, and was ordained in 1581. He served as master of the Temple Church (1585–91) and later was vicar of churches at Drayton Beauchamp, Boscombe, and Bishopsbourne. He created a distinctive Anglican theology during a time when the Church of England was threatened by both Roman Catholicism and Puritanism. His great work was Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity (1594–97), in which he defended the threefold authority of the Bible, church tradition, and human reason.

Learn more about Hooker, Richard with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Joseph Hooker

(born Nov. 13, 1814, Hadley, Mass., U.S.—died Oct. 31, 1879, Garden City, N.Y.) U.S. Army officer. He attended West Point and served in the Mexican War. Appointed brigadier general of volunteers at the outbreak of the American Civil War, he participated in major campaigns and became known as “Fighting Joe.” He succeeded Ambrose E. Burnside as commander of the Army of the Potomac after the disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg. He reorganized the army but failed to defeat Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville, incurring heavy Union casualties. He resigned just before the Battle of Gettysburg but later helped secure the Union victory at the Battle of Chattanooga.

Learn more about Hooker, Joseph with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born probably July 7, 1586, Markfield, Leicestershire, Eng.—died July 7, 1647, Hartford, Conn.) Anglo-American colonial clergyman. He held pastorates in England (1620–30), where he was attacked for Puritan leanings. He fled to Holland before emigrating to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1633. As pastor of a company of Puritans, he moved them to Connecticut to settle Hartford in 1636. He helped frame the Fundamental Orders (1639), which later formed the basis of the Connecticut constitution.

Learn more about Hooker, Thomas with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 1554?, Heavitree, Exeter, Devon, Eng.—died Nov. 2, 1600, Bishopsbourne, near Canterbury, Kent) English clergyman and theologian. He attended the University of Oxford, became a fellow of Corpus Christi College in 1577, and was ordained in 1581. He served as master of the Temple Church (1585–91) and later was vicar of churches at Drayton Beauchamp, Boscombe, and Bishopsbourne. He created a distinctive Anglican theology during a time when the Church of England was threatened by both Roman Catholicism and Puritanism. His great work was Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity (1594–97), in which he defended the threefold authority of the Bible, church tradition, and human reason.

Learn more about Hooker, Richard with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Joseph Hooker

(born Nov. 13, 1814, Hadley, Mass., U.S.—died Oct. 31, 1879, Garden City, N.Y.) U.S. Army officer. He attended West Point and served in the Mexican War. Appointed brigadier general of volunteers at the outbreak of the American Civil War, he participated in major campaigns and became known as “Fighting Joe.” He succeeded Ambrose E. Burnside as commander of the Army of the Potomac after the disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg. He reorganized the army but failed to defeat Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville, incurring heavy Union casualties. He resigned just before the Battle of Gettysburg but later helped secure the Union victory at the Battle of Chattanooga.

Learn more about Hooker, Joseph with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Hooker is a city in Texas County, Oklahoma, in the United States. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 1,788.

Geography

Hooker is located at (36.861425, -101.213915).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.9 square miles (2.4 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 1,788 people, 702 households, and 511 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,960.4 people per square mile (758.6/km²). There were 812 housing units at an average density of 890.3/sq mi (344.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 86.13% White, 0.11% African American, 1.73% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 10.01% from other races, and 1.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.60% of the population.

There were 702 households out of which 35.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.8% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.1% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.02.

In the city the population was spread out with 28.0% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 96.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $34,688, and the median income for a family was $39,113. Males had a median income of $30,694 versus $20,217 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,086. About 9.1% of families and 10.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.0% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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