linguistics, historical

Branch of linguistics concerned with examining changes in phonology, grammar, and semantics during a language's evolution, reconstructing earlier stages, and uncovering evidence of the influence of other languages. Its roots are in Classical and medieval writings on etymology and in the comparative study of Greek and Latin during the Renaissance. Only in the 19th century did more scientific language-analysis methods lead to the development of historical linguistics as a scholarly discipline. The Neogrammarians, a group of German linguists who formulated sound correspondences in the Indo-European languages, were especially influential. In the 20th century the methods of historical linguistics were extended to other language groups.

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Park, southeastern Alaska, U.S. Located on Baranof Island in the Gulf of Alaska, it was established in 1910 as a national monument; a national park since 1972, it covers 107 ac (43 ha). It contains the ruins of the Indian fortress in which the Tlingit Indians made their last stand against Russian settlers in 1804. It also has a collection of old Haida Indian totem poles and the oldest intact Russian-American building in the U.S.

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Historical reservation, southeastern Virginia, U.S. Covering some 15 sq mi (38 sq km) and centred on a peninsula between the York and James rivers, it was first established as a national monument in 1930 and includes colonial and Revolutionary sites. It embraces Cape Henry, Jamestown, and Yorktown and includes the Colonial Parkway, a 23-mi (37-km) scenic route linking Jamestown, Williamsburg, and Yorktown.

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Park, eastern U.S. It consists of the former Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, a waterway running along the Potomac River between Washington, D.C., and Cumberland, Md. The canal, which extends 185 mi (297 km), was built beginning in the 1820s. Competition from the railroads later caused its economic decline. The canal was purchased in 1938 by the U.S. government; it was restored and established as a historical park in 1971.

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National preserve, northwestern New Mexico, U.S. Established as a national monument in 1907, it was redesignated and renamed in 1980. Occupying 53 sq mi (137 sq km), it contains 13 major pre-Columbian ruins and more than 300 smaller archaeological sites representing Pueblo cultures. Pueblo Bonito, built in the 10th century, is the largest Pueblo excavated site; it contained some 800 rooms.

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