Francis Vigo (aka Francesco Vigo) (1747-22 March, 1836) was an Italian-American who aided the American forces during the Revolutionary War and helped found a public university in Vincennes, Indiana, USA.
Born in Mondovi, Italy, he served with the Spanish Army in New Orleans. In 1772 he established a fur trading business in St. Louis. In 1783 Vigo moved to Vincennes and operated a fur trading business there.
Hamilton released Vigo on the condition that he would not "do any thing injurious to the British interests on his way to St. Louis." True to his word, Vigo travelled down the Wabash, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers to St. Louis before returning to Kaskaskia to inform Col. Clark of the British hold on Vincennes, which prompted Clark to retake the town in 1779.
In addition to his services as a patriot and spy, Vigo was the foremost financier of the American Revolution in the Northwest. When Clark arrived with Continental promissary notes of paper, Vigo exchanged them evenly for hard coin. The American dollar traded poorly among the French citizens, and soon became worthless. Vigo was never repaid during his lifetime, and would recollect that the term douleur to the French signifies grief or pain.
In 1801, Vigo petitioned the U.S. Congress for a donation of land to establish the Jefferson Academy in Vincennes. In 1806, Vigo was named one of the original trustees of the now renamed Vincennes University.
In 1818 Vigo County, Indiana was established and named for him.
After he was royally feted during a visit to Terre Haute, the Vigo County seat, on July 4, 1834, Vigo revised his will to provide money to purchase a large bell for the Vigo County Court House, should he ever be compensated by the United States for services rendered during the Revolution.
Vigo died 22 March 1836, while living in the home of Jean Baptiste and Elizabeth (Martin) LaPlante, in Vincennes. It was not until 1875 that his estate was allowed payment for $8,016.00, the amount he had used to fund Clark's aborted campaign to take Fort Detroit. This was the only expense the government would officially recognize, but it came with $41,282.60 in interest. As Vigo had no blood-related descendants, however, the government only had to pay for the expenses requested in Vigo's will (which included a bell for the courthouse in Vigo County).