Partch, Harry, 1901-74, American composer, b. Oakland, Calif. Highly individualistic and largely self-taught, Partch rejected many of the traditions of Western music. He developed a theory of "corporeal" music based on "harmonized spoken words," capturing the patterns of real speech and uniting text with music. The technique is exemplified by works such as Account of the Normandy Invasion by an American Glider Pilot, based on a recording of the pilot's recollections. Partch also wrote music based on such sources as newsboy cries, hitchhiker inscriptions, and hobo descriptions, the latter drawn from his own several years of experience riding the rails. Another of his innovations was the division of the octave into a 43-note scale. He designed and built string, keyboard, and percussion instruments to play the music composed from this scale and his iconoclastic book Genesis of a Music (1949) explains his tunings and theories. Partch wrote several stage works, including, in 1952, music for William Butler Yeats's adaptation of Sophocles' Oedipus.

See T. McGeary, ed., Bitter Music: Collected Journals, Essays, Introductions, and Librettos (1991, repr. 2000); biography by B. Gilmore (1998).

Chandler, Harry: see under Chandler, family.
Vardon, Harry, 1870-1939, British golfer, b. Jersey. A former caddie, he became at 20 a professional golfer. He won six British Open championships (1896, 1898, 1899, 1903, 1911, and 1914). Vardon, rated by many as second only to Bobby Jones, was known for his accurate drives and for his introduction of the overlapping grip on the golf club. He toured the United States several times and in 1900 won the U.S. Open. He won over 60 important golf tournaments before retiring in 1934. He wrote The Complete Golfer (1913). A trophy named for him is awarded each year to the American or British professional with the lowest scoring average.

See his autobiography (1933).

Greb, Harry, 1894-1926, American boxer, b. Pittsburgh. Although blind in one eye, Greb was one of the most feared fighters in American ring history. He was a natural middleweight, but fought light heavyweights and heavyweights with considerable success. In 1922 he won the light heavyweight title from Gene Tunney (the only loss of Tunney's career); the following year Greb took the middleweight title. In his professional career (1913-26), Greb fought 288 matches, winning 115, losing 9 (only one of which was by knockout), and having 164 no-decision bouts.
Reid, Harry, 1939-, U.S. senator from Nevada (1987-), b. Searchlight, Nev. A Democrat and a lawyer, he served in the Nevada state assembly (1969-70), as lieutenant governor (1970-74), and as chairman (1977-81) of the Nevada Gaming Commission before winning a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 1982. First elected to the U.S. Senate in 1986, he was Senate Democratic whip (1999-2005) before he became Senate minority leader (2005-7) and majority leader (2007-). A moderate conservative known for his amiable manner, he is also regarded as a tough and tenacious legislator and party leader.
Bertoia, Harry, 1915-78, American sculptor and furniture designer, b. Italy. Bertoia emigrated to the United States in 1933 and joined Knoll International (1950). There he designed chairs that brought him wide acclaim. Important examples of his sculptural works are a structural screen for the Manufacturers Hanover Trust Company, New York City, and a bronze panel at Dulles International Airport, Washington, D.C.
Houdini, Harry, 1874-1926, American magician and writer, b. Budapest, Hungary. His real name was Erich Weiss; he took his stage name after the French magician Houdin. He was famed for his escapes from bonds of every sort—locks, handcuffs, straitjackets, and sealed chests underwater. While his stage magic skills were limited, Houdini was famously the originator (1918) of the celebrated Vanishing Elephant illusion. He performed in silent films and was also noted for his exposure of fraudulent spiritualist mediums and their phenomena (see spiritism). He left to the Library of Congress his library of magic, one of the most complete and valuable in the world. Among his writings are The Unmasking of Robert-Houdin (1908), Miracle Mongers and Their Methods (1920), and A Magician among the Spirits (1924).

See Houdini's Magic (ed. from his notebooks, 1932); biographies by H. Kellock (1928), W. L. Gresham (1959), and K. Silverman (1996); W. B. Gibson, Houdini's Escapes (1930); R. FitzSimons, Death and the Magician: The Mystery of Houdini (1985); J. Steinmeyer, Hiding the Elephant: How Magicians Invented the Impossible and Learned to Disappear (2003).

