Hone, Nathaniel, 1718-84, Irish miniaturist and portrait painter. Hone is noted for his smoothly painted, informal portraits of middle-class subjects. His painting The Conjurer (1775) formed part of the first recorded one-man show in Great Britain.
Hone, Philip, 1780-1851, American diarist and politician, b. New York City. With his brother he built up a successful auctioneering business, which he later abandoned for politics. He was mayor of New York City in 1825. His diary (1828-51), opinionated and shrewd, contains valuable records of life in New York and of the development of the Whig party during that period.

See selections from his diary (ed. by B. Tuckerman, 2 vol., 1889) and by A. Nevins (2 vol., 1927; repr. 1971).

Hone, William, 1780-1842, English writer and bookseller. He was tried and acquitted three times in 1817 for publishing parodies on the church and the government. Besides writing political satires (illustrated by Cruikshank), he published highly popular compilations of miscellaneous information on such subjects as manners, e.g., the Every-Day Book (2 vol., 1826-27).

A hone is a machine tool used in the manufacture of precision bores to improve the geometry, surface finish and dimensional control of the finished part. This process is called honing.

Typical applications are the finishing of cylinders for internal combustion engines, air bearing spindles and in gear manufacturing. Types of hone are many and various but all consist of one or more abrasive stones that are held under pressure against the surface they are working on.

The hone is usually turned in the bore while being moved in and out. Special cutting fluids are used to give a smooth cutting action and to remove the material that has been abraded. Machines can be portable, simple manual machines, or fully automatic with gauging depending on the application.

Modern advances in abrasives have made it possible to remove much larger amount of material than was previously possible. This has displaced grinding in many applications where "through machining" is possible. External hones perform the same function on shafts.

Cross-hatch Finish

A "cross-hatch" pattern is used to retain oil or grease to ensure proper lubrication and ring seal of pistons in cylinders. A smooth glazed cylinder wall can cause piston ring and cylinder scuffing. The "cross-hatch" pattern is used on brake rotors, and flywheels.

Other similar processes are lapping and superfinishing.

See also

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