World War II was primarily fought between two large alliances. The Axis Powers were a group of countries led by Germany, Italy (in the final years only its northern part as Italian Social Republic) and the Empire of Japan, and are considered the aggressors of the conflict. The Allies, led by the United Kingdom and, until its defeat, France, were joined in the European theatre by the Soviet Union in June 1941 and by the United States in December 1941. the Asia-Pacific theater, the Allies were led by the Republic of China from the invasion of China by Japan in 1937 and then joined by the United States and British Commonwealth following Japanese attacks.
Originally founded on the concept of the Rome-Berlin-axis (the Pact of Steel), later the Tripartite Pact, the Axis was not primarily a formal alliance. Each of the major countries went to war on their own initiative (Nazi Germany in 1939, Italy in 1940, and Japan in 1937 against China and 1941 against the United States and British Commonwealth), and not necessarily to assist each other. There was little sharing of technology or resources, and also little in the way of cooperative strategic planning between the major Axis Powers. With the demise of Italy, Germany and Japan each functioned as wholly separate powers, each conducting the war in their theatre (Germany in Europe and Japan in the Pacific). There were a number of smaller powers on the side of the Axis, although for the most part the war effort was directed and powered by Germany and Japan.
Countries are listed alphabetically.Spanish Civil War, but these forces were withdrawn in 1940. When France fell, Philippe Pétain of the Vichy regime was declared the new French Co-prince. After the German invasion of Vichy France in 1942, a German military force moved to the Andorran border near Pas de la Casa but did not cross. In response, a Spanish force was established at La Seu d'Urgell, but it too remained outside Andorran territory. In 1944, Charles de Gaulle established a new provisional government, and assumed the position of French Co-Prince. He ordered French forces to occupy Andorra as a "preventative measure" to secure order. Throughout the war, Andorra was used as a smuggling route between Spain and Vichy France, and an escape route for people fleeing German-occupied areas. anglophilic and wanted Argentina to join the Allied side, neutralist feelings prevailed in the military, which saw the war as a potential source of economic benefit for the country, by exporting supplies and agricultural products to both sides of the conflict. The government of Edelmiro Farrell eventually caved in to international pressure, and Argentina joined other Latin American countries and declared war on Germany and Japan, but by this time the war was all but over (March 27, 1945).
It is worth noting that many citizens opposed the nation's official neutralist stance. Over 750 Argentine volunteers, fought in the British, South African and Canadian Air Forces, mainly in the 164 Argentine-British RAF squadron, which saw action in Northern France and Belgium. Nearly 4,000 Argentine volunteers fought on the Allied side.Soviet Union as Armenian SSR. Over five hundred thousand Armenians fought for the Soviet army, and half of them fell in battles. Five Armenian infantry divisions were formed. Armenia gave 4 marshals and 60 generals. The Armenian Church and overseas Armenian donated large sums of money. After the war, the Armenian and Georgian Republics laid territorial claims to Turkey. However, the Soviet government was not willing to return the Armenian lands and shortly thereafter stated to have no claims to Turkey.
Some captured Armenians chose to fight for the Axis. They fought in the following units:
For the remainder of the war, the Australian war effort was concentrated in south-east Asia and the South West Pacific Area: they were involved from January 1942 in Malaya, the Dutch East Indies and the Australian territory of New Guinea. Before the bulk of the Australian Army had returned from overseas, from July onwards a small number of Militia troops fought a stubborn rearguard action in the trying conditions of the Kokoda Track. In August 1942, at the Battle of Milne Bay, Australian infantry became the first Allied soldiers to defeat Japanese ground forces during the war. The bitter and deadly New Guinea campaign came to occupy the attention of most of the Australian armed forces until 1945. Later that year, as the war drew to a close, Australian forces led the campaign to retake Borneo.Anschluss. After the defeat of the Axis Powers, the Allies occupied Austria in four occupation zones set up at the end of World War II until 1955, when the country again became a fully-independent republic under the condition that it remained neutral. The four occupations zones were French, American, British, and Soviet, with Vienna also divided among the four powers. This paralleled the situation in post-war Germany. Soviet Union, therefore on the side of the Allies in June 1941. Around 75% of oil supplies of Soviet Army came from Baku oil stations. Because of this reason Baku was protected by special Air Defense unit. Sheikh of Bahrain declared war on Germany on September 10 1939. Bahraini forces fought under British command in the Middle East theater. colonial possessions until the country was liberated in 1944. Bolivia was one of many Latin American countries to declare war on Germany later on in the war, joining the Allies on April 7, 1943. It was the only country to declare war in 1943. Shortly after war was declared, the President of Bolivia, Enrique Peñaranda, was overthrown in a coup. The new ruler, Gualberto Villarroel, had fascist and anti-Semitic leanings, but foreign pressure compelled Villarroel to remain at war and to purge the more extreme Nazi sympathizers from among his supporters. Bolivian mines were a supplier of the war material, tin, to the Allies. Bolivia has no coastline and no navy, and it did not send any troops or warplanes overseas. Getúlio Vargas and maintained its neutrality until August 1942. There were several German submarine attacks against Brazilian ships between February and August that year in the Atlantic Ocean. In response, Brazil sided with the Allies, declaring war against Germany and Italy on August 22, 1942. Brazilian naval forces helped to patrol the South and Central Atlantic Oceans, combating Germanys U-boats and commerce raiders. Northeastern Brazil hosted at Natal the largest single American air base outside of its own territory, and at Recife, the U.S. Fourth Fleet. This air base gave support to the North Africa campaign, and a route for USAAF airplanes to fly to India and China to fight the Japanese. In 1944, Brazil sent the 25,000-man Brazilian Expeditionary Force (FEB) to fight in Europe, thus becoming the only Latin American nation to send troops to overseas. This force joined the U.S. Fifth Army under American general Mark Clark in Italy, and it participated in the Italian campaign until the end of war. Brazil also sent two Brazilian Air Force groups (one of them a fighter group) to Italy, becoming the only South American country to send any air force unit overseas. Tripartite Pact on March 1 1941, their main contribution being transit rights for German units involved against Yugoslavia and Greece. Bulgaria occupied portions of Greece and Yugoslavia to recreate the 19th century boundaries of Greater Bulgaria, but it did not participate in the Invasion of the Soviet Union.