Bridges, Harry (Alfred Renton Bridges), 1901-90, American labor leader, b. Melbourne, Australia. Arriving (1920) as an immigrant seaman in San Francisco, he became a longshoreman and militant labor organizer. Bridges led (1934) the West Coast maritime workers' strike, which expanded into an abortive general strike, and in 1937 he set up the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union (ILWU), and became West Coast director of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). Proceedings in 1939 to deport him as a Communist alien ended when he was officially absolved of Communist affiliation. The U.S. House of Representatives passed (1940) a bill to deport him, but it was ruled (1945) illegal by the Supreme Court. He became a citizen in 1945. His support of Henry A. Wallace for President in 1948 resulted in his ouster as CIO regional head. He was convicted and sentenced (1950) to a five-year prison term for swearing falsely at his 1945 naturalization hearing that he had never been a member of the Communist party. In 1953, the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the indictment for perjury against Bridges, thus voiding his prison sentence. He was reindicted on similar charges, but in 1955 a federal district judge ruled that the government had failed to prove that he was a Communist or that he had concealed that fact when he was naturalized. Shortly thereafter the U.S. Justice Dept. announced it had given up its long fight to deport Bridges. In 1958 he was granted a U.S. passport. In 1971 and 1972 Bridges led the ILWU in a strike that tied up the West Coast waterfront for several weeks.

See study by C. P. Larrowe (1972).

Markowitz, Harry, 1927-, American economist, Ph.D. Univ. of Chicago, 1954. In the 1950s he developed a theory of "portfolio choice," which allows investors to analyze risk as well as their expected return. For this work Markowitz, a professor at Baruch College at the City Univ. of New York, shared the 1990 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with William Sharpe and Merton Miller.
Martinson, Harry, 1904-78, Swedish writer. Orphaned early, Martinson was self-educated. His works reveal his appreciation of nature and his distrust of modern technological society. He is best known for his long narrative poem Aniara (1956), about the journey of a spaceship. It was set to music in 1959 by K. B. Blomdahl. Noted for their novel, expressive style, his major works include Kap Farväl! [Cape Farewell] (1933), based on his travels; several volumes of poetry, Nässlorna blomma [flowering nettle] (1936); and Vägen till Klockricke (1948, tr. The Road, 1956), a sympathetic portrayal of society's outcasts. Martinson was the first writer of the working classes to be admitted to the Swedish Academy. He shared the 1974 Nobel Prize in Literature with the Swedish writer Eyvind Johnson. A collection of Martinsson's poems, tr. by William Jay Smith and Leif Sjöberg, was published as Wild Bouquet (1985).

See study by L. Sjöberg (1974).

Mulisch, Harry, 1927-, Dutch writer. In the 1960s Mulisch became a prominent member of Amsterdam's new left. He is extremely prolific and has written fiction, nonfiction, and poetry, much of it not yet translated into English. His powerful fiction, which often deals with the psychological aftermath of war, is characterized by an urbane intellectuality, experimental narrative structure, and an edgy ironic humor. Among his well-known works are the novels The Stone Bridal Bed (1959, tr. 1962) and Two Women (1975, tr. 1980). Mulisch is particularly acclaimed for his later novels, which include The Assault (1982, tr. 1985) and The Procedure (1998, tr. 2001). Widely considered his masterpiece, The Discovery of Heaven (1992, tr. 1996), is a massive philosophical novel with autobiographical overtones that deals with love, friendship, and divine intervention in the contemporary world.
Jönssonligan och Dynamit-Harry (1982) is a Swedish movie about the gang Jönssonligan.


Sickan, Vanheden and Rocky try to rob the Berns nightclub one night, but then an old dynamitard, Dynamit-Harry, shows up, the plan fails, and Sickan is arrested, and has to spend 10 months in a small, locked room. When he is released, he has a new plan, but Rocky and Vanheden have decided to go straight. However they are easily convinced to help Sickan with his plan. Together with Harry, they plan to rob a cold store, managed by their arch-enemy, Wall-Enberg.

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