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Malta exiles

Malta exiles (Malta sürgünleri) (between March 1919 October 1920) is the term for politicians, high ranking soldiers (mainly), administrators and intellectuals of the Ottoman Empire who were sent into exile on Malta after the armistice of Mudros during the Occupation of İstanbul by the Allied forces. Malta exiles become inmates in a British prison where various CUP officials were held in the hopes that Malta Tribunals would be held at a future date.

These Ottoman politicians, generals, and intellectuals were taken out of Istanbul jails and deported to Malta, where they were held for some three years, while searches were made of archives in Istanbul, London, Paris and Washington to find proof of their guilt. The trials were used as a backdrop and ethical validation for the Treaty of Sèvres, which brought the end of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. The full cooperation of the Sultan during the trials was aimed at preventing a harsher peace settlement for the Ottoman Empire, that might have even include abolition of the Sultanate. The trials helped the Liberal Union party to expel the Committee of Union and Progress from the political arena.

Process of roundups

The first to be exiled was Ali İhsan Pasha, the successful commander at the Iraq front during the First World War. His orderly accompanied him to exile voluntarily. Both departed on 29 March 1919.

On 28 May 1919 was a large round-up of about thirty persons also covering, in absentia, Mustafa Kemal Pasha.

On 2 June 1919 came the turn of the members of the Council of Kars (Kars Surası) The exiles from Kars to Malta comprised 11 persons, eight Turks, including the Republic's president Cihangirzade Ibrahim Bey, two ethnic Greeks and one Russian, all members of the Council.

On 21 September 1919, a dozen personalities who had been in utmost prominence during the Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire were also exiled. The names included the former grand vizier Said Halim Pasha (who was at first sent to Moudros), his brother Abbas Halim Pasha, the writer-ideologue Ziya Gökalp and others.

Reasons for roundups

The 145 personalities arrested and exiled included people from with different backgrounds and causes. Some of the decisions for arrests involved personalities who were outside the reach of Allied authorities and were physically absent.

Some of the arrests were directly related to British policy between 1918–1920 to become an effective force in Caucasia. Besides the British military existence in the strategic points, it was necessary that 9th Ottoman Army was discharged/disarmed and the military and civil servants were to be taken away from their duties. Roundups connected to this policy were Yakup Sevki Subası (# 120), Mehmet Rıfat (# 129), Mürsel Bakü (# 137), from the 9th Army and Council of Kars of South West Caucasian Republic (# 60-70).

Government

The party Committee of Union and Progress was in the government. There were Committee of Union and Progress secretary (#18) members (#40, #58, #75, #111)

House of Osman

There were members of the Ottoman Divan which was linked to dynasty; Vizier (#80), bookkeeper (#34).

Council of Kars

Members of the Council of Kars (Kars Surası) who had set up the South West Caucasian Republic (Cenubî Garbî Kafkas Hükümet-i Cumhuriyesi) in Kars following the departure of Ottoman troops from that city after the Armistice of Mudros. After the British occupation of Kars, the formation, in several stages and under successive names, of this short-lived republic, although viewed at first rather benignly by the British, had been discontinued abruptly in April 1919, and its prominent members were arrested, and sent to İstanbul and then to Malta, while the region of Kars was handed over to the First Republic of Armenia.

The resistance

Turkish National Movement was a threat to the allied administration. A large round-up of about thirty persons included, in absentia, Mustafa Kemal Pasha or Yunus Nadi Abalıoğlu.

Outpost was mainly a resistance organization against the occupation forces. Most of the Outpost members belonged to or would in time turn to Turkish national movement. However, at the initial stage, or during the establishment of Turkish national movement Outpost members were not members of this movement. Outpost members were ideologically connected to the Sultan rather than a national movement.

Hilafet Movement

Hilafet Movement was opposing part of the plans against the Ottoman Empire. Movement plan to get a fatwa and extend the activities in India. Maulana Mehmud Hasan was arrested in Mecca when details of Khilafat Movement leaked. He was imprisoned for more than three years before his release in 1920.

Aftermath

The exiled later returned to Turkey in stages during 1921–1922.