After the Communist-dominated coup d'état of September 9, 1944 and the simultaneous arrival of Soviet troops in the country, the Bulgarian government declared war on Germany. Four Bulgarian armies attacked the German positions in Yugoslavia. An armistice was signed with the Allies in Moscow on October 28 1944. After the Nazis fled Yugoslav territory, the 1st Bulgarian Army continued its offensive in Hungary and Austria under the command of Major Georgi Marinov Mandjev from the village of Goliamo Sharkovo (Elhovo). It withstood the Wehrmacht offensive on the Drava River. Bulgaria's participation in WW II ended when its soldiers met British troops in Klagenfurt, Austria, in May 1945.
Within days of the invasion of Poland, Canada declared war on Germany on September 10 1939. As in World War I, Canadian formations fought under British theater command, and they played an important role in the Allied campaigns in Europe. Canadian forces contributed heavily with the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) in the Battle of Britain, in the air raids against Germany, by the Royal Canadian Navy in the Battle of the Atlantic, by the army in the Italian campaign, the Raid on Dieppe, the Battle of Normandy (including the landing on Juno Beach on D-Day), and the Scheldt.
The Canadian Army in Europe after Normandy fought its way up through coastal France, into western Belgium, overrunning many German V-1 and V-2 bases, and then into southern and eastern Holland. The Canadian Army received the surrender of all German forces The Netherlands in May 1945. In Italy, a Corps was fielded beginning in January 1944, and the Canadian Army in Normandy built up from a single division in June 1944, to a full Corps in July 1944, and next, to a field Army in August 1944, under which several foreign national formations were under its command, including at various times British, Polish, Dutch, and American forces. The Canadian Army in western Europe was a part of the British 21st Army Group under Field Marshall Bernard L. Montgomery.
In March 1945, both I and II Canadian Corps came under command of the First Canadian Army in Belgium and The Netherlands. From 1941, Canadian forces ahd also participated in the defense of British territories against Japanese forces, especially Hong Kong where an understrength brigade had been deployed before the war broke out in the Pacific, and it was ultimately destroyed/captured. As the war in Europe wound down, from late 1944, many Royal Canadian Navy ships and personnel were transferred from the Atlantic to join the British Pacific Fleet. About one million Canadians served in uniform during WW II.Sri Lanka), was a British colony and a major Allied naval base. On April 5 1942 over 300 aircraft from Japanese carriers bombed the island. Winston Churchill called it "the most dangerous moment" of World War II, because the Japanese wished to replicate a grander success of the attack at Pearl Harbor. The British ships, however, were moved to Addu Atoll, Maldives Islands, 1,000 kilometers (600 miles) southwest of Ceylon. Nevertheless, the British lost an aircraft carrier, two cruisers, and two destroyers, while the Royal Air Force squadrons on Ceylon suffered severe losses. The British fleet retreated to East Africa until 1944.
The Ceylon Garrison Artillery Regiment was stationed on Horsburgh Island in the Cocos Islands, to defend it from Japanese attack. However, following agitation by the Lanka Sama Samaja Party, the regiment mutinied on the night of 8 May 1942, intending to hand the islands over to the Japanese. The mutiny was suppressed and three of the Ceylonese soldiers became the only British Commonwealth troops to be executed for mutiny during World War II. Bombardier Gratien Fernando, the leader of the mutiny, was defiant to the end.
Following the Cocos Islands Mutiny, no Ceylonese combat unit was deployed in a front-line combat situation, although Supply & Transport Corps troops were used in rear areas in the Middle East. The defences of Sri Lanka were beefed up to three Allied army divisions because the island was strategically important, as a producer of rubber. Rationing was instituted so that Sri Lankans were comparatively better fed than their Indian neighbours, in order to prevent disaffection among the ordinary people.
Sri Lankans in Japanese-occupied Malaya and Singapore were recruited by the Japanese for the Lanka Regiment of the Indian National Army, to fight against the Allies. While there was a plan to land them in Sri Lanka to start a guerrilla war, they never actually saw action.Argentina, by this time the war was almost over. Mukden Incident, when Japan annexed Manchuria. On July 7 1937, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident led the two countries to full-scale war. Already engaged in war with Japan, as well as enduring a civil conflict between the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party) and the Communist Party of China, the Chinese Nationalist Government's full attention was within its borders in resisting the Japanese during the war. However, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek still managed to send troops to Britain's aid in Burma, in early 1942. China's participation in the war was also pivotal in a sense that more than 1.5 million Japanese military personnel were sent to China and bogged down. Japanese casualties in China are estimated at 1.1-1.9 million.
While China had rather warm relations with Germany (see Sino-German cooperation), following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, China formally joined the Allies and declared war on Germany on December 9, 1941.
Many of China's urban centers, industrial resources, and coastal regions were occupied by Japan for most of the war. China suffered a large death toll from the war, both military and civilian. The Chinese Nationalist army suffered some 3.2 million casualties, and 17 million civilians died in the crossfire. After the war, China became one of the main victorious countries and gained one of the permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council.
