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Hill

Hill

[hil]
Hill, Ambrose Powell, 1825-65, Confederate general in the American Civil War, b. Culpeper, Va. He served briefly in the Mexican War and had a varied army career until he resigned in Mar., 1861, to support the Confederacy. After fighting at Williamsburg in the Peninsular campaign, Hill became (May, 1862) the youngest major general in the Army of Northern Virginia. His division was heavily engaged in the Seven Days battles. He fought under Stonewall Jackson from July, 1862, until Jackson's death. Hill's division, noted for its fast marching, saved the day for Stonewall at Cedar Mt., just before the second battle of Bull Run (Aug., 1862), and its opportune return from Harpers Ferry enabled it to repulse Gen. Ambrose Burnside's attack in the Antietam campaign. When Jackson was mortally wounded in the battle of Chancellorsville, he turned his command over to Hill, but Hill himself was soon wounded, and Jeb Stuart took over. In the reorganization of the Army of Northern Virginia after Jackson's death, Hill was given command of the new 3d Corps. He was thereupon promoted to lieutenant general (May, 1863). His corps brought on the fighting in the Gettysburg campaign, and Hill directed the battle on July 1, 1863. He was at the head of his corps through most of the Wilderness campaign (1864) and in the defense of Petersburg (1864-65). In the assault that finally broke the Confederate lines at Petersburg (Apr. 2, 1865), Hill, with characteristic impulsiveness, went out to rally his troops and was killed.

See D. S. Freeman, Lee's Lieutenants (3 vol., 1942-44); biography by W. W. Hassler (1957, repr. 1962).

Hill, Archibald Vivian, 1886-1977, British physiologist, B.A. Cambridge, 1909. Hill was a professor at Manchester Univ. (1920-23) and University College, London (1923-25) before becoming a research professor of the Royal Society (1926-51). Hill discovered how heat is produced in muscle. While much previous research had focused on the mechanical response and characteristics of muscles, Hill showed that thermal changes are associated with muscle function. By demonstrating that oxygen is involved in only the recovery stage of muscle activity, he laid the foundation for understanding the biochemical reactions that result in muscle contraction. He shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Otto Fritz Meyerhof for his work.
Hill, Benjamin Harvey, 1823-82, American statesman, b. Jasper co., Ga. A highly successful lawyer and Whig politician, he supported the Whig-Democratic alliance that carried Georgia in favor of the Compromise of 1850. Hill opposed secession but accepted his state's decision and in the Civil War sat in the Confederate Senate, where he was a loyal supporter of President Jefferson Davis. In Congress after 1875 he was a leading orator for the Southern cause and rewon the popularity he lost in the Reconstruction days for his submission to radical Republican policies. He was elected U.S. Senator in 1877.
Hill, Daniel Harvey, 1821-89, Confederate general in the American Civil War, b. York District, S.C. He served in the Mexican War but resigned from the army in 1849. He was professor of mathematics at Washington College (now Washington and Lee Univ.; 1849-54) and at Davidson College (1854-59) and superintendent of the North Carolina Military Institute (1859-61). At the beginning of the Civil War, Hill commanded the 1st North Carolina Regiment and soon became Confederate major general. His division rendered distinguished service at Fair Oaks in the Peninsular campaign, in the Seven Days battles, and at South Mt. in the Antietam campaign (1862). In 1863, Hill commanded the Dist. of North Carolina, defended Richmond when Robert E. Lee was conducting the Gettysburg campaign, and fought under Braxton Bragg at Chickamauga in the Chattanooga campaign. With others of Bragg's subordinates he petitioned Jefferson Davis to remove that general from command, but Davis, favoring Bragg, removed Hill himself. He then had no active command until the last days of the war, when he fought at Bentonville, N.C. After the war he settled in Charlotte, N.C., where he established a monthly magazine and a weekly newspaper. He was president of the Univ. of Arkansas (1877-84) and of the Middle Georgia Military and Agricultural College (1886-89).

See D. S. Freeman, Lee's Lieutenants (3 vol., 1942-44); biography by L. H. Bridges (1961).

