Definitions

herbicide

herbicide

[hur-buh-sahyd, ur-]
herbicide, chemical compound that kills plants or inhibits their normal growth. A herbicide in a particular formulation and application can be described as selective or nonselective. In agriculture, selective herbicides are often used instead of tillage, or in combination with tillage and other agronomic practices, to control weeds without damaging crops. For these no-till or low-till systems, scientists are using biotechnology to develop crop varieties with increased tolerance for herbicides. Nonselective herbicides (e.g., paraquat) toxic to all plants, are used where complete control of plant growth is required.

Contact herbicides kill only the parts of the plant they touch; systemic herbicides are absorbed by foliage or roots and translocated to other parts of the plant. Preemergence herbicides, mixed into the soil, will kill germinating seeds and small seedlings. Postemergence herbicides either hinder photosynthesis or inhibit growth.

Early chemical herbicides were inorganic compounds. Herbicides such as ashes, common salts, and bittern have been used in agriculture since ancient times. Observation in 1896 that Bordeaux mixture, a fungicide, also provided control of certain weeds, led to the use of copper sulfate as a selective weed killer to control charlock (wild mustard) in cereals. By 1900, solutions of sulfuric acid, iron sulfate, copper nitrate, and ammonium and potassium salts were known to act as selective herbicides; soon thereafter sodium arsenite solutions became the standard herbicides, and they were used in large quantities until about 1960. Other inorganic herbicides include ammonium sulfamate, carbon bisulfide, sodium chlorate, sulfuric acid solutions, and formulations containing borate.

Organic herbicides began to be produced in earnest with dinitrophenol compounds in 1932. A breakthrough occurred in the 1940s with 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), a compound similar to plant hormones, which is a highly selective systemic herbicide when used in very small quantities. 2,4-D was quickly adopted to control broad-leaved weeds in corn, sorghum, small grains, and grass pastures, as well as in lawns and other ornamental turf. The phenoxyaliphatic acids and their derivatives, another major group of organic herbicides, succeeded because of their selectivity and ease of translocation. Other groups of organic herbicides include organic arsenicals, substituted amides and ureas, nitrogen heterocyclic acids, phenol derivatives, triazines, and sulfonylureas.

In the 1960s and 1970s, a combination of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T was widely used in Vietnam as a defoliant under the name Agent Orange. As a result of questions concerning the possible health effects of the use of Agent Orange, heightened awareness of possible ecological and health dangers attributable to herbicides has resulted in reevaluation of many compounds and has called indiscriminate use into question. Use of the dioxin-containing 2,4,5-T was prohibited in the United States in 1984. In 1975, Mexico, at the urging of the United States government, began spraying fields of marijuana with paraquat, which both eliminated the crop and raised fears of toxic side effects in marijuana users.

See also pesticide.

Agent, usually chemical, for killing or inhibiting the growth of unwanted plants (weeds). Modern weed killers are put in two categories, selective (affecting specific plant species) and nonselective (affecting plants generally). These in turn are classified as foliage-applied and soil herbicides. Contact herbicides (e.g., sulfuric acid, diquat, paraquat) kill only the plant organs with which they are in contact. Translocated herbicides (e.g., amitrole, picloram, 2,4-D) are effective against roots or other organs, to which they are transported from aboveground treated surfaces (soil). Seealso defoliant.

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A herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. Selective herbicides kill specific targets while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed. Some of these act by interfering with the growth of the weed and are often synthetic "imitations" of plant hormones. Herbicides used to clear waste ground, industrial sites, railways and railway embankments are non-selective and kill all plant material with which they come into contact. Some plants produce natural herbicides, such as the genus Juglans (walnuts). They are applied in total vegetation control (TVC) programs for maintenance of highways and railroads. Smaller quantities are used in forestry, pasture systems, and management of areas set aside as wildlife habitat.

Herbicides are widely used in agriculture and in landscape turf management. In the U.S., they account for about 70% of all agricultural pesticide use.

History

Prior to the widespread use of chemical herbicides, cultural controls, such as altering soil pH, salinity, or fertility levels, were used to control weeds. Mechanical control (including tillage) was also (and still is) used to control weeds.