Exiles

#
Name
Roundup Date
Roundup ID
Function in the Ottoman Empire
Aftermath
2 Ali İhsan Sabis Pasha 29 March 1919 26 67 returned (or fleed) in September 1921 , involved in Turkish War of Independence until the Battle of Dumlupınar
3 İbrahim Ahmet 29 March 1919 26 68
4 Mustafa Kemal Pasha (in his absence) May 28 1919
5 Abdülgani Bey May 28 1919 26 95
6 Ahmet Bey May 28 1919 27 24 former Sivas Governor
7 Ahmet Cevat Bey May 28 1919 27 24 colonel, İstanbul Position commander
8 Ahmet Haydar Bey May 28 1919 27 08 major
9 Ahmet Muammer Bey May 28 1919 27 19
10 Ahmet Nesimi Bey May 28 1919 27 19 former Foreign minister
11 Ahmet Tevfik Bey May 28 1919 26 80 colonel
12 Ali Fethi Okyar May 28 1919 26 80
13 Atıf Bey May 28 1919 27 02
14 Celal Bey May 28 1919 26 76 Colonel
15 Cemal Efendi May 28 1919 26 94 Lieutenant
16 Faik Bey May 28 1919 27 37
17 Fazıl Berki Tümtürk May 28 1919 26 98
18 Ferit Bey May 28 1919 27 03 Secretary of Committee of Union and Progress
19 Gani Bey May 28 1919 27 23 Member of Committee of Union and Progress
20 Habip Bey May 28 1919 26 85 Bolu deputy
21 Hacı Ahmet Pasha May 28 1919 27 39 Enver Pasha's father
22 Doktor Halil Bey May 28 1919 26 99 Lieutenant
23 Hasan Fehmi Bey May 28 1919 26 88 Sinop deputy
24 Ürgüplü Mustafa Hayri Efendi May 28 1919 27 34 Sheikh ul-Islam
25 Hazım Bey May 28 1919 26 78 Major
26 Hilmi Bey May 28 1919 27 89 Kırklareli Mutasarrıfı
27 Hoca Rıfat Efendi May 28 1919 27 06 Representative of Committee of Union and Progress
28 Hüseyin Cahit Yalçın May 28 1919 26 75 İstanbul deputy, Journalist
29 Hüseyin Kadri Bey May 28 1919 27 05 Karesi deputy
30 İbrahim Bedrettin Bey May 28 1919 27 01 Diyarbakır Governor
31 İbrahim Hakkı Bey May 28 1919 27 10 major
32 İsmail Canbulat Bey May 28 1919 26 92 former Dahiliye Nazırı
33 Kemal Bey May 28 1919 Unknown Unknown
34 Macit Bey May 28 1919 27 04 The Bookkeeper of Ottoman Divan (parlement)
35 Mazlum Bey May 28 1919 27 07
36 Mehmet Sabit Bey May 28 1919 26 86 former Sivas Governor
37 Sabri Toprak May 28 1919 27 29 Saruhan Mebusu Minister of Agriculture (1925-1927)
38 Mehmet Tevfik Bey May 28 1919 26 79 Yarbay, Kaymakam
39 Memduh Bey May 28 1919 27 33 Musul Governor
40 Mithat Sükrü Bey May 28 1919 26 93 Member of Committee of Union and Progress
41 Mustafa Asım bey May 28 1919 27 11 former Of Mutasarrıfı
42 Mümtaz Bey May 28 1919 26 97 Retired Yarbay
43 Nevzat Bey May 28 1919 26 96 Lieutenant
44 Ömer Bey May 28 1919 26 81 Major
45 Evrenoszade Rahmi Arslan May 28 1919 26 91 former İzmir Governor
46 Rıza Hamit Bey May 28 1919 27 40 Bursa deputy
47 Saip İbrahim Pirzade May 28 1919 27 35 Sura-ı Devlet Reisi, Nazır
48 Salah Cimcoz Bey May 28 1919 27 28 İstanbul deputy
49 Sami Bey May 28 1919 27 09 Colonel
50 Doktor Süleyman Numan Pasha May 28 1919 27 32 Ordu Sıhhiye Müfettişi
51 Süleyman Sudi Bey May 28 1919 27 30 Tokat deputy, Lazistan mebusu olarak da görünmektedir.
52 Serafettin Efendi May 28 1919 26 77 Lieutenant
53 Sükrü Kaya May 28 1919 27 38 Mülkiye Müfettişi
