Created in 1965 by the Head Start Act, Head Start is the longest-running program to address systemic poverty in the United States. As of late 2005, more than 22 million pre-school aged children have participated in Head Start. The $6.8+ billion dollar budget for 2005 provided services to more than 905,000 children, 57% of whom were four years old or older, and 43% three years old or younger. Services were provided by 1,604 different programs operating more than 48,000 classrooms scattered across every state (and nearly every county) at an average cost of $7,222 per child. The staff consists of nearly 212,000 paid personnel in addition six times as many volunteers.
The Office of Economic Opportunity launched Project Head Start as an eight-week summer program in 1965. The project was designed to help end poverty by providing preschool children from low-income families with a program that would meet emotional, social, health, nutritional, and psychological needs.
Head Start was then transferred to the Office of Child Development in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (later the Department of Health and Human Services) by the Nixon Administration in 1969. Today it is a program within the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) in the HHS. In FY 1995, the Early Head Start program was established to serve children from birth to three years of age in recognition of the mounting evidence that the earliest years matter a great deal to children's growth and development. Programs are administered locally by non-profit organizations and local education agencies such as school systems. Head Start is a program for children age 3 to 5 in the United States.
Eligibility for Head Start services is largely income-based (100% of the federal poverty level), though each locally-operated program includes other eligibility criteria such as disabilities and services to other family members. As of late 2006, up to 10% of any funded program's enrollment can be from over-income families. All programs provide full services to children with disabilities.
An important update to the Head Start Reauthorization bill signed by President Bush on December 12, 2007 is the importance of Head Start to serve the homeless children in America. Homelessness is defined as a child "who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence." This includes not only the typical homeless child in a shelter or other outreach program, or those living in motels or cars but also the children who are living in a "sharing the housing of others due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or similar reason." (http://www.naehcy.org). These homeless children must be sought out by the local Head Start and have to be served within a reasonable time frame. Head Start programs must communicate with the local school districts to help in providing services to the younger siblings of those the school has identified as homeless as well as helping older siblings of the preschool children Head Start has identified.
Section 648A of the Head Start Act lays out guidelines for the training of Head Start teachers and aides. In 2007, the section was revised to mandate that all teachers must have associates degrees in a related field by 2013, and half must have bachelor's degrees. As of 2003, the average Head Start teacher made only $21,000 per year, compared to the $43,000 that public school teachers made.
Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner, authors of Freakonomics, conclude that Head Start participation has no lasting effect on test scores in the early years of school, [Media:based on regression analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Levitt, one of the authors of Freakonomics, and Fryer come to the same conclusion in one 2004 paper they wrote.
Another issue has been that according to the most widely cited source supporting Head Start, children who finish the program and are placed into disadvantaged schools perform worse than their peers by second grade. Only by continuing to isolate these children (such as dispersing and sending them to better-performing school districts) can the gains be captured.
Magnuson, Ruhm, and Waldfogel conclude that Early education does increase reading and mathematics skills at school entry.
However, the study also found that, in contrast to the general population in pre-kindergarten, disadvantaged children and those attending schools with "low levels of academic instruction" get the largest and most lasting academic gains from early education.
Currie and Thomas try to control for many family background factors. The analysis is based on within-family data, comparing children in Head Start with their siblings who were not in Head Start. Also, mothers who were themselves enrolled in Head Start were compared to their adult sisters who were not. Currie and Thomas analyzed groups separately by ethnicity: White, Black and Hispanic. White children, who were the most disadvantaged, showed larger and longer lasting improvements than African-American children.
Not all studies support the claim that Head Start is effective when measured by long-term gain. Many researchers acknowledge that Head Start appears to make a significant educational impact early-on but argue that these benefits quickly fade. This phenomenon known as “Head Start Fade” begins to show itself as early as second and third grade when students who attended Head Start programs begin to fall behind their non-participant peers. The concept of “ Head Start Fade” leaves government officials and educators left wondering what can be done beyond the preschool years to perpetuate the early gains made by enrollment in Head Start programs. For a more thorough exploration of this argument see: 1) Where Do Head Start Attendees End up? One Reason Why Preschool Effects Fade out Valerie E. Lee, Susanna Loeb Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Spring, 1995), pp. 62-82 doi:10.2307/1164270 2) Does Head Start Fade Out? S. Barnett (1993), Education Week, 5, 40 3) Long Term Effects of Early Childhood Programs on Cognitive and School Outcomes. S. Barnett (1995, Winter), The Future of Children, 5(3), 25-50
According to Datta (Datta, 1976 & Lee et al.,1990) who summarized 31 studies, the program showed immediate improvement in the IQ scores of participating children, though after beginning school, the non-participants were able to narrow the difference. Children who attended Head Start are, relative to their siblings who did not, significantly more likely to complete high school, attend college, and possibly have higher earnings in their early twenties. They are less likely to have been booked or charged with a crime. Head Start is associated with large and significant gains in test scores. Head Start significantly reduces the probability that a child will repeat a grade. Recent criticisms of Project Head Start have resulted in plans to improve program services and to expand in a more thoughtful manner to make the program more responsive to the needs of children and families. New directions include expansion below and beyond the ages previously served by Head Start.
Congress mandated an intensive study of the effectiveness of Head Start, the "Head Start Impact Study", which has issued a series of reports on the design and study of a target population of 5000 3- and 4- year old children. The Head Start Impact Study First Year Findings were released in June of 2005, and the Executive Summary is available from Health and Human Services. The study participants, beginning in fall 2002, were assigned to either the headstart program or other parent-selected community resources. Thus, the study measured Head Start's effectiveness as compared to a variety of other forms of community support and educational intervention, as opposed to comparing Head Start to a non-intervention alternative.
The results of the first report showed consistent small to moderate advantages to children from participating in Head Start programs rather than other programs, with a few areas where no advantage was reported. The benefits improved with early participation and varied among racial and ethnic groups.