The first widely used herbicide was 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, often abbreviated 2,4-D. It was first commercialized by the Sherwin-Williams Paint company and saw use in the late 1940s. It is easy and inexpensive to manufacture, and kills many broadleaf plants while leaving grasses largely unaffected (although high doses of 2,4-D at crucial growth periods can harm grass crops such as maize or cereals). The low cost of 2,4-D has led to continued usage today and it remains one of the most commonly used herbicides in the world. Like other acid herbicides, current formulations utilize either an amine salt (usually trimethylamine) or one of many esters of the parent compound. These are easier to handle than the acid.

2,4-D exhibits relatively good selectivity, meaning, in this case, that it controls a wide number of broadleaf weeds while causing little to no injury to grass crops at normal use rates. A herbicide is termed selective if it affects only certain types of plants, and nonselective if it inhibits a very broad range of plant types. Other herbicides have been more recently developed that achieve higher levels of selectivity than 2,4-D.

The 1950s saw the introduction of the triazine family of herbicides, which includes atrazine, which have current distinction of being the herbicide family of greatest concern regarding groundwater contamination. Atrazine does not break down readily (within a few weeks) after being applied to soils of above neutral pH. Under alkaline soil conditions atrazine may be carried into the soil profile as far as the water table by soil water following rainfall causing the aforementioned contamination. Atrazine is said to have carryover, a generally undesirable property for herbicides.

Glyphosate, frequently sold under the brand name Roundup, was introduced in 1974 for non-selective weed control. It is now a major herbicide in selective weed control in growing crop plants due to the development of crop plants that are resistant to it. The pairing of the herbicide with the resistant seed contributed to the consolidation of the seed and chemistry industry in the late 1990s.

Many modern chemical herbicides for agriculture are specifically formulated to decompose within a short period after application. This is desirable as it allows crops which may be affected by the herbicide to be grown on the land in future seasons. However, herbicides with low residual activity (i.e., that decompose quickly) often do not provide season-long weed control.

Health effects

Certain herbicides affect metabolic pathways and systems unique to plants and not found in animals making many modern herbicides among the safest crop protection products having essentially no effect on mammals, birds, amphibians or reptiles.

Some herbicides cause a range of health effects ranging from skin rashes to death {ref needed}. The pathway of attack can arise from intentional or unintentional direct consumption, improper application resulting in the herbicide coming into direct contact with people or wildlife, inhalation of aerial sprays, or food consumption prior to the labeled pre-harvest interval. Under extreme conditions herbicides can also be transported via surface runoff to contaminate distant water sources. Most herbicides decompose rapidly in soils via soil microbial decomposition, hydrolysis, or photolysis. Some herbicides are more persistent with longer soil half-lives {ref needed}. Other alleged health effects include chest pain, headaches, nausea, and fatigue.

All organic and non-organic herbicides must be extensively tested prior to approval for commercial sale and labeling by the Environmental Protection Agency. However, because of the large number of herbicides in use, there is significant concern regarding health effects. Some of the herbicides in use are known to be mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic {ref needed}.

Some herbicides may have therapeutic uses. There is current research into the use of herbicides as an anti-malaria drug that targets the plant-like apicoplast plastid in the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

Classification of herbicides

Herbicides can be grouped by activity, use, chemical family, mode of action, or type of vegetation controlled.

By activity:

  • Contact herbicides destroy only the plant tissue in contact with the chemical. Generally, these are the fastest acting herbicides. They are less effective on perennial plants, which are able to regrow from rhizhomes, roots or tubers.
  • Systemic herbicides are translocated through the plant, either from foliar application down to the roots, or from soil application up to the leaves. They are capable of controlling perennial plants and may be slower acting but ultimately more effective than contact herbicides.

By use:

  • Soil-applied herbicides are applied to the soil and are taken up by the roots and/or hypocotyl of the target plant. The following two categories are examples of soil-applied herbicides.
  • Pre-plant incorporated herbicides are soil applied prior to planting and mechanically incorporated into the soil. The objective for incorporation is to prevent dissipation through photo decomposition and/or volatility.
  • Preemergent herbicides are applied to the soil before the crop emerges and prevent germination or early growth of weed seeds.
  • Post-emergent herbicides are applied after the crop has emerged.

