Lee, Harper (Nelle Harper Lee), 1926-, American novelist, b. Monroeville, Ala. A member of an old Southern family and related to Robert E. Lee, she was a lifelong friend of Truman Capote. Lee attended Huntington College (1944-45) and the Univ. of Alabama (1945-49) but left for New York City to pursue a writer's life. After writing several essays and short stories, she expanded one story into the novel To Kill a Mockingbird (1960), which was a bestseller, won the Pulitzer Prize, was made (1962) into a popular film, and subsequently became one of the most widely read works of American fiction in the second half of the 20th cent. Mockingbird, which was Lee's only novel, is the story of small-town Alabama lawyer Atticus Finch's noble but unsuccessful legal defense of an African-American man falsely accused of raping a white woman. It also depicts the coming-of-age of Finch's young daughter, Scout, the book's semiautobiographical narrator, and of her brother Jem, and portrays the triumph of justice and tolerance. A private, reclusive person, Lee has lived quietly in Monroeville and New York since the mid-1960s.

See biography by C. J. Shields (2006); studies by J. Milton (1984), C. D. Johnson (1994), T. O'Neill (2000), C. Bernard (2003), B. Giddens-White (2006), L. Ellsworth (2007), A. H. Petry, ed. (2007), and C. Mancini (2008).

Harper, Ida Husted, 1851-1931, American woman suffragist. Allied with the woman-suffrage movement from 1898, she became the official reporter and historian of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. She wrote The Life and Works of Susan B. Anthony (3 vol., 1898-1908, repr. 1969) and later volumes (IV-VI, 1900-1922) of the History of Woman Suffrage started by Susan B. Anthony, who also contributed to Vol. IV.
Harper, Stephen, 1959-, Canadian politician, prime minister (2006-) of Canada, b. Toronto. A founding member of the conservative Reform party (later the Canadian Alliance), he won a seat in the federal parliament in 1993, but broke with party leader Preston Manning four years later and left parliament to head the conservative National Citizens Coalition. In 2002 he was elected Canadian Alliance party leader and subsequently won election to parliament. With Progressive Conservative leader Peter MacKay he negotiated the merger of their two parties to form the Conservative party of Canada. Harper was elected leader of the new party, which failed to best the Liberals in the 2004 elections. In 2006, however, the Conservatives won a plurality of the seats, and Harper became prime minister of a minority government. New elections in 2008 increased the Conservative plurality.
Harper, William Rainey, 1856-1906, American educator and Hebrew scholar, b. New Concord, Ohio, grad. Muskingum College, 1870, Ph.D. Yale, 1875. The author of many texts on Hebrew language and literature, Harper taught Hebrew at Baptist Union Theological Seminary in Chicago after 1879 and also gave (after 1883) courses at Chautauqua Institution. In 1886 he went to Yale as professor of Semitic languages, resigning in 1891 to become first president of the Univ. of Chicago. With vast funds at his disposal, Harper was able to recruit an outstanding faculty. He was committed to fostering advanced instruction and research in his university and maintained a policy whereby promotion for members of the faculty was directly related to their scholarly research.

See biography by T. W. Goodspeed (1928); R. J. Storr, Harper's University (1966).

Harper is a city in Keokuk County, Iowa, United States. The population was 134 at the 2000 census.


Harper is located at (41.363351, -92.051379).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.1 square miles (0.2 km²), all of it land.


As of the census of 2000, there were 134 people, 55 households, and 40 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,523.7 people per square mile (574.9/km²). There were 61 housing units at an average density of 693.6/sq mi (261.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 100.00% White.

There were 55 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.5% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.5% were non-families. 20.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.78.

In the city the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 3.7% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 15.7% from 45 to 64, and 28.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,875, and the median income for a family was $38,594. Males had a median income of $22,083 versus $22,188 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,620. There were 4.9% of families and 4.5% of the population living below the poverty line, including 3.9% of under eighteens and none of those over 64.


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