Homography is a concept in the mathematical science of geometry. It is defined as a relation between two figures, such that any given point in one figure corresponds to one and only one point in the other, and vice versa.

Computer Vision Applications

In the field of computer vision, a homography is defined in 2 dimensional space as a mapping between a point on a ground plane as seen from one camera, to the same point on the ground plane as seen from a second camera. This has many practical applications, most notably it provides a method for compositing 2D or 3D objects into an image or video with the correct pose. The homography matrix is sometimes known as a homograph, a term which has a different meaning in linguistics.

3D plane to plane equation

We have two cameras a and b, looking at points P_i in a plane.

Passing the projections of P_i from {}^bp_i in b to a point {}^ap_i in a:

{}^ap_i = K_a cdot H_{ba} cdot K_b^{-1} cdot {}^bp_i

where H_{ba} is

H_{ba} = R - frac{t n^T}{d}

R is the rotation matrix by which b is rotated in relation to a; t is the translation vector from a to b; n and d are the normal vector of the plane and the distance to the plane respectively.

K_a and K_b are the cameras' intrinsic parameter matrices.

The figure shows camera b looking at the plane at distance d.

Mathematical definition

Homogeneous coordinates are used, because matrix multiplication cannot directly perform the division required for perspective projection.


p_{a} = begin{bmatrix} x_{a}y_{a}1end{bmatrix}, p^{prime}_{b} = begin{bmatrix} w^{prime}x_{b}w^{prime}y_{b}w^{prime}end{bmatrix}, mathbf{H}_{ab} = begin{bmatrix} h_{11}&h_{12}&h_{13}h_{21}&h_{22}&h_{23}h_{31}&h_{32}&h_{33} end{bmatrix}
p^{prime}_{b} = mathbf{H}_{ab}p_{a}
mathbf{H}_{ba} = mathbf{H}_{ab}^{-1}.
p_{b} = p^{prime}_{b}/w^{prime} = begin{bmatrix} x_{b}y_{b}1end{bmatrix}

Affine homography

When the image region in which the homography is computed is small or the image has been acquired with a large focal length, an affine homography is a more appropriate model of image displacements. An affine homography is a special type of a general homography whose last row is fixed to h_{31}=h_{32}=0, ; h_{33}=1.

See also

External links

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