Their classification by mechanism of action (MOA) indicates the first enzyme, protein, or biochemical step affected in the plant following application. The main mechanisms of action are:

  • ACCase inhibitors are compounds that kill grasses. Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) is part of the first step of lipid synthesis. Thus, ACCase inhibitors affect cell membrane production in the meristems of the grass plant. The ACCases of grasses are sensitive to these herbicides, whereas the ACCases of dicot plants are not.
  • ALS inhibitors: the acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme (also known as acetohydroxyacid synthase, or AHAS) is the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine). These herbicides slowly starve affected plants of these amino acids which eventually leads to inhibition of DNA synthesis. They affect grasses and dicots alike. The ALS inhibitor family includes sulfonylureas (SUs), imidazolinones (IMIs), triazolopyrimidines (TPs), pyrimidinyl oxybenzoates (POBs), and sulfonylamino carbonyl triazolinones (SCTs). ALS is a biological pathway that exists only in plants and not in animals thus making the ALS-inhibitors among the safest herbicides.
  • EPSPS inhibitors: The enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase enzyme EPSPS is used in the synthesis of the amino acids tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine. They affect grasses and dicots alike. Glyphosate (Roundup) is a systemic EPSPS inhibitor but inactivated by soil contact.
  • Synthetic auxin inaugurated the era of organic herbicides. They were discovered in the 1940s after a long study of the plant growth regulator auxin. Synthetic auxins mimic this plant hormone. They have several points of action on the cell membrane, and are effective in the control of dicot plants. 2,4-D is a synthetic auxin herbicide.
  • Photosystem II inhibitors reduce electron flow from water to NADPH2+ at the photochemical step in photosynthesis. They bind to the Qb site on the D1 protein, and prevent quinone from binding to this site. Therefore, this group of compounds cause electrons to accumulate on chlorophyll molecules. As a consequence, oxidation reactions in excess of those normally tolerated by the cell occur, and the plant dies. The triazine herbicides (including atrazine) and urea derivatives (diuron) are photosystem II inhibitors.

Organic Herbicides

Almost all herbicides in use today are considered "organic" herbicides in that they contain carbon as a primary molecular component. A notable exception would be the arsenical class of herbicides. Sometimes they are referred to as synthetic organic herbicides. Recently the term "organic" has come to imply products used in organic farming. Under this definition an organic herbicide is one that can be used in a farming enterprise that has been classified as organic. Organic herbicides are expensive and may not be affordable for commercial production. They are much less effective than synthetic herbicides and are generally used along with cultural and mechanical weed control practices.

Organic herbicides include:

  • Spices are now effectively used in patented herbicides.
  • Vinegar is effective for 5-20% solutions of acetic acid with higher concentrations most effective but mainly destroys surface growth and so respraying to treat regrowth is needed. Resistant plants generally succumb when weakened by respraying.
  • Steam has been applied commercially but is now considered uneconomic and inadequate. It kills surface growth but not underground growth and so respraying to treat regrowth of perennials is needed.
  • Flame is considered more effective than steam but suffers from the same difficulties.
  • D-limonene (citrus oil), which is the active ingredient in Nature's Avenger Organic Herbicide. D-limonene (citrus oil) is a natural degreasing agent that strips the waxy skin or cuticle from weeds, causing dehydration and ultimately death. Environmentally safe, Nature’s Avenger Organic Herbicide is registered by the EPA - (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), and approved for use in organic production by the USDA - (United States Department of Agriculture) and is OMRI - Organic Materials Review Institute listed.

Application

Most herbicides are applied as water-based sprays using ground equipment. Ground equipment varies in design, but large areas can be sprayed using self-propelled sprayers equipped with a long boom, of 60 to 80 feet (20 to 25 m) with flat fan nozzles spaced about every 20 in (500 mm). Towed, handheld, and even horse-drawn sprayers are also used.

Synthetic organic herbicides can generally be applied aerially using helicopters or airplanes, and can be applied through irrigation systems (chemigation).

Terminology

  • Control is the destruction of unwanted weeds, or the damage of them to the point where they are no longer competitive with the crop.
  • Suppression is incomplete control still providing some economic benefit, such as reduced competition with the crop.
  • Crop Safety, for selective herbicides, is the relative absence of damage or stress to the crop. Most selective herbicides cause some visible stress to crop plants.