Hill, David Bennett, 1843-1910, American politician, b. Montour Falls, N.Y. He entered law and politics, becoming the upstate boss of the Democratic party in New York. He served as state legislator and, as lieutenant governor, succeeded to the governorship in 1885 upon Grover Cleveland's resignation. He was elected governor in 1885, and reelected (1888). As U.S. Senator (1892-97), he fought the free-silver wing in his own party.
Hill, David Octavius, 1802-70, and Robert Adamson, 1821-48, Scottish pioneer photographers. Hill was a painter of romantic Scottish landscapes. In 1843 he was commissioned to make a group portrait of the 470 clergymen who founded the Free Church of Scotland. He required an assistant to make the calotypes from which he would work, and he hired Adamson as a partner. Distinguished persons from many fields came to be photographed by the partners. Together they made (1843-48) more than 1,000 portraits and numerous views of Edinburgh before Adamson died at 27. Hill returned to painting and the partners' great work was not rediscovered until 1872.

See study by H. Schwarz (tr. 1931).

Hill, James Jerome, 1838-1916, American railroad builder, b. Ontario, Canada. He went to St. Paul, Minn., in 1856. He became a partner of Norman Kittson in a steamboat line and, with Kittson, Donald Alexander Smith (later Baron Strathcona and Mount Royal), and Sir George Stephen, he bought (1878) the St. Paul and Pacific RR. It was completed to the Canadian border, but Hill, having early envisioned the expansion of farming, trade, and industry from Minnesota to the Rockies and beyond, set about to carry the line westward in what was probably the greatest feat of railroad building in the United States. In 1887, Great Falls, Mont. (which Hill had helped to found), was reached; by 1893 the road was completed across the mountains to the Pacific at Seattle. The line's expansion was accomplished despite the appalling difficulties of the terrain and the lack of the federal assistance showered so generously on the earlier transcontinental roads. Furthermore, the construction involved no financial scandals. Hill pioneered in having "farm demonstration" trains and by his eloquent publicity persuaded thousands of farmers to settle in Montana, where unfortunately many of them were later ruined by drought. Hill in 1890 consolidated his rail properties into the Great Northern Railway Company. His great rival, the Northern Pacific, got into difficulties in the Panic of 1893, and he was the leader in its reorganization. When the courts prevented a union of the two roads, Hill's financial ally, J. Pierpont Morgan, took over the Northern Pacific, and a community of interests was maintained. In 1901 the two acted jointly to gain entrance to Chicago by purchasing the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (commonly called the Burlington). Morgan and Hill thus forestalled Hill's rival, E. H. Harriman, who also wanted the Burlington. A violent financial struggle ensued, precipitating the stock market panic of May 9, 1901. In a compromise measure, Harriman, Hill, and Morgan set up the Northern Securities Company as a holding company for the Great Northern and Northern Pacific systems, but the merger was dissolved by order of the U.S. Supreme Court as a violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. Hill retired from the presidency of the Great Northern in 1907, but remained on the board until 1912. He also assisted in the construction of the Canadian Pacific. He built and endowed the Hill Reference Library in St. Paul. Hill wrote Highways of Progress (1910).

See biographies by J. G. Pyle (2 vol., 1944; repr. 1968) and S. H. Holbrook (1955); study by A. Martin (1976).

Hill, Joe, 1879-1915, Swedish-American union organizer; b. Sweden, as Joseph Hillstrom. He came to the United States in 1902 and, as a maritime worker, joined the Industrial Workers of the World in 1910. He wrote many labor songs, including "Casey Jones" and "The Union Scab." Found guilty in 1915 of murdering a prominent Salt Lake City man, Hill was executed. He has become a legendary hero of radical labor.
Hill, Sir Rowland, 1795-1879, English educator, inventor, and postal reformer. He introduced the system of self-government in his school at Hazelwood in Birmingham. In his Plans for the Government and Education of Boys in Large Numbers (1822) he argued that moral influence of the highest kind should be the predominant power in school discipline. After his retirement from teaching (1833), Hill invented a rotary printing press and evolved a system of prepaid penny postage that was finally adopted in 1839. From 1854 to his retirement from public office in 1864 he was secretary to the Post Office. He was knighted in 1860.

