[hof-stat-er, -stah-ter]
Hofstadter, Richard, 1916-70, American historian, b. Buffalo, N.Y. He received his Ph.D. from Columbia in 1942 and began teaching there in 1946, becoming full professor in 1952 and De Witt Clinton professor of American history in 1959. One of the most brilliant of 20th-century American historians, he did not believe that economic self-interest was the sole motivator of human conduct and in his work stressed America's tradition of shared ideas and values. Hofstadter wrote widely on the nation's intellectual, social, and political history. He won Pulitzer Prizes for The Age of Reform (1956, repr. 1999) and Anti-Intellectualism in American Life (1963). His other major works include Social Darwinism in American Thought (1944, rev. ed. 1955, repr. 1992), The American Political Tradition (1948, rev. ed. 1973, repr. 1999), The Paranoid Style in American Politics (1965, repr. 1995), The Progressive Historians (1968, repr. 1979), The Idea of a Party System (1969), and America at 1750 (1971, repr. 1973).

See biography by D. S. Brown (2006).

Hofstadter, Robert, 1915-90, American physicist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Princeton, 1938. He taught at Princeton from 1938 to 1950 and also worked at the National Bureau of Standards during World War II. In 1950 he joined the faculty at Stanford and remained there until his retirement in 1985. Hofstadter shared the 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics with Rudolf Mössbauer for his pioneering work in uncovering the structure and composition of neutrons and protons, the particles that make up the nuclei of atoms. He was the first to discover that atomic particles have definite shapes and sizes, and he pinpointed the distribution of charge and magnetic moment in atomic nuclei.
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