54 Tahir Cevdet Bey May 28 1919 26 90 former Ankara Governor
55 Tevfik Hadi Bey May 28 1919 26 82 Siyasi Polis Müdürü
56 Mehmet Ubeydullah Hatipoğlu May 28 1919 27 31 İzmir deputy
57 Veli Necdet Bey May 28 1919 26 87 Dahiliye Nazırlığı Müstesharı
58 Yusuf Ziya Bey May 28 1919 26 84 Retired major, member of Committee of Union and Progress
59 Zekeriya Zihni Bey May 28 1919 27 18 former Edirne Governor
60 Aziz Cihangiroğlu June 2 1919 Kars Surası üyesi, Adalet Bakanı
61 Alibeyzade Mehmet Bey June 2 1919 27 16 Kars Surası Üyesi, Kars Sivil Governor
62 Hasan Han Cihangiroğlu June 2 1919 Kars Surası üyesi, Savunma Bakanı
63 İbrahim Cihangiroğlu June 2 1919 27 17 Kars Surası üyesi, Sura Başkanı
64 Mehmetoğlu Muhlis Bey June 2 1919 27 27 Kars Surası Üyesi, PTT Genel Müdürü
65 Matroi Radjinski June 2 1919 27 25 Kars Surası Rus Üyesi
66 Musa Salah Bey June 2 1919 27 20 Kars Surası Üyesi, Polis Müdürü
67 Pavlo Camızev June 2 1919 27 14 Kars Surası Rum Üyesi
68 Tauchitgin Memlejeff June 2 1919 27 22 Kars Surası Üyesi, Emniyet Müdürü
69 Stefani Vafiades June 2 1919 27 26 Kars Surası Rum Üyesi, Sosyal Yardım Bakanı
70 Yusufoğlu Yusuf Bey June 2 1919 27 21 Kars Surası Üyesi, Gıda Bakanı
71 Abbas Halim Pasha September 21 1919 27 54 Prens, Eski Nafia Nazırı, Bursa Governor, Sadrazam Sait Halim Pasha’nın kardeşi. Malta'dan sonra İstanbul’a, sonra da Mısır’a gitti
72 Ahmet Ağaoğlu September 21 1919 27 64 Afyonkarahisar deputy, lecturer of Darülfünün , author
73 Ali Münif Bey September 21 1919 27 62 former Nafia Nazırı
74 Hacı Adil Bey September 21 1919 27 57 deputy
75 Halil Menteşe September 21 1919 27 60 member of Committee of Union and Progress
76 Hüseyin Tosun Bey September 21 1919 27 65 owner of Milli Telgraf Ajansı
77 Kara Kemal Bey September 21 1919 27 61 former İaşe Nazırı
78 Mahmut Kamil Pasha September 21 1919 27 58 former 5th army commander
79 Mithat Sükrü Bleda Bey September 21 1919 27 56 former minister of education, Burdur deputy, Secretary-General of Committee of Union and Progress Genel
80 Sait Halim Pasha September 21 1919 27 55 Prince, former grand vizier.
81 Ziya Gökalp September 21 1919 27 59 Ergani-Maden Mebusu, Darülfünün hocası
82 Mehmet Arif Bey January 28 1920 Major
83 Nuri Bitlisi January 28 1920 Sergeant
84 Faik Kaltakkıran March 22 1920 27 80
85 Ahmet Sevket Bey March 22 1920 27 80 İstanbul Müstahkem Mevki Komutanı
86 Mehmet Cemal Mersinli Pasha March 22 1920 27 72
87 Çürüksulu Mahmut Pasha March 22 1920 27 71
88 Hasan Tahsin Uzer March 22 1920 27 71 former Sam and Erzurum Governor
89 Hüseyin Rauf Orbay March 22 1920 27 76 former Bahriye Nazırı, Sivas deputy
90 İsmail Cevat Çobanlı Pasha March 22 1920 27 73
91 Mehmet Esat Işık Pasha March 22 1920 27 75 Doctor
92 Mehmet Seref Aykut Bey March 22 1920 27 79
93 Kara Vasıf (Mustafa Vasıf Karakol) March 22 1920 27 78
94 Köstenceli Numan Usta March 22 1920 27 81 headworker of Zeytinburnu factory
95 Ahmet Emin Yalman 27 March 1920 27 87 Journalist
96 Ali Çetinkaya 27 March 1920