After the war ended, the Chinese Civil War resumed between the Nationalists and the Communists. The Nationalist government, with its military strength greatly reduced and its economy devastated by the war against Japan, was defeated by the Communists in 1949. The Republic of China retreated to Taiwan while the communist People's Republic of China was established on the mainland.Colombia broke diplomatic relations with the Axis powers. Colombia provided the Allies with petroleum products. Then, in 1943, the German submarine U-505 destroyed a Colombian schooner, which caused Colombia to declare a "status of belligerency" against Germany on November 26. The German ambassador left the country, and measures of control were implemented, including internment of German citizens in designated areas. Photographs and reconnaissance airplanes belonging to the Colombian-German company Scadta, who used to take aerial shots of Colombian and German cities were also handed to the United States. During the recovery years, Colombia sent Nestle products (coffee, baby food, etc.) and carbon for heating all over Europe. Costa Rica joined the Allies on December 8 1941. The leftist administration of President Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia was hostile to Nazism and introduced numerous measures to decrease German influence in the country. Costa Rica declared war on Japan the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor, and on Germany and Italy shortly afterwards. It allowed the United States to establish an airfield on Cocos Island. December 8 1941, when it declared war on Japan. On December 11, it also declared war on Germany and Italy. The United States naval station at Guantanamo Bay served as an important base for protecting Allied shipping in the Caribbean, and on May 15 1943, a Cuban warship sank a German submarine in waters near Havana. Cuba began to plan a conscription program in order to contribute troops, but this had not materialized by the end of the war. dismembered by Nazi Germany, starting with Neville Chamberlain's Munich Agreement with Hitler in 1938 and the German–Italian Vienna Awards. The Czech part (western) of the country became the so-called Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia under so-called State-President Emil Hácha, the newly separated Slovak Republic, a Nazi-dependent puppet regime, led by Roman Catholic priest Jozef Tiso was ultimately inserted in Slovakia. Part of southern Slovakia as well as the complete Ruthenia (the former most eastern part of Czechoslovakia) was annexed by Hungary. Zaolzie was annexed by Poland, only to be snatched from them by the Germans 11 months later. In 1945 the victorious Soviet Union returned Zaolzie to Czechoslovakia. From 1940, a government-in-exile in London under former Czechoslovak President Edvard Beneš was recognized as an Allied power. The Slovak National Uprising, commenced in August 1944, was suppressed by German forces at the end of October, however partisans continued fighting in the mountains till the end of the war. In April 1945, the Red Army defeated the Germans and ousted Tiso's government, annexing Carpathia Ruthenia to the USSR. occupied by Germany on April 9 1940, as part of Operation Weserübung, surrendering after a few hours of fighting and never declaring war on the Germans. The Danish government remained in office in Copenhagen until 1943 and signed the Anti-Comintern Pact. On August 29 1943, the government handed in its resignation to the King as a response to German demands for more concessions. Each Permanent Secretary took control of his own ministry. On May 10 1940, the British occupied Iceland. Shortly before they had occupied the Faroe Islands. The United States occupied Greenland, a position later supported by the Danish envoy in Washington, Henrik Kauffmann. Iceland, which was later transferred from British to American control, declared its independence in 1944. On May 4 1945, the German forces in Denmark surrendered to the British army. Since the German commander on Bornholm refused to surrender to the Soviet Union, two local towns were bombed and the garrison forced to surrender. Bornholm remained under Soviet control until 1946. February 2 1945). Ecuador let the U.S. use Baltra Island for a naval base. , Suez Canal, and a treaty provision allowed British troops to use the country as a military base in time of war. Egypt was seen by both the Axis and the Allies as a vital strategic point, because of access to the Suez Canal. The Egyptian government remained officially neutral during the war, but King Farouk allowed British troops to use Egypt as a base of operations and placed his Navy at the disposal of the British. Initially Egypt was targeted by Italy, but after a heavy defeat by the British forces under the command of General Wavell, the Germans were compelled to enter the fray with a division under the command of General Erwin Rommel.
Rommel's successes in the deserts of Libya and west Egypt, and the fact that they came to within 160 kilometres (100 mi) of Cairo, gave the Allied forces (in particular the British) a major fright. The revolutionary officers that eventually came to power in 1952 (led by Colonel Abdel Nasser) plotted to support the Germans in their push for Cairo, seeing a German victory as an opportunity to liberate Egypt from the British colonial occupation.El Salvador was ruled by Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez, an admirer of Hitler and Mussolini. Nonetheless, the dictator declared war on both Japan (December 8 1941) and Germany (December 12 1941) shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor, for economic reasons. El Salvador's economy depended heavily on the United States. Martinez removed Germans from the government and interned Japanese, German, and Italian nationals. The Second World War made Salvadorans leery of their dictatorship, and a general national strike in 1944 forced Martinez to resign and flee to ariva los salvis Guatemala. Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union left Estonia in the Soviet sphere of interest. The Soviet Union threatened Estonia with war if Estonia did not agree with the mutual assistance pact, which required allowing the Soviet Union to build military bases into Estonia. Estonian government, convinced that winning a war against the Soviet Union was impossible, agreed on September 28 1939.
The Soviets conducted a coup with support of the Red Army in June 1940, and an election was held with great Soviet political influence. The new government took command and the Estonian Socialist Republic (ESR) was proclaimed on July 2 1940. The ESR was formally accepted into the Soviet Union on August 6, and the official name of the country became the "Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic". Estonia was occupied by Germany in 1941 after war broke out between Germany and the Soviet Union. Soviet occupation over Estonia was restored in 1944. Estonia was formally part of the USSR until 1991.Emperor Haile Selassie was in exile in England trying in vain to obtain Allied support for his nation’s cause. The Ethiopian Patriots Movement had begun its guerilla war against the occupying Italian forces the day Addis Ababa fell in May 1936.
Upon the emperor's flight into exile, remnants of Ethiopia's disbanded imperial army had transformed into guerilla units. Urban city residents throughout the country formed underground movements to aid the Patriots as the overall population led a passive resistance campaign aimed at stifling Mussolini's economic agenda for the region. As a result, the Italians were never able to successfully occupy and secure the entire country including the emperor's relocated capital at Gore in the southwest. Throughout the occupation and into the beginning of the Second World War, the constant harassment of Italian columns and communication and supply lines reduced their fighting capabilities and their morale. A state of paranoia among Italian troops and civilians alike had sunk in as they became increasingly isolated from Rome. Fascist retaliation to Patriot attacks were brutal and often targeted the civilian population, which only further filled the ranks of the Patriots creating a cycle that lead to the eventual demise of Mussolini’s Italian East Africa.
Britain’s declaration of war against Italy reinvigorated the Patriot movement and paved the way for the final ousting of the Italians in Ethiopia and in the Horn of Africa. The Allied liberation campaign of Ethiopia began in the winter of 1940. Emperor Haile Selassie, with the support and cooperation of the British, was transported to the Sudan to work alongside Major Orde Wingate to organize and lead the main Ethiopian Patriot divisions that had fled fascist-controlled Ethiopia upon news of Britain’s declaration of war.