See biographies by G. B. Hill (1880) and E. C. Smythe (1907).

orig. Joel Emmanuel Hägglund

(born Oct. 7, 1879, Gävle, Swed.—died Nov. 19, 1915, Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.) Swedish-U.S. songwriter and organizer for the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). Hill immigrated to the U.S. circa 1902 and joined the IWW in 1910. His songs of protest and solidarity—including “The Preacher and the Slave,” in which he coined the phrase pie in the sky to mock the “reward” awaiting the meek in the next world—became widely popular. In 1914 he was arrested in Salt Lake City and charged with the murder of a grocer and his son during a robbery. Convicted on circumstantial evidence despite mass demonstrations on his behalf, Hill was executed by a firing squad. His death made him a martyr in the eyes of the radical U.S. labour movement.

Learn more about Hill, Joe with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 16, 1838, near Guelph, Ont., Can.—died May 29, 1916, St. Paul, Minn., U.S.) Canadian-U.S. financier and railroad builder. He began his career in St. Paul overseeing steamboat transportation. In 1873 he reorganized a bankrupt railroad as the St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Manitoba Railway Co. and was named its president in 1882. The Great Northern Railway Co. absorbed the St. Paul line in 1890, and Hill became its president (1893–1907) and chairman of the board (1907–12). The Northern Pacific and the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroads also came under Hill's control; Edward Harriman's attempt to seize control of Northern Pacific from him (1901) triggered a Wall Street panic. Hill's banking activity as president of Northern Securities Co. was declared in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1904.

Learn more about Hill, James J(erome) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Joel Emmanuel Hägglund

(born Oct. 7, 1879, Gävle, Swed.—died Nov. 19, 1915, Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.) Swedish-U.S. songwriter and organizer for the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). Hill immigrated to the U.S. circa 1902 and joined the IWW in 1910. His songs of protest and solidarity—including “The Preacher and the Slave,” in which he coined the phrase pie in the sky to mock the “reward” awaiting the meek in the next world—became widely popular. In 1914 he was arrested in Salt Lake City and charged with the murder of a grocer and his son during a robbery. Convicted on circumstantial evidence despite mass demonstrations on his behalf, Hill was executed by a firing squad. His death made him a martyr in the eyes of the radical U.S. labour movement.

Learn more about Hill, Joe with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 16, 1838, near Guelph, Ont., Can.—died May 29, 1916, St. Paul, Minn., U.S.) Canadian-U.S. financier and railroad builder. He began his career in St. Paul overseeing steamboat transportation. In 1873 he reorganized a bankrupt railroad as the St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Manitoba Railway Co. and was named its president in 1882. The Great Northern Railway Co. absorbed the St. Paul line in 1890, and Hill became its president (1893–1907) and chairman of the board (1907–12). The Northern Pacific and the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroads also came under Hill's control; Edward Harriman's attempt to seize control of Northern Pacific from him (1901) triggered a Wall Street panic. Hill's banking activity as president of Northern Securities Co. was declared in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1904.

Learn more about Hill, James J(erome) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Hill is a town in Merrimack County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 992 at the 2000 census.

History

Originally granted as New Chester in 1753, the town took the name Hill in 1837 in honor of Isaac Hill, governor of New Hampshire from 1836 to 1839. To accommodate the construction of the Franklin Falls Dam, the village of Hill was relocated in 1941.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of , of which is land and is water, comprising 0.60% of the town. The highest point in town is Dickinson Hill, with an approximate elevation of above sea level. Hill lies fully within the Merrimack River watershed.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 992 people, 382 households, and 271 families residing in the town. The population density was 37.1 people per square mile (14.3/km²). There were 436 housing units at an average density of 16.3/sq mi (6.3/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 98.99% White, 0.10% African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, and 0.30% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.20% of the population.

There were 382 households out of which 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.9% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.8% were non-families. 21.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.01.

In the town the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 31.3% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, and 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 102.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.8 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $48,333, and the median income for a family was $50,000. Males had a median income of $32,120 versus $24,313 for females. The per capita income for the town was $21,004. About 2.9% of families and 4.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.2% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over.

References

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