Definitions

Harlan

Harlan

[hahr-luhn]
Harlan, John Marshall, 1833-1911, American jurist, associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1877-1911), b. Boyle co., Ky., grad. Centre College, 1850. Admitted to the bar in 1853, he served in the Civil War as a colonel in the Union army until 1863, when he became attorney general of Kentucky. He took a leading part in the violent political struggles of the day, becoming after the war a leader of the conservative Republicans; he was defeated for the governorship, however, in 1872 and 1875. As head of the Kentucky delegation to the Republican national convention in 1876, he played a leading role in the nomination of Rutherford B. Hayes. In Oct., 1877, Hayes appointed him to the U.S. Supreme Court.

A man of strong and independent convictions and, on the whole, a strict constructionist, Harlan became known as a dissenter. In the "insular cases" (1901) he protested against the decision that denied the residents of the new U.S. possessions the national benefits of the Constitution. He upheld the police power of the states, dissented in the civil-rights cases (1883) and the income-tax case (1894), and argued that the court had no right to read the word unreasonable into the Sherman Act in the decisions against the Standard Oil and American Tobacco trusts. A firm defender of civil liberties and civil rights, Justice Harlan dissented vigorously in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), in which the Supreme Court enunciated the "separate but equal" doctrine justifying segregation. In 1893, President Benjamin Harrison appointed him to the tribunal to settle the Bering Sea Fur-Seal Controversy (see under Bering Sea) at Paris.

See the memoirs of his wife, M. S. Harlan, Some Memories of a Long Life, 1854-1911 (2002); F. B. Clark, The Constitutional Doctrines of Justice Harlan (1915); F. Latham, The Great Dissenter (1970).

Harlan, John Marshall, 1899-1971, associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1955-71), b. Chicago; grandson of John Marshall Harlan. He received his law degree from New York Law School and was admitted to the bar in 1925; he practiced in New York City. He was an assistant U.S. attorney (1925-27), special assistant attorney general of New York state (1928-30), and chief counsel to the New York State Crime Commission (1951-53). Harlan was a judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals, 2d Circuit, from 1954 to 1955, when he was appointed by President Eisenhower to replace Justice Robert H. Jackson on the Supreme Court. A conservative on the court, he held a narrow view of the court's power, believing that the Union judiciary should not interfere in state and local matters, and that political and social evils should be corrected through the political process and not through court action; he nevertheless sided with the majority on many civil-rights cases. Harlan retired from the court in late 1971, shortly before his death.

Harlan Fiske Stone, 1929.

(born Oct. 11, 1872, Chesterfield, N.H., U.S.—died April 22, 1946, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist. He studied at Columbia Law School and later practiced law while serving as dean (1910–23). Pres. Calvin Coolidge appointed him U.S. attorney general in 1924; during his tenure he reorganized the Federal Bureau of Investigation after its reputation had been tarnished by the Teapot Dome and other scandals. In 1925 Coolidge appointed him to the Supreme Court of the United States, and in 1941 Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt promoted him to chief justice, a position he retained until his death. He wrote more than 600 opinions, many on important constitutional questions. He was often less successful, however, in building a consensus among his associate justices, with the result that the court during his chief justiceship was often a bitterly divided body.

Learn more about Stone, Harlan Fiske with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 1, 1833, Boyle county, Ky., U.S.—died Oct. 14, 1911, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist. In the 1850s he was a lawyer and county judge in Boyle county, Ky. From 1861 to 1863 he commanded a Union regiment in the American Civil War. He served as state attorney general (1863–67) and ran unsuccessfully as a Republican candidate for governor in 1871 and 1875. In 1877 he was appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States by Pres. Rutherford B. Hayes. During his tenure, which lasted to his death in 1911, he became one of the most forceful dissenters in the court's history and its outstanding liberal justice. His best-known dissenting opinions, such as those in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) and the Civil Rights cases (1883), favoured the rights of blacks. He also issued famous dissents in favour of the federal income tax (1895) and opposing monopolies in cases arising under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. His grandson John Marshall Harlan (1899–1971) also served on the Supreme Court (1955–71).

Learn more about Harlan, John Marshall with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 1, 1833, Boyle county, Ky., U.S.—died Oct. 14, 1911, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist. In the 1850s he was a lawyer and county judge in Boyle county, Ky. From 1861 to 1863 he commanded a Union regiment in the American Civil War. He served as state attorney general (1863–67) and ran unsuccessfully as a Republican candidate for governor in 1871 and 1875. In 1877 he was appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States by Pres. Rutherford B. Hayes. During his tenure, which lasted to his death in 1911, he became one of the most forceful dissenters in the court's history and its outstanding liberal justice. His best-known dissenting opinions, such as those in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) and the Civil Rights cases (1883), favoured the rights of blacks. He also issued famous dissents in favour of the federal income tax (1895) and opposing monopolies in cases arising under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. His grandson John Marshall Harlan (1899–1971) also served on the Supreme Court (1955–71).

Learn more about Harlan, John Marshall with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Harlan Fiske Stone, 1929.

(born Oct. 11, 1872, Chesterfield, N.H., U.S.—died April 22, 1946, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist. He studied at Columbia Law School and later practiced law while serving as dean (1910–23). Pres. Calvin Coolidge appointed him U.S. attorney general in 1924; during his tenure he reorganized the Federal Bureau of Investigation after its reputation had been tarnished by the Teapot Dome and other scandals. In 1925 Coolidge appointed him to the Supreme Court of the United States, and in 1941 Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt promoted him to chief justice, a position he retained until his death. He wrote more than 600 opinions, many on important constitutional questions. He was often less successful, however, in building a consensus among his associate justices, with the result that the court during his chief justiceship was often a bitterly divided body.

Learn more about Stone, Harlan Fiske with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Harlan is a city in Shelby County, Iowa, United States, along the West Nishnabotna River. The population was 5,282 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Shelby County.

History

Harlan was named for one of Iowa's early U.S. Senators, James Harlan. The town was incorporated on May 2, 1879. When Nelson G. Kraschel was elected Governor of Iowa in 1936 he was a resident of Harlan. Harlan is also the home of DeWayne Louis "Tiny" Lund, who won the Daytona 500 in 1963 and former NASCAR racer Johnny Beauchamp (who came in 2nd at the 1959 Daytona 500 to Lee Petty).

Geography

Harlan is located at (41.654609, -95.322019).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.4 square miles (11.3 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 5,282 people, 2,204 households, and 1,498 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,209.8 people per square mile (466.7/km²). There were 2,306 housing units at an average density of 528.2/sq mi (203.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 98.30% White, 0.08% African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.17% from other races, and 0.68% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.62% of the population.

There were 2,204 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.0% were non-families. 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.88.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, and 22.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 90.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $35,899, and the median income for a family was $45,888. Males had a median income of $31,365 versus $19,671 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,514. About 5.3% of families and 7.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.3% of those under age 18 and 9.4% of those age 65 or over.

Education

The Harlan School District also serves residents of Defiance, Panama, Portsmouth, Earling, and Westphalia.

Sports

Harlan has won 11 State Championships in Football including 1982-1984 and 2003-2005. Harlan also is home to Shelby County Speedway which holds the Tiny Lund Memorial races held in September.

References

External links

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