The East African Campaign was conducted by a largely multi-African force and consisted of Ethiopian, Eritrean, British, Sudanese, Kenyan, Rhodesian, South African, Indian, Nigerian, Ghanaian and Free French units. Within months, the liberation of Ethiopia was achieved, and on May 5 1941, five years to the day that the Emperor fled his capital, Haile Selassie was restored to his throne. The defeat of fascists in Ethiopia marked the first victory for the Allies in the Second World War and allowed for the remaining forces to be quickly moved up to Egypt to confront the Axis advance towards Cairo.Fiji Defence Force served with New Zealand Army formations, under the Allied Pacific Ocean Areas command. Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, and when it refused to allow the Soviet Union to build bases on its territory, it was attacked by Soviet forces in the Winter War (30 November 1939 - 13 March 1940). After this war, Finland unsuccessfully sought protection from the United Kingdom and from Sweden. Next, Finland pursued better relations with Nazi Germany to counter the continued Soviet pressure. This produced cooperation between the countries, which led to a Soviet pre-emptive air attack on Finland after the start of Operation Barbarossa, thus beginning the Continuation War (25 June 1941 - 4 September 1944), where Finland was a co-belligerent of Nazi Germany. The United Kingdom declared war on Finland on 6 December 1941, but the United States never did. To secure military support needed to stop the Soviet offensive coordinated with D-day, the Ryti-Ribbentrop Agreement was signed on 26 June 1944, in which Finland and Nazi Germany became active allies. An armistice was signed after the Soviet offensive was stopped and the Wehrmacht was retreating from the Baltic States. The treaty required Finland to expel all German troops, which led to the Lapland War (15 September 1944 - 25 April 1945). This was shortly before the complete surrender of Nazi forces all over Europe on 7 - 8 May 1945 V-E Day. Complete peace with the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union was concluded in the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947. Battle of France, the French government sign an armistice with Germany, leading to the foundation of Vichy France and Free French Forces in exile. Free french leader, De Gaulle took control of France in 1944 and ended the war as an ally. French National Committee, a London-based exile group led by Charles de Gaulle, were formed in 1940 to maintain the French commitment to the Allies and liberate French territory occupied by Germany. Together with the French resistance, they played a part in the Mediterranean Theatre and the liberation of western Europe, including France in 1944. By 1943, free France had a vast land (but no war industry, it remained dependent on US aid) and then changed it's name into fighting France (which regrouped the Free French, the Vichy authority that joined it and the interior resistance) with a sort of government, the CFLN which officially became french government in June 1944 and took control of France in august and September 1944. Pétain. Vichy France remained officially neutral during the conflict but helped Germany as a puppet state. Prime Minister Pierre Laval repeatedly sought France's entry into the war on the Axis side, but was vetoed by Pétain. On several occasions Vichy forces were attacked by the Allies during the war, most notably in the invasion of Syria in 1941, during landings in French North Africa in November 1942 and the Madagascar campaign of 1942. In the fall of 1942 the Germans occupied all of continental France but allowed the Vichy government to continue operating as a result of Vichy North Africa violating the terms of the 1940 armistice by calling a cease-fire following Operation Torch. Vichy North Africa's government and military joined the Allies and De Gaulle afterward. Laval was executed for high treason after the war. Nazi Germany, led by Adolf Hitler, was the primary Axis Power in the European Theatre. The surrender of the German forces between May 4 and May 8 1945 signaled the end of the war in Europe. Even after losing two World Wars, Germany has rebuilt its economy and prestige through the "Wirtschaftswunder" movement in the 1950s and reunification in 1990. Azerbaijan oilfields became one of the main objectives of Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union. But the armies of the Axis powers never got as far as the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Georgian SSR). The Georgian SSR contributed almost 700,000 fighters (about 20% of the total 3.2-3.4 million citizens mobilized), out of which 79,500-170,000 were killed. It was also a vital source of textiles and munitions.
Some captured Georgians and emigrants chose to fight for the Axis. They fought in the following units:
One Georgian battalion in Holland (822nd Infantry Battalion) staged what has sometimes been described as Europe's last battle of World War II. This event was the Georgian Uprising of Texel.British overseas territory of Gibraltar has been a British fortress and bulwark for over 300 years. From the first days of World War II, the Rock became a pivot of the Mediterranean, Operation Torch, the invasion of North Africa, was coordinated from the Rock. Operation Tracer, a top-secret mission in which six men were to be buried alive inside the Rock of Gibraltar so that they could monitor enemy movements if the Rock was captured.
Greece dealt the first victory for the Allies by resisting the Italian invasion on 28 October 1940 and pushing Mussolini's forces back into Albania. Hitler was reluctantly forced to send forces to bail out his ally and subdue Greece (Operation Marita). The resulting Battle of Greece in April 1941 may have delayed the invasion of the Soviet Union by six weeks, and the heavy losses of the German Fallschirmjäger over Crete effectively put a halt to large-scale German airborne operations for the remainder of the war.
The country was occupied by Germany, Italy and Bulgaria, while the government and the King fled the country to Egypt, from where they continued to fight alongside the Allies. Inside the occupied country, the Axis installed a series of puppet governments, which commanded little allegiance from the population and had little real authority. A vigorous Resistance movement developed from 1942 on, dominated largely by the leftist National Liberation Front (EAM). Throughout 1943, the guerrillas succeeded in liberating much of the country's mountainous interior, establishing a free zone called "Free Greece". After the Italian capitulation in September 1943, the Germans took over the Italian zone, often accompanied by bloodshed and atrocities, as the Italians tried to resist (as in Cephallonia), or as the Allies tried to occupy Italian-held areas (the Dodecanese Campaign). As the tide of the war turned, and Liberation approached, the Resistance became divided along political lines, and a mini civil war ensued between EAM, rightist resistance groups and the collaborationist government's Security Battalions. An agreement establishing a national unity government was reached in the May 1944 Lebanon conference, which eased tension somewhat in the final months of the Occupation.
After the German forces withdrew from the Greek mainland in October-November 1944, the returning government, backed by British forces, soon clashed with EAM forces in Athens, in what was the first episode of the Greek Civil War, a conflict that would last until 1949 and leave a divisive legacy in Greek politics and society that lasted until the 1970s.Jorge Ubico declaring the country's neutrality on September 4 1941. This pronouncement was reinforced on September 9 with another declaration. Ubico implemented strong prohibitions on Nazi propaganda in Guatemala, which had one of Latin America's largest German immigrant populations. Later, Guatemala moved into the Allied camp — on December 9 1941, it declared war on Japan, and three days later, it declared war on Germany and Italy. United States Coast Guard but did not contribute troops. The President of Haiti, Élie Lescot, introduced several unpopular emergency measures during the war, which critics claimed were designed to increase his power. Lescot was deposed the year after the war ended. December 8 1941, and on Germany and Italy on December 13. It contributed food and raw materials to the Allied war effort but did not send troops. Battle of Hong Kong drew to a close on Christmas Day of 1941. The city was liberated in 1945. Tripartite Pact on November 20 1940, and joined in the invasion of the Soviet Union the next year. When, in 1944, the government of Regent Miklós Horthy wished to sign a ceasefire with the Allies, he was overthrown by the Nazis and replaced by a government run by the fascist Arrow Cross movement, which ruled the country until it was overrun by the Soviets. King of Denmark acting as head of state. After the invasion of Denmark by German forces, Iceland lost all contact with the King. Following this, British forces landed on Iceland on 10 May 1940, primarily to deny Germany the same option. Though most of Reykjavík's modest police force was absent, preparing for a potential German landing, a small armed force was present, but it was ordered not to resist the British. The British proceeded to arrest a number of German citizens, including the German Consul, Werner Gerlach. They also seized radio and telephone services, and blocked roads leading into Reykjavík, effectively isolating the city from the rest of the country. The Icelandic government formally protested the occupaton, on the grounds of Icelandic neutrality and national sovereignty, but it provided the British with de facto cooperation.
