Yaqub-Har (Other spellings: Yakubher), also known as Yak-Baal was a pharaoh of Egypt during the 17th or 16th dynasty BCE. As an Asiatic ruler during Egypt's fragmented Second Intermediate Period, Yaqub-Har time is difficult to locate chronologically. He may--or may not--have been a member of the dynasty of king Sheshi in Lower Egypt.

While he is occasionally described as a member of the Hyksos based 15th dynasty, the Danish specialist Kim Ryholt has suggested that Yaqub-Har was actually one the last kings of the 14th Dynasty. This is due to the fact that while the early Hyksos kings are known to have used the title heka-khawaset in their reigns such as Sakir-Har or Khyan--at least early in the latter king's reign before he chose the prenomen Seuserenre. Later Hyksos kings such as Apophis simply adopted a prenomen--like the 14th dynasty kings. Yaqub-Har himself always used a prenomen or royal name, Meruserre, in his reign which strongly suggests that he was rather a member of the Asiatic 14th dynasty which preceded the Hyksos. Meruserre means 'strong is the love of Re.' The 14th Dynasty of Egypt was an Asiatic dynastic which ruled in the Delta region--like the Hyksos. Ryholt has suggested that the name Yaqub-Har had a West Semitic origin.

The Ancient Egyptians blamed the Hyksos for conquering their country. The truth may have been a somewhat more benign and gradual process of integration.


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