, in the terminology of Arthur Koestler
, is a hierarchy
— where a holon
is both a part and a whole. The term was coined in Koestler's 1967 book The Ghost in the Machine
. The term,spelled holoarchy
, is also used extensively by American philosopher and writer Ken Wilber
The "nested" nature of holons, where one holon can be considered as part of another, is similar to the term Panarchy as used by Adaptive Management theorists Lance Gunderson and C.S. Holling.
The universe as a whole is an example of a holarchy, or holarchical system, and every other holarchy we are aware of is a part of this larger holarchy.