During the height of the occupation, 25,000 British soldiers were stationed in Iceland, compared to roughly 40,000 inhabitants of Reykjavík. On 7 July 1941, control of Iceland was transferred from Britain to the United States of America, since the British troops were required elsewhere. The United States was not at war with anyone, but it had established a defense zone and Neutrality patrols in the Western Atlanic. Iceland needed to be denied to the Germans, and it provided valuable air and shipping bases to the American Air Force, Navy, and Merchant Marine.
Iceland experienced an economic boom during the occupation, since many Icelanders took jobs working for the foreigners, and some say that bretavinnan (roughly, the British Jobs) provided some of the successes of the post-war Icelandic economy. On 17 June 1944, with American encourragement, Iceland became a permanently independent republic, and it cut all ties with Denmark. Despite being occupied by Allied forces starting in 1940, Iceland remained officially neutral throughout the duration of the Second World War. Iceland did provide important air bases and naval facilities to the Allies. Icelandic air bases such as at Keflavik were important to the Allied fight against the German U-boats in the Battle of the Atlantic. With its small population, Iceland was in no position to raise any armed forces.
The close cooperation between the Americans and the Icelanders lead to Iceland's giving up a position of neutrality and becoming a charter member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949. Iceland has not had any armed forces, but its contribution was bases for its allies: the American Air Force Base and Naval Air Station at Keflavik. Iceland was also a vital link in the SOSUS anti-submarine network.British Raj (including the areas covered by the later Republic of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh), controlled by Britain during the war, was covered by Britain's declaration of war. On September 12 1939, the Upper House of the Central Legislature of India sent a formal message of admiration to Poland. On the same day, the Aga Khan placed his services at the disposal of the Government of India.
The Indian 5th Division fought in the Sudan against the Italians before being moved to defend Libya against the Germans. The Division was then moved to Iraq to protect the oilfields. After this the division was moved to the Burma front, together with eight other Indian Divisions, and then occupied Malaya. It was finally moved to Java to disarm the occupying Japanese garrison. The Indian 4th Division fought in North Africa, Syria, Palestine and Cyprus before being sent into Italy. Together with the 8th and 10th Divisions it participated in the taking of Monte Cassino, after which it was moved to Greece. India also provided the Allies with assault and training bases, and provided huge quantities of food and other materials to other Commonwealth forces, and to people on the British home front.
Over 6.8 million Indian citizens fought with the Indian Army, Royal Indian Air Force, and Royal Indian Navy, forming the largest army raised by voluntary enlistment. Part of India was occupied by Japanese forces during the war, and India suffered 1.5 million civilian casualties, as well as up to 4 million dead from famine in the Bengal region, which was created by both the Japanese military actions and the British administration. Over 96,000 Indian members of the armed forces were killed or went missing in action, and 74,354 were wounded during the war. Indian personnel received 2,000 awards for gallantry, including 31 Victoria Crosses. About 40,000 Indians, mostly POWs, fought on the side of the Japanese in the Indian National Army, and about 1,000 more were recruited by Nazi Germany for the Tiger Legion.
German demand for oil rose and the Allies worried that Germany would look to neutral Iran for help. Soon the Allies questioned themselves about Iranian neutrality and they gave Reza Shah a final warning to remove the German workers. He refused once again. In August 1941, the British and Soviet troops invaded Iran (Operation Countenance) and, in September 1941, forced Reza Shah Pahlavi to abdicate his throne. He was replaced by his son Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who was willing to fight the Axis Powers. Within months Iran entered the war on the side of the Allies and became known as "The Bridge of Victory".
Iran's geographical position was also important to the Allies. It provided a 'blue water' supply route to the Soviet Union via the port of Bandar Abbas and a specially constructed railway route. The supply routes were known collectively as the Persian Corridor. Soviet political operatives known "agitprops" infiltrated Iran and helped establish the Comintern affiliate Tudeh Party in early in 1942.
By January 1942, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union agreed to end their occupation six months after the end of the war. The Soviet Union fomented revolts among Azeris and Kurds in Iran and soon formed the People's Republic of Azerbaijan (December 1945) and the Kurdish People's Republic not long after, both being run by Soviet-controlled leaders. However, Soviet troops remained in Iran following the January 1946 expiration of a wartime treaty providing for the presence of American, British, and Soviet troops in Iran during the war.
The new regime secretly began negotiations with the Axis Powers. The Germans quickly responded and sent military aid by Luftwaffe aircraft to Baghdad via Syria. Indian troops consequently invaded in mid-April 1941 and reached Baghdad and RAF Habbaniyah in May. The Iraqi army attacked Habbaniyah but quickly capitulated and Rashid Ali fled the country. The United Kingdom forced Iraq to declare war on the Axis in 1942. British forces remained to protect the vital oil supplies. British and Indian operations in Iraq should be viewed in conjunction with events in neighbouring Syria and Persia (Iran).
Irish citizens were free to fill manpower shortages in Britain and join the British armed forces. "In January 1942 it was found that in the whole of the British Army 23,549 men were born in Éire and 28,287 in Northern Ireland ... [I]n 1944 the Éire figure had increased to 27,840 and that for Northern Ireland had reduced to 26,579." Éire exported desperately needed food and labour to Britain and relaxed restrictions on the over-flying by British warplanes over County Donegal's airspace. The Catalina flying boat that located the German battleship Bismarck was based inland at Lough Erne in County Fermanagh. Irish airspace was used en route to the Atlantic. "Hot-pursuit" into Irish territorial waters of German U-boats by Royal Naval warships also occurred. Both Allied and Axis personnel were interned from time-to-time by the government of Éire, although the Irish Government exercised its discretion when dealing with Allied personnel - often allowing them to "escape" - and eventually releasing them all back to British custody by 1943. Daily weather, shipping, and aircraft reports were also afforded the Allied side as was the breaking of diplomatic protocol with the seizure of a radio transmitter in the German legation.
While the British did not have access to sea and air bases that would have helped to protect its convoy shipping in the western approaches there was a political consensus in Ireland that neutrality was a wise policy. The Irish government knew that the resources to protect their Island from air attack and/or land invasion didn't exist, although there was strong opinion that the Axis would not attack Éire due to perceived Irish-American political influence - before the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor and the German declaration of war thrust the Americans into to World War. The war did reach the island however; a total of some 40 Irish people were killed in Dublin and County Carlow in apparently accidental bombings by the Luftwaffe. Irish shipping was also a constant target for attack by both Axis and Allies. Other infringements of neutrality included the use of Irish territorial waters for laying of German mines, use by German submarines (U-boats). All infringements were protested vociferously by the de Valera government. Belfast, Northern Ireland, was also bombed (the Belfast blitz) and the dispatch of Dublin's fire brigades to assist in the rescue work has been lauded as an act of solidarity since then. Éire also suffered via restrictions of certain strategic materials, such as coal, and in the establishment of a state of emergency.