27 87 former Afyon deputy
97 Ali Sait Pasha 27 March 1920 27 82
98 Ali Seyyit Bey 27 March 1920 27 94
99 Celal Nuri İleri 27 March 1920 27 85
100 Ebüzziyazade Velit Pasha 27 March 1920 27 83
101 Enis Avni (Aka Gündüz) 27 March 1920 27 91
102 Hilmi Abdülkadir 27 March 1920 27 89
103 İslam Ali 27 March 1920 27 86
104 Mehmet Eczacıbaşı 27 March 1920 27 90 Pharmacist, Sakir Eczacıbaşı'nın babası
105 Mehmet Muammer Bey 27 March 1920 27 88
106 Rafet Pasha (?) 27 March 1920 27 92
107 Süleyman Nazif 27 March 1920 27 84 former Musul and Bağdat Governor
108 Acenta Mustafa Kırzade 20 May 1920 27 86 Merchant
109 Doktor Abdüsselami Pasha 20 May 1920 Retired General, former Yemen commander
110 Mehmet Kamil Bey 20 May 1920 Musullu Journalist
111 Hacı Ahmet Bey 20 May 1920 Sivas delegate of Committee of Union and Progress
112 Mustafa Reshat Bey 31 May 1920 İstanbul Siyasi Polis Müdürü
113 Agah Bey June 7 1920 27 86
114 Basri Bey June 7 1920 yarbay, Cevat Pasha'nın damadı
115 Mustafa Abdülhalik Renda June 7 1920 former Bitlis Governor
116 Ali Cenani June 13 1920 former Halep and Antep deputy
117 Andavallı Mehmet Ağa June 13 1920
118 Murat Bey June 13 1920
119 Süleyman Faik Pasha June 13 1920
120 Yakup Sevki Subaşı Pasha June 13 1920 former Commander of 9th army
121 Ali Nazmi Bey August 6 1920
122 Hoca İlyas Sami Muş August 19 1920 Muş mebusu
123 Mehmet Atıf Bey August 19 1920
124 Mehmet Nazım Bey August 19 1920
125 Süleyman Necmi Bey August 19 1920
126 Sefer Bey 12 September 1920
127 Burhanettin Hakkı Bey 20 September 1920
128 Mehmet Nuri Bey 20 September 1920
129 Mehmet Rıfat Bey 20 September 1920
130 Cemal Oğuz Bey 5 October 1920
131 Mehmet Ali Bey 5 October 1920
132 Ahmet Sükrü Bey 27 63 former Maarif Nazırı, deputy
133 Cevat Bey İstanbul mevki kumandanı
134 Eşref Sencer Kuşçubaşı Teşkilat-ı Mahsusa
135 İsmail Müştak Mayokan Author, Deputy
136 Kazım Bey Colonel, Enver Pasha’nın kayınbiraderi
137 Mürsel Bakü Major General, Deputy İzmir’e giren Süvari Komutanı.
138 Sabit Bey former Sivas Governor
139 Sükrü Bey former Maarif Nazırı
140 Galatalı Sevki Bey Miralay, Malta’ya sürgüne gönderilinceye kadar Outpost örgütünün başı
141 Yunus Nadi Abalıoğlu Journalist, owner of Yeni Gün Newspaper

Further reading

  • Simsir, B. Malta Surgunleri (The Malta Exiles). Istanbul, 1976.

Footnotes

See also

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