Major herbicides in use today

  • 2,4-D, a broadleaf herbicide in the phenoxy group used in turf and in no-till field crop production. Now mainly used in a blend with other herbicides that allow lower rates of herbicides to be used, it is the most widely used herbicide in the world, third most commonly used in the United States. It is an example of synthetic auxin (plant hormone).
  • aminopyralid is a broadleaf herbicide in the pyridine group, used to control broadleaf weeds on grassland, such as docks, thistles and nettles. Notorious for its ability to persist in compost.
  • atrazine, a triazine herbicide used in corn and sorghum for control of broadleaf weeds and grasses. Still used because of its low cost and because it works extrodinarily well on a broad spectrum of weeds common in the U.S. corn belt, Atrazine is commonly used with other herbicides to reduce the over-all rate of atrazine and to lower the for potential groundwater contamination, it is a photosystem II inhibitor.
  • clopyralid is a broadleaf herbicide in the pyridine group, used mainly in turf, rangeland, and for control of noxious thistles. Notorious for its ability to persist in compost. It is another example of synthetic auxin.
  • dicamba, a persistent broadleaf herbicide active in the soil, used on turf and field corn. It is another example of synthetic auxin.
  • Glufosinate ammonium, a broad-spectrum contact herbicide and is used to control weeds after the crop emerges or for total vegetation control on land not used for cultivation.
  • Fluroxypyr, a systemic, selective herbicide used for the control of broad-leaved weeds in small grain cereals, maize, pastures, range land and turf. It is a synthetic auxin. In cereal growing, fluroxypyr's key importance is control of cleavers, Galium aparine. Other key broad-leaved weeds are also controlled.
  • Glyphosate, a systemic non-selective (it kills any type of plant) herbicide used in no-till burndown and for weed control in crops that are genetically modified to resist its effects. It is an example of an EPSPs inhibitor.
  • Imazapyr, is a non-selective herbicide used for the control of a broad range of weeds including terrestrial annual and perennial grasses and broadleaved herbs, woody species, and riparian and emergent aquatic species.
  • Imazapic, is a selective herbicide for both the pre- and post-emergent control of some annual and perennial grasses and some broadleaf weeds. Imazapic kills plants by inhibiting the production of branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine), which are necessary for protein synthesis and cell growth.
  • Linuron, is a non-selective herbicide used in the control of grasses and broadleafed weeds. It works by inhibiting photosynthesis.
  • Metolachlor, a pre-emergent herbicide widely used for control of annual grasses in corn and sorghum; it has largely replaced atrazine for these uses.
  • Paraquat, a nonselective contact herbicide used for no-till burndown and in aerial destruction of marijuana and coca plantings. More acutely toxic to people than any other herbicide in widespread commercial use.
  • picloram, a pyridine herbicide mainly used to control unwanted trees in pastures and edges of fields. It is another synthetic auxin.
  • Triclopyr, a systemic, foliar herbicide in the pyridine group. It is used to control broadleaf weeds while leaving grasses and conifers unaffected.

Herbicides of historical interest

  • 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) was a widely used broadleaf herbicide until being phased out starting in the late 1970s. While 2,4,5-T itself is of only moderate toxicity, the manufacturing process for 2,4,5-T contaminates this chemical with trace amounts of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD is extremely toxic to humans. With proper temperature control during production of 2,4,5-T, TCDD levels can be held to about .005 ppm. Before the TCDD risk was well understood, early production facilities lacked proper temperature controls. Individual batches tested later were found to have as much as 60 ppm of TCDD.
  • 2,4,5-T was withdrawn from use in the USA in 1983, at a time of heightened public sensitivity about chemical hazards in the environment. Public concern about dioxins was high, and production and use of other (non-herbicide) chemicals potentially containing TCDD contamination was also withdrawn. These included pentachlorophenol (a wood preservative) and PCBs (mainly used as stabilizing agents in transformer oil). Some feel that the 2,4,5-T withdrawal was not based on sound science. 2,4,5-T has since largely been replaced by dicamba and triclopyr.
  • Agent Orange was a herbicide blend used by the U.S. military in Vietnam between January 1965 and April 1970 as a defoliant. It was a 50/50 mixture of the n-butyl esters of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D. Because of TCDD contamination in the 2,4,5-T component, it has been blamed for serious illnesses in many veterans and Vietnamese people who were exposed to it. However, research on populations exposed to its dioxin contaminant have been inconsistent and inconclusive. Agent Orange often had much higher levels of TCDD than 2,4,5-T used in the US. The name Agent Orange is derived from the orange color-coded stripe used by the Army on barrels containing the product. It is worth noting that there were other blends of synthetic auxins at the time of the Vietnam War whose containers were recognized by their colors, such as Agent Purple and Agent Pink.

See also

References

External links

General Information

Regulatory policy

Other Reading

A Brief History of On-track Weed Control in the N.S.W. SRA during the Steam Era Longworth, Jim Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, April, 1996 pp99-116

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