Harsh policing measures including military tribunal and internment were employed to entirely stamp out the activities of the IRA. Substantive contacts between the British and Irish authorities came in the form of Plan W- the British reoccupation of Ireland in response to a feared German invasion (Case Green).
In 1945, the Taoiseach (Prime Minister) of Éire, Eamon de Valera, paid a visit to the German Minister in Dublin to express sympathy over the death of the Führer, Adolf Hitler. This action has been defended as proper given the state's strict adherence to a policy of neutrality. But on the other hand, no such consideration was extended to the United States upon the death of the President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Italy had completed two conquests (Ethiopia and Albania) prior to its entry into World War II. Despite the Pact of Steel with Nazi Germany, Italy did not join in the war until June 1940, planning to get a share of Allied territory with the defeat of France. Italy's war effort went poorly, resulting in defeats in Greece, North Africa, Ethiopia, and the Mediterranean Sea. The Allies started to invade Italy in the summer of 1943 and Mussolini's government collapsed. The new royal government of Marshal Pietro Badoglio signed an armistice with the allies, but most of the country was quickly occupied by the Germans, who established a puppet government under Mussolini in the north, the Italian Social Republic (also known as the Salò Republic, from its headquarters). Badoglio and the king escaped to Brindisi without giving any order to the army which surrendered to the Germans without putting up a fight. The royal government remained in control of the south, declared war on Germany, and was eventually re-established as the government of all of Italy shortly before the end of the war in the spring of 1945. Partisan actions took place in northern Italy. Italy would become a member of NATO after the war, but lost the regions of Istria and Dalmatia to Yugoslavia, and all its colonies.
Prince Phetxarāt, however, opposed this position, and thought that Lao independence could be gained by siding with the Japanese, who made him Prime Minister of Luang Phrabāng, though not of Laos as a whole. In practice the country was in chaos and Phetxarāt's government had no real authority. Another Lao group, the Lao Sēri (Free Lao), received unofficial support from the Free Thai movement in the Isan region.
After the outbreak of German-Soviet hostilities, Soviet forces were quickly driven out of the territory of Latvia by German forces, with Riga being liberated from the Soviets on July 1 1941 (eight days after the start of hostilities). Initially, the German forces were almost universally hailed as liberators, but Nazi occupation policies gradually changed that. With the gradual defeat of the German Armies on the Eastern Front, the Red Amy started reoccupying Latvia in the late summer of 1944. Riga was retaken by Soviet forces on October 13 1944, and a major part of the German Army Group North (Heersgruppe Nord) was cut off in Kurzeme, the peninsula that forms the north western part of Latvia. There they locally raised Latvian units formed the "Kurland Fortress", which successfully held out until the end of the war and only surrendered because it was ordered to by Admiral Donitz as part of the overall German surrender. Both occupation powers recruited volunteers and drafted conscripts for their armies from the local population, but for both practical reasons and the staunchly anti-communist inclination of the population, the vast majority of men fought on the Axis side. The Latvian Waffen SS Volunteer Legion was officially formed on March 16 1943, but the first Latvian Security Police Battalions had been formed more than a year earlier. Despite the word "volunteer" in the name of the Legion, the German Occupation Government soon resorted to conscription to increase it size, and Latvia became one of two countries (the other was Estonia) from where the Waffen SS soldiers were draftees. By July 1, 1944, more than 110,000 men were under arms in German controlled units. The Latvian Legion consisted of 87,550 men, of them 31,446 serving in the combat units that were directly part of the Waffen SS (the 15th and 19th Waffen-Grenadier Divisions), 12,118 in Border Guard regiments, 42,386 in various Police Forces, and 1,600 in other units. 22,744 men served in units outside Legion such as Wehrmacht Auxiliaries. On September 12 1950, Harry N. Rosenfield, the United Nations Refugee Relief Association Commissioner, wrote the following to Latvian Ambassador J. Feldmanis, minister plenipotentiary, chargé d'affaires of Latvia: "That the Baltic Waffen SS. Units (Baltic Legions) are to be considered as separate and distinct in purpose, ideology, activities, and qualifications for membership from the German SS, and therefore the Commission holds them not to be a movement hostile to the Government of the United States under Section 13 of the Displaced Persons Act, as amended. Some Latvian personnel did take part in the Holocaust however, working as part of both the Soviet and the Nazi occupation governments. . Some Latvian units formed in the Red Army participated in the defense of Moscow and experienced heavy casualties. According to Krivosheev, between 1941 and 1945, 11,600 people of Latvian nationality lost their lives while serving in the RKKA.
Attempts to sway the government did occur. After an attempted coup in March 1939, the National Socialist "German National Movement in Liechtenstein" was active but small. The organization, as well as any Nazi sympathies, virtually disappeared following the eruption of war.
When Germany invaded France by way of the Low Countries in the spring of 1940, Luxembourg, despite its neutrality, was quickly invaded and occupied (despite attempts by the government to slow the advancing German forces), having put up little resistance and immediately surrendering. The Luxembourgeois government never declared war on the Axis, and Luxembourg was effectively annexed by Germany. Luxembourg remained under German control until liberated by the Allies at the end of 1944.
Between June 1940 and December 1942, Malta was one of the most heavily bombed places on earth. Malta became the besieged and battered arena for one of the most decisive struggles of World War II, with some historians calling this battle The Mediterranean Stalingrad. The UK awarded the George Cross to the island of Malta in a letter dated April 15 1942, from King George VI to the island's Governor William Dobbie: "To honour her brave people, I award the George Cross to the Island Fortress of Malta to bear witness to a heroism and devotion that will long be famous in history".
The fortitude of the population under sustained enemy air raids and a naval blockade which almost saw them starved into submission, won widespread admiration in Britain and other Allied nations. The George Cross is woven into the Flag of Malta.
Mongolian troops took part in the Battle of Khalkhyn Gol in Summer 1939 and in Operation August Storm in August 1945, both times as small part in Soviet-led operations against Japanese forces and their Manchu and Inner Mongolian allies. For Mongolia, the most important result of World War II was the recognition of its independence by China, as provided by the Yalta agreement.
