Hellespont: see Dardanelles.
ancient Hellespont

Narrow strait between the peninsula of Gallipoli in Europe and the mainland of Turkey in Asia. Some 38 mi (61 km) long and 0.75–4 mi (1–6 km) wide, it links the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara. Strategically important from antiquity, the Dardanelles was defended by Troy from its position on the Asian side. In 480 BC the Persian Xerxes I crossed the strait to invade Greece; Alexander the Great also crossed it in 334 BC on his expedition against Persia. Held by the Roman Republic and Empire and the Byzantine Empire and later by the Ottoman Empire, it is of great strategic and economic importance as the gateway from the Black Sea to Istanbul and the Mediterranean Sea.

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Hellespont (Turkish Çanakkale Boğazı, Greek Ἑλλήσποντος; i.e. "Sea of Helle", variously named in classical literature Hellespontium Pelagus, Rectum Hellesponticum, and Fretum Hellesponticum) was the ancient name of a narrow strait, now known by the modern European term 'the Dardanelles'. It was so called from Helle, the daughter of Athamas, who was drowned here in the mythology of the Golden Fleece.

Herodotus tells us that c. 482 BC the king Xerxes I of Persia and son of Darius had two bridges built across the width of the Hellespont at Abydos in order that his huge army, ostensibly made of 5 million men (most historians put the actual number of this army at closer to 250,000 men, though a second school of thought lends the accounts of Herodotus more credence, bringing the number closer to 400,000), could cross from Persia into Greece. This crossing was named by Aeschylus in his tragedy The Persians as the cause of divine intervention against Xerxes.

The Hellespont was also the body of water which Leander would cross in order to tryst with his beloved, the priestess Hero. Lord Byron famously swam the Hellespont as a feat of his athletic prowess.

Xerxes' Crossing

According to Herodotus (vv.34), both bridges were destroyed by a storm and Xerxes had those responsible for building the bridges beheaded and the strait itself whipped. The Histories of Herodotus vii.33-37 and vii.54-58 give details of Xerxes' building and crossing of the bridges. Xerxes is then said to have thrown fetters into the strait, given it three hundred lashes and branded it with red-hot irons as the soldiers shouted at the water.

Herodotus commented that this was a "highly presumptuous way to address the Hellespont" but in no way atypical of Xerxes. (vii.35)

Harpalus the Macedonian eventually helped the invading armies to cross by lashing the ships together with their bows facing the current and two additional anchors.

Geographical information

It is located at approximately . The strait is 61 kilometers (38 mi) long but only 1.2 to 6 kilometers (0.75 to 4 mi) wide, 55 meters (180 ft) deep with a maximum depth of 82 meters (300 ft). Water flows in both directions along the strait, from the Sea of Marmara to the Aegean via a surface current and in the opposite direction via an undercurrent. It is an important international shipping channel giving access to Istanbul and the various Black Sea ports beyond Bosphorus.


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