Newfoundlanders were encouraged to enlist in the large armed forces of the United Kingdom and of Canada. The Royal Navy enlisted some 3,500 from the Newfoundland Naval Reserve of those whom Churchill called, "the best small boat sailors in the world." The Royal Artillery raised two regiments, the 57th Newfoundland Field Regiment, which fought in North Africa and Italy, and the 59th Newfoundland Heavy Artillery, which fought in Normandy and northwestern Europe. Another 700 Newfoundlanders served in the Royal Air Force, most notably with the 125th Newfoundland Squadron. In all, some 15,000 Newfoundlanders saw active service, and thousands more were engaged in the hazardous duty of the Merchant Navy. Some 900 Newfoundlanders (including at least 257 Merchant Mariners) lost their lives in the conflict, and over 100 Newfoundlanders were killed in the sinking of the SS Caribou by a German U-boat.
Newfoundland might have been the only location in North America to be subject to direct attack by German forces in World War II when German U-boats attacked four Allied ore carriers and the loading pier at Bell Island. The cargo ships S.S. Saganaga and S.S. Lord Strathcona were sunk by the U-513 on 5 September 1942, and the S.S. Rosecastle and P.L.M. 27 were sunk by the U-518 on 2 November 1942, with the loss of 69 lives. However, Allied ships (including American and Mexican ones) were sunk within sight of the North American shoreline (inside the territorial waters), and teams of German saboteurs landed via U-boats in New York State and in Florida. Also, German troops were landed on Greenland to establish weather stations, and they were prepared to shoot.
New Zealand was one of the first countries to declare war on Germany, if measured by the local time. It declared war on 9:30 p.m. (N.Z. time) on 3 September 1939, with Prime Minister Savage declaring war from his bed:
New Zealand sent one Army division that served in Greece, North Africa, and Italy, and it offered a fair number of pilots and aircrewmen to the Royal Air Force in England. Royal New Zealand Navy warships fought in the South Atlantic, including in the Battle of Rio de la Plata in 1939, before being called back to defend the homeland. New Zealand fought in the Pacific War through warships of the Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN}, the Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF), and independent army brigades, such as on Vella Lavella. While New Zealand's home islands were not attacked, the casualty rate suffered by the military was the worst per capita of all Commonwealth nations, except for Great Britain.
In the South Pacific Theater, the RNZAF participated in a unique force, AirSols, in the Solomon Islands, consisting of squadons from the U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Navy, USAAF, and RNZAF, sometimes with help from the RAAF, too.
Norway was strategically important because it was a route for the transport of iron ore from Sweden to Germany, via Narvik. Churchill had from the beginning of the war stated his wish for fighting Nazi Germany on Norwegian and Scandinavian soil, to prevent damages to central Europe as was seen in the previous war. The German Kriegsmarine had also promoted the advantages of naval bases in Norway. The integrity of her territory was further compromised when the German tanker Altmark was boarded, in Norwegian waters, from the British destroyer HMS Cossack in order to release British merchant seamen held captive (Altmark incident).
Despite this, Norway remained neutral until it was invaded by Germany on April 9 1940, as part of Operation Weserübung. The Norwegian government fled the capital and after two months of fighting went to Britain and continued the fight in exile.
After the occupation, the Germans began producing a critical material used in the manufacture of atomic bombs in Norway: heavy water. An Anglo-Norwegian operation to destroy the facility at Norsk Hydro Heavy Water Plant was aborted after the loss of British airborne engineers. A subsequent operation by Norwegian commandos in February 1943 successfully destroyed stores of heavy water and equipment. A raid of American heavy bombers in November persuaded the Germans that the area was unsafe, and they decided to move heavy water supplies to Germany. While en route, Norwegian agents planted explosives and sank a ferry carrying the heavy water and other machinery needed for bomb development.
The Allies maintained a deception of a planned invasion of Norway and commando raids on coastal installations supported this. As a result, additional German troops were held there and the German surface fleet were kept in Norwegian waters to repel any attempts.
In 1944, Finnmark was liberated by the Soviet Union, and (together with the northern parts of Troms) totally destroyed by the retreating Nazis, while the German forces in the rest of Norway surrendered on May 8 1945.
After the war, Norway became one of the founding members of NATO.
Despite efforts to resist, and because of the German threat to Portuguese merchant trade, in January 1942 Salazar signed an agreement to sell tungsten to Germany. In June 1943, Britain invoked the long-standing Anglo-Portuguese Alliance requesting the use of the Azores, to establish an air force and naval air base. Salazar complied at once. The Allies then promised all possible aid in the event of a German attack against Portugal. Additionally, the United States and Great Britain guaranteed the integrity of Portugal's territorial possessions. In 1944, Portugal declared a total embargo of tungsten shipments to Germany. Although the German Ambassador in Lisbon protested the Azores agreement, Germany never retaliated against Portugal.
Even while under intense German pressure, and with the presence of Nazi spies in Portugal, Lisbon became a safe-haven to a scattering of Jews from all over Europe. At the outbreak of World War II, Jewish refugees from Central Europe were granted resident status. After the German invasion of France, Portugal adopted a liberal visa policy, which allowed thousands of Jewish refugees to enter the country. As the war progressed, Portugal gave entry visas to people coming via rescue operations, on the condition that Portugal would only be used as a transit point. Portugal also joined other "neutral" countries in the efforts made to save Hungarian Jews. More than 100,000 Jews and other refugees were able to flee Nazi Germany into freedom via Lisbon. By the early 1940s, there were thousands of Jews arriving in Lisbon and leaving weeks later to other countries, such as in South America and Africa. Only a small minority decided to stay in Portugal.
In early 1942, Portuguese authorities maintained their neutrality, in spite of warnings from the Australian and Dutch East Indies governments that Japan would invade. To protect their own positions in neighboring Dutch Timor, Australian and Dutch forces landed in Portuguese Timor and occupied the territory. There was no armed opposition from Portuguese forces or the civilian population. However, within a matter of weeks, Japanese forces landed but were unable to subdue substantial resistance, in the form of a guerrilla campaign launched by Allied commandos and continued by the local population. It is estimated that 40,000 - 70,000 Timorese civilians were killed by Japanese forces during 1942-45.
Romania had its first involvement in the war in providing transit rights for members of the Polish government, its treasury, and many Polish troops in 1939. During 1940, threatened with Soviet invasion, Romania ceded territory to the Soviet Union, Hungary, and Bulgaria, and following an internal political upheaval, Romania joined the Axis. As a member of the Axis, the Romanian war effort was almost entirely spent on the Eastern Front, with its forces taking part in the capture of Odessa. With the entry of Soviet troops into Romania near the end of the war, a pro-Soviet government was installed, and Romania joined the Allies as a co-belligerent for the remainder of the war. Romania became a key member of the Warsaw Pact after the war.U.S. Navy base. This was used during the War.
Southern Rhodesian troops were not allowed to serve as a composite unit (unlike their Australian, Canadian, or South African counterparts) because they constituted a significant part of the settler population. A significant number of Southern Rhodesian troops, especially in the Rhodesian African Rifles, were not of white origin (mainly Ndebele and mixed race). Their service has never been recognised by the ZANU (PF) government in Harare. Ian Smith, the future Prime Minister, like most of his white contemporaries, served under British command, as a fighter pilot during the Battle of Britain.
Soviet participation in World War II began with a short border war with Japan in Mongolia in 1939. Later that year, protected with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, it invaded eastern Poland about three weeks after the Germans invaded the west of the country. During the next eleven months the Soviets occupied and annexed the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). Soviet Union supported Germany in the war effort against Western Europe through the German-Soviet Commercial Agreement with supplies of raw materials, significantly weakening the British naval blockade.
Following Finland's refusal of Soviet demands for military bases and a territorial swap, the Soviet Union attacked on November 30 1939, in the Winter War. The Soviet Union also annexed Bessarabia (a Romanian province since 1918), leading Romania to ally with Germany. Germany launched a surprise attack on the Soviet Union in 1941. Thereafter, most of the German forces were concentrated on the Eastern Front. The USSR played a crucial role in the defeat of Nazi Germany.
The Soviet Red Army mounted a successful counter-offensive during the winter, and gained the initiative with a series of major victories in 1943, culminating in the ultimate advance of Soviet forces into Eastern Europe and Germany in 1945, concluded with the Battle of Berlin. The Soviet Union suffered greater losses, both among civilians and military forces, than any of the other participants in the war. However, the RKKA took out almost two times more axis soldiers than all other allies together. Following the end of the war in Europe and the American atomic bombing of Hiroshima, the USSR declared war on Japan in 1945. The Soviet Union became one of the main victors and gained one of the permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council. After the war, the Soviet sphere of influence was widened to cover most of Eastern Europe, formalized in the Warsaw Pact, to counter the western Allies and NATO. The Soviet Union came to be considered one of the two superpowers of the Cold War.
The Franco government of Spain had risen to power as a result to a significant degree of Italian and German intervention and support. Spain, which was suffering the aftermath of the recently-finished Spanish Civil War, did not have the resources to join the war on its own, and Franco and Hitler did not achieve an agreement about the terms of the Spanish participation. Despite of Spain was considered a non-belligerent country it sent volunteers to fight alongside Germans against the Soviet Union in the form of the División Azul. As the Allies emerged as possible victors, the regime became more neutral, at least in theory, finally declaring its neutrality in July 1943 although the complete removal of Spanish troops from Eastern Front was completed just in March 1944.
Despite its neutrality, Switzerland was not free of hostilities. Early in the war, several German aircraft were shot down by Swiss fighters for violating Swiss air space. Hundreds of aircraft on both sides, which landed in Switzerland, such as with battle damage, were interned at Swiss airports and their crews held until the end of the war. Allied airmen were interned, in some cases, contrary to Swiss Law and some were subject to abuse in internment camps. Several Swiss cities were accidentally bombed by both sides.
Although the Swiss government was anti-Nazi, Swiss troops did not directly intervene into the European conflict. It became embroiled in post-war controversies regarding the appropriation of assets belonging to Holocaust victims and Nazi officials' use of Swiss banks to keep their money safe.
In June 1941, British and Free French forces invaded Syria, and after giving effective opposition, the Vichy forces surrendered in July 1941. British occupation lasted until the end of the war.
Turkey was neutral until just several months before the end of the war, at which point it joined the Allies. The president Ismet Inonu did his best to keep Turkey out of the war, despite to all pressure from Nazi-Germany and the Western Allies sides. In the meantime, during the War, Turkey helped to the Jewish Community by protecting the ones who made it to Turkey through the end of the war. Most of the Jewish people who lived in Turkey during the War moved to Israel or USA later on.
The United Kingdom was one of the original Allies, entering the war in 1939 to honour its guarantees to Poland. After the fall of France, the United Kingdom was the only Allied nation left in Europe until the invasion of Greece. It remained the only one of the Big Three in the war until 1941 when the Soviet Union was invaded. The United Kingdom was heavily engaged in the Western European, Atlantic, Mediterranean, African and South East Asian theatres, and was considered one of the Big Three during Allied conferences in the second half of the war. The United Kingdom maintained close ties with the nations of the British Empire, and the forces of those countries were often incorporated into British military operations.
They were occupied by German forces after the fall of France and after British forces had been withdrawn. They played little active part in the war. Strong German defences were set up, but the islands were not assaulted, except by occasional hit-and-run commando raids. German forces surrendered at the end of the war.
Almost all he Jewish people here fled the islands before the German occupation, but those who remained were deported to extermination camps and killed.
It should also be noted that Uruguayan pilots, along with volunteers from other countries, joined the French Free Forces.
The Axis Powers occupied Yugoslavia in 1941 and created several puppet states. The Independent State of Croatia was a German and Italian puppet state. The Nedić's Serbia was a German client state. The Independent State of Montenegro was an Italian puppet state from 1941 to 1943 and a German puppet state from 1943 to 1944. Other parts of Yugoslavia were occupied directly by Germany, Italy, Bulgaria, and Hungary.
Communist Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia was convened in Jajce in 1943 and established the basis for post-war organization of the country as a federative republic. After heavy bloodshed in the war which was in the same time liberation, ethnic and civil war, Yugoslavia was reestablished in 1945, expanding territories on areas previously ruled by Kingdom of Italy (Istria and parts of Dalmatia).
Near the end of the war, Western governments attempted to reconcile the partisans and the government-in-exile loyal to the king, which led to the Tito-Šubašić Agreement in June 1944 but, effectively, Communist Party gained the exclusive power in post-war state. After the war, gen. Mihailović and other royalists were rounded-up and executed for collaboration with the Nazis. Mihailović was posthumously awarded the Legion of Merit by President Harry S. Truman.
Protestants resign from Northern Ireland government; Demise likely: By law, the power-sharing coalition cannot survive without participation
Oct 19, 2001; BELFAST, Northern Ireland (AP) - Northern Ireland's largest Protestant party resigned